bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒04‒05
five papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba


  1. Cell Metab. 2020 Mar 17. pii: S1550-4131(20)30117-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lee H, Lee YS, Harenda Q, Pietrzak S, Oktay HZ, Schreiber S, Liao Y, Sonthalia S, Ciecko AE, Chen YG, Keles S, Sridharan R, Engin F.
      Immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, how β cells participate in their own destruction during the disease process is poorly understood. Here, we report that modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in β cells of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by deleting the UPR sensor IRE1α prior to insulitis induced a transient dedifferentiation of β cells, resulting in substantially reduced islet immune cell infiltration and β cell apoptosis. Single-cell and whole-islet transcriptomics analyses of immature β cells revealed remarkably diminished expression of β cell autoantigens and MHC class I components, and upregulation of immune inhibitory markers. IRE1α-deficient mice exhibited significantly fewer cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in their pancreata, and adoptive transfer of their total T cells did not induce diabetes in Rag1-/- mice. Our results indicate that inducing β cell dedifferentiation, prior to insulitis, allows these cells to escape immune-mediated destruction and may be used as a novel preventive strategy for T1D in high-risk individuals.
    Keywords:  ER stress; IRE1; NOD; RNA-seq; UPR; beta cell; dedifferentiation; islet; single cell; type 1 diabetes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.03.002
  2. Infect Immun. 2020 Mar 30. pii: IAI.00898-19. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kuss-Duerkop SK, Keestra-Gounder AM.
      Prompt recognition of microbes by cells is critical to eliminate invading pathogens. Some cell-associated pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to microbial ligands. However, others can respond to cellular perturbations, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 and 2 (NOD1, NOD2) are PRRs that recognize and respond to multiple stimuli of microbial and cellular origin, such as bacterial peptidoglycan, viral infections, parasitic infections, activated Rho GTPases and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. How NOD1/2 are stimulated by such diverse stimuli is not fully understood but may partly rely on cellular changes during infection that result in ER stress. NOD1/2 are ER stress sensors that facilitate pro-inflammatory responses for pathogen clearance; thus, NOD1/2 may help mount broad anti-microbial responses through detection of ER stress, which is often induced during a variety of infections. Some pathogens may subvert this response to promote infection through manipulation of NOD1/2 responses to ER stress that lead to apoptosis. Herein, we review NOD1/2 stimuli and cellular responses. Furthermore, we discuss pathogen-induced ER stress and how it might potentiate NOD1/2 signaling.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00898-19
  3. Neurosci Lett. 2020 Mar 31. pii: S0304-3940(20)30207-X. [Epub ahead of print] 134937
    Zhou Z, Hu B, Lyu Q, Xie T, Wang J, Cai Q.
      BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most serious neurological disorders and is characterized by high morbidity and disability. Unfortunately, there is a lack of effective treatment. Recently, the micro RNA, miR-384-5p, was reported to play a significant role in cell survival in response to different insults.METHODS: In vitro model of traumatic neuronal injury was induced by application of a sharp sterile blade to generate cuts in PC12 cells, and in vivo SCI was produced by applying vascular clips (force of 15 g) to the dura via T9-T10 laminectomy, and then, the role of miR-384-5p in the development of SCI was investigated.
    RESULTS: Dual-luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-384-5p regulates the gene expression of Beclin-1, an important promoter of autophagy. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed that treatment with miR-384-5p decreased mRNA and protein expression of Beclin-1 in the mechanically injured PC12 cells. In rats with spinal cord compression injuries, miR-384-5p expression was significantly decreased. Treatment with miR-384-5p increased spinal cord neuron survival and promoted locomotor function recovery in rats. Further study revealed that miR-384-5p administration decreased immunofluorescent labeling of Beclin-1 in spinal cord tissues and reduced autophagosome formation in neurons, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. These results indicated that miR-384-5p promotes recovery of rats with SCI by suppressing autophagy via direct targeting of Beclin-1. Moreover, miR-384-5p also inhibited the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by decreasing GRP78 expression in both in vitro and in vivo models.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time demonstrates that the protective role of miR-384-5p in the process of SCI is associated with simultaneous suppression of autophagy and ER stress and miR-384-5p could be a promising candidate for SCI therapeutics.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Beclin-1; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Spinal cord injury; miR-384-5p
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.134937
  4. Oncogene. 2020 Mar 31.
    Ricciardiello F, Gang Y, Palorini R, Li Q, Giampà M, Zhao F, You L, La Ferla B, De Vitto H, Guan W, Gu J, Zhang T, Zhao Y, Chiaradonna F.
      Different evidence has indicated metabolic rewiring as a necessity for pancreatic cancer (PC) growth, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance. A relevant role has been assigned to glucose metabolism. In particular, an enhanced flux through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) has been tightly linked to PC development. Here, we show that enhancement of the HBP, through the upregulation of the enzyme Phosphoacetylglucosamine Mutase 3 (PGM3), is associated with the onset of gemcitabine (GEM) resistance in PC. Indeed, mRNA profiles of GEM sensitive and resistant patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) indicate that PGM3 expression is specifically increased in GEM-resistant PDXs. Of note, PGM3 results also overexpressed in human PC tissues as compared to paired adjacent normal tissues and its higher expression in PC patients is associated with worse median overall survival (OS). Strikingly, genetic or pharmacological PGM3 inhibition reduces PC cell growth, migration, invasion, in vivo tumor growth and enhances GEM sensitivity. Thus, combined treatment between a specific inhibitor of PGM3, named FR054, and GEM results in a potent reduction of xenograft tumor growth without any obvious side effects in normal tissues. Mechanistically, PGM3 inhibition, reducing protein glycosylation, causes a sustained Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a significant attenuation of the pro-tumorigenic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Akt axis, and finally cell death. In conclusion this study identifies the HBP as a metabolic pathway involved in GEM resistance and provides a strong rationale for a PC therapy addressing the combined treatment with the PGM3 inhibitor and GEM.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1260-1
  5. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Apr 03. 11(4): 217
    Igwebuike C, Yaglom J, Huiting L, Feng H, Campbell JD, Wang Z, Havasi A, Pimentel D, Sherman MY, Borkan SC.
      Gentamicin is a nephrotoxic antibiotic that causes acute kidney injury (AKI) primarily by targeting the proximal tubule epithelial cell. The development of an effective therapy for gentamicin-induced renal cell injury is limited by incomplete mechanistic insight. To address this challenge, we propose that RNAi signal pathway screening could identify a unifying mechanism of gentamicin-induced cell injury and suggest a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate it. Computational analysis of RNAi signal screens in gentamicin-exposed human proximal tubule cells suggested the cross-organelle stress response (CORE), the unfolded protein response (UPR), and cell chaperones as key targets of gentamicin-induced injury. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of gentamicin on the CORE, UPR, and cell chaperone function, and tested the therapeutic efficacy of enhancing cell chaperone content. Early gentamicin exposure disrupted the CORE, evidenced by a rise in the ATP:ADP ratio, mitochondrial-specific H2O2 accumulation, Drp-1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation, and endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial dissociation. CORE disruption preceded measurable increases in whole-cell oxidative stress, misfolded protein content, transcriptional UPR activation, and its untoward downstream effects: CHOP expression, PARP cleavage, and cell death. Geranylgeranylacetone, a therapeutic that increases cell chaperone content, prevented mitochondrial H2O2 accumulation, preserved the CORE, reduced the burden of misfolded proteins and CHOP expression, and significantly improved survival in gentamicin-exposed cells. We identify CORE disruption as an early and remediable cause of gentamicin proteotoxicity that precedes downstream UPR activation and cell death. Preserving the CORE significantly improves renal cell survival likely by reducing organelle-specific proteotoxicity during gentamicin exposure.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2382-7