bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒02‒16
eleven papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba


  1. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Feb 10. pii: E401. [Epub ahead of print]12(2):
    Fusée LTS, Marín M, Fåhraeus R, López I.
      The tumor suppressor protein p53 orchestrates cellular responses to a vast number of stresses, with DNA damage and oncogenic activation being some of the best described. The capacity of p53 to control cellular events such as cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and apoptosis, to mention some, has been mostly linked to its role as a transcription factor. However, how p53 integrates different signaling cascades to promote a particular pathway remains an open question. One way to broaden its capacity to respond to different stimuli is by the expression of isoforms that can modulate the activities of the full-length protein. One of these isoforms is p47 (p53/47, Δ40p53, p53ΔN40), an alternative translation initiation variant whose expression is specifically induced by the PERK kinase during the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) following Endoplasmic Reticulum stress. Despite the increasing knowledge on the p53 pathway, its activity when the translation machinery is globally suppressed during the UPR remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the expression of p47 and we propose that the alternative initiation of p53 mRNA translation offers a unique condition-dependent mechanism to differentiate p53 activity to control cell homeostasis during the UPR. We also discuss how the manipulation of these processes may influence cancer cell physiology in light of therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  ER stress; UPR; mRNA translation; p47; p53
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12020401
  2. Autophagy. 2020 Feb 12. 1-17
    Yao RQ, Ren C, Xia ZF, Yao YM.
      The structural integrity and functional stability of organelles are prerequisites for the viability and responsiveness of cells. Dysfunction of multiple organelles is critically involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, those organelles synchronously present with evident structural derangement and aberrant function under exposure to different stimuli, which might accelerate the corruption of cells. Therefore, the quality control of multiple organelles is of great importance in maintaining the survival and function of cells and could be a potential therapeutic target for human diseases. Organelle-specific autophagy is one of the major subtypes of autophagy, selectively targeting different organelles for quality control. This type of autophagy includes mitophagy, pexophagy, reticulophagy (endoplasmic reticulum), ribophagy, lysophagy, and nucleophagy. These kinds of organelle-specific autophagy are reported to be beneficial for inflammatory disorders by eliminating damaged organelles and maintaining homeostasis. In this review, we summarized the recent findings and mechanisms covering different kinds of organelle-specific autophagy, as well as their involvement in various diseases, aiming to arouse concern about the significance of the quality control of multiple organelles in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.Abbreviations: ABCD3: ATP binding cassette subfamily D member 3; AD: Alzheimer disease; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; AMBRA1: autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ARIH1: ariadne RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1; ATF: activating transcription factor; ATG: autophagy related; ATM: ATM serine/threonine kinase; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BCL2L11/BIM: BCL2 like 11; BCL2L13: BCL2 like 13; BECN1: beclin 1; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CANX: calnexin; CAT: catalase; CCPG1: cell cycle progression 1; CHDH: choline dehydrogenase; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CSE: cigarette smoke exposure; CTSD: cathepsin D; DDIT3/CHOP: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; DISC1: DISC1 scaffold protein; DNM1L/DRP1: dynamin 1 like; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; EIF2S1/eIF2α: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; EMD: emerin; EPAS1/HIF-2α: endothelial PAS domain protein 1; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated degradation; ERN1/IRE1α: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; FBXO27: F-box protein 27; FKBP8: FKBP prolyl isomerase 8; FTD: frontotemporal dementia; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; G3BP1: G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1; GBA: glucocerebrosidase beta; HIF1A/HIF1: hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha; IMM: inner mitochondrial membrane; LCLAT1/ALCAT1: lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1; LGALS3/Gal3: galectin 3; LIR: LC3-interacting region; LMNA: lamin A/C; LMNB1: lamin B1; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAPK8/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MAMs: mitochondria-associated membranes; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN1: mitofusin 1; MOD: multiple organelles dysfunction; MTPAP: mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase; MUL1: mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; NLRP3: NLR family pyrin domain containing 3; NUFIP1: nuclear FMR1 interacting protein 1; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PARL: presenilin associated rhomboid like; PEX3: peroxisomal biogenesis factor 3; PGAM5: PGAM family member 5; PHB2: prohibitin 2; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RETREG1/FAM134B: reticulophagy regulator 1; RHOT1/MIRO1: ras homolog family member T1; RIPK3/RIP3: receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RTN3: reticulon 3; SEC62: SEC62 homolog, preprotein translocation factor; SESN2: sestrin2; SIAH1: siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1; SNCA: synuclein alpha; SNCAIP: synuclein alpha interacting protein; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; TAX1BP1: Tax1 binding protein 1; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TICAM1/TRIF: toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1; TIMM23: translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23; TNKS: tankyrase; TOMM: translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane; TRIM: tripartite motif containing; UCP2: uncoupling protein 2; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase; UPR: unfolded protein response; USP10: ubiquitin specific peptidase 10; VCP/p97: valosin containing protein; VDAC: voltage dependent anion channels; XIAP: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis; ZNHIT3: zinc finger HIT-type containing 3.
    Keywords:  Lysophagy; mitophagy; nucleophagy; pexophagy; reticulophagy; ribophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1725377
  3. Cells. 2020 Feb 12. pii: E426. [Epub ahead of print]9(2):
    Pires Da Silva J, Monceaux K, Guilbert A, Gressette M, Piquereau J, Novotova M, Ventura-Clapier R, Garnier A, Lemaire C.
      Many recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of cardiac diseases and have suggested that modulation of ER stress response could be cardioprotective. Previously, we demonstrated that the deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) attenuates ER stress response and promotes cardiomyocyte survival. Here, we investigated whether and how autophagy plays a role in SIRT1-afforded cardioprotection against ER stress. The results revealed that protective autophagy was initiated before cell death in response to tunicamycin (TN)-induced ER stress in cardiac cells. SIRT1 inhibition decreased ER stress-induced autophagy, whereas its activation enhanced autophagy. In response to TN- or isoproterenol-induced ER stress, mice deficient for SIRT1 exhibited suppressed autophagy along with exacerbated cardiac dysfunction. At the molecular level, we found that in response to ER stress (i) the extinction of eEF2 or its kinase eEF2K not only reduced autophagy but further activated cell death, (ii) inhibition of SIRT1 inhibited the phosphorylation of eEF2, (iii) eIF2α co-immunoprecipitated with eEF2K, and (iv) knockdown of eIF2α reduced the phosphorylation of eEF2. Our results indicate that in response to ER stress, SIRT1 activation promotes cardiomyocyte survival by enhancing autophagy at least through activation of the eEF2K/eEF2 pathway.
    Keywords:  Sirtuin 1; autophagy/mitophagy; cardioprotection; cell death; endoplasmic reticulum stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020426
  4. Genetics. 2020 Feb 11. pii: genetics.303004.2019. [Epub ahead of print]
    Palu RAS, Dalton HM, Chow CY.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis is a primary cause and modifier of degeneration in a number of genetic disorders. Understanding how genetic variation influences the ER stress response and subsequent activation of apoptosis could improve individualized therapies and predictions of outcomes for patients. In this study, we find that the uncharacterized, membrane-bound metallopeptidase CG14516 in Drosophila melanogaster, which we rename as SUPpressor of ER stress-induced DEATH (superdeath), plays a role in modifying ER stress-induced apoptosis. We demonstrate that loss of superdeath reduces apoptosis and degeneration in the Rh1G69D model of ER stress through the JNK signaling cascade. This effect on apoptosis occurs without altering the activation of the unfolded protein response (IRE1 and PERK), suggesting that the beneficial pro-survival effects of this response are intact. Furthermore, we show that superdeath functions epistatically upstream of CDK5, a known JNK-activated pro-apoptotic factor in this model of ER stress. We demonstrate that superdeath is not only a modifier of this particular model, but affects the general tolerance to ER stress, including ER stress-induced apoptosis. Finally, we present evidence of Superdeath localization to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. While similar in sequence to a number of human metallopeptidases found in the plasma membrane and ER membrane, its localization suggests that superdeath is orthologous to ERAP1/2 in humans. Together, this study provides evidence that superdeath is a link between stress in the ER and activation of cytosolic apoptotic pathways.
    Keywords:  ER stress; apoptosis; metallopeptidase; modifier genes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.119.303004
  5. J Autoimmun. 2020 Feb 10. pii: S0896-8411(20)30034-2. [Epub ahead of print] 102423
    Xu Y, Fang D.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a mechanism against ER stress, wherein unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulated in the ER are transported to the cytosol for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The ER resident E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1 has been identified as a key ERAD factor that directly catalyzes ubiquitin conjugation onto the unfolded or misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. The abnormally increased HRD1 expression was discovered in rheumatoid synovial cells, providing the first evidence for HRD1 dysregulation involved in human inflammatory pathogenesis. Further studies shown that inflammatory cytokines involved in rheumatoid pathogenesis including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-26 induce HRD1 expression. Recent studies using mice with tissue-specific targeted deletion of HRD1 gene have revealed important functions of HRD1 in immune regulation and inflammatory diseases. HRD1 has been shown critical for dendritic cell expression of antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Both TCR and costimulatory receptor CD28 signaling induces HRD1 expression, which promotes T cell clonal expansion and IL-2 production. Together with the fact that HRD1 is required for maintaining the stability of regulatory T cell (Treg) stability, HRD1 appears to fine tone T cell immunity. In addition, HRD1 is involved in humoral immune response by regulating early B cell development and maintaining B cell survival upon recognition of specific antigen. HRD1 appears to target its substrates for ubiquitination through, either ERAD-dependent or -independent, at least two distinct molecular mechanisms in a cell or tissue specific manner to achieve its physiological functions. Dysregulation of HRD1 expression and/or it functions are involved in autoimmune inflammatory diseases in particular rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Here, we review current findings on the mechanism of HRD1 protein in immune regulation and the involvement of HRD1 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
    Keywords:  Autoimmunity; ER stress; HRD1; Signaling transduction; Ubiquitination
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102423
  6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Feb 12. pii: 201909731. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhou T, Lu Y, Xu C, Wang R, Zhang L, Lu P.
      Tight junctions (TJs) are fundamental features of both epithelium and endothelium and are indispensable for vertebrate organ formation and homeostasis. However, mice lacking Occludin (Ocln) develop relatively normally to term. Here we show that Ocln is essential for mammary gland physiology, as mutant mice fail to produce milk. Surprisingly, Ocln null mammary glands showed intact TJ function and normal epithelial morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and tissue polarity, suggesting that Ocln is not required for these processes. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we identified milk-producing cells (MPCs) and found they were progressively more prone to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as protein production increased exponentially during late pregnancy and lactation. Importantly, Ocln loss in MPCs resulted in greatly heightened ER stress; this in turn led to increased apoptosis and acute shutdown of protein expression, ultimately leading to lactation failure in the mutant mice. We show that the increased ER stress was caused by a secretory failure of milk proteins in Ocln null cells. Consistent with an essential role in protein secretion, Occludin was seen to reside on secretory vesicles and to be bound to SNARE proteins. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Ocln protects MPCs from ER stress by facilitating SNARE-dependent protein secretion and raise the possibility that other TJ components may participate in functions similar to Ocln.
    Keywords:  ER stress; alveolar differentiation; unfolded protein response; vesicular trafficking
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909731117
  7. J Cell Physiol. 2020 Feb 10.
    Zhu B, Daoud F, Zeng S, Matic L, Hedin U, Uvelius B, Rippe C, Albinsson S, Swärd K.
      Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are characterized by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Contractile differentiation is governed by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), in particular myocardin (MYOCD), and when their drive is lost, the cells become proliferative and synthetic with an expanded endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER is responsible for assembly and folding of secreted proteins. When the load on the ER surpasses its capacity, three stress sensors (activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], inositol-requiring enzyme 1α [IRE1α]/X-box binding protein 1 [XBP1], and PERK/ATF4) are activated to expand the ER and increase its folding capacity. This is referred to as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we hypothesized that there is a reciprocal relationship between SMC differentiation and the UPR. Tight negative correlations between SMC markers (MYH11, MYOCD, KCNMB1, SYNPO2) and UPR markers (SDF2L1, CALR, MANF, PDIA4) were seen in microarray data sets from carotid arterial injury, partial bladder outlet obstruction, and bladder denervation, respectively. The UPR activators dithiothreitol (DTT) and tunicamycin (TN) activated the UPR and reduced MYOCD along with SMC markers in vitro. The IRE1α inhibitor 4μ8C counteracted the effect of DTT and TN on SMC markers and MYOCD expression. Transfection of active XBP1s was sufficient to reduce both MYOCD and the SMC markers. MRTFs also antagonized the UPR as indicated by reduced TN and DTT-mediated induction of CRELD2, MANF, PDIA4, and SDF2L1 following overexpression of MRTFs. The latter effect did not involve the newly identified MYOCD/SRF target MSRB3, or reduced production of either XBP1s or cleaved ATF6. The UPR thus counteracts SMC differentiation via the IRE1α/XBP1 arm of the UPR and MYOCD repression.
    Keywords:  CNN1; ER stress; TAGLN; smooth muscle differentiation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29637
  8. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 08. pii: E1134. [Epub ahead of print]21(3):
    Stauffer WT, Arrieta A, Blackwood EA, Glembotski CC.
      There are more than 2000 transcription factors in eukaryotes, many of which are subject to complex mechanisms fine-tuning their activity and their transcriptional programs to meet the vast array of conditions under which cells must adapt to thrive and survive. For example, conditions that impair protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), sometimes called ER stress, elicit the relocation of the ER-transmembrane protein, activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), to the Golgi, where it is proteolytically cleaved. This generates a fragment of ATF6α that translocates to the nucleus, where it regulates numerous genes that restore ER protein-folding capacity but is degraded soon after. Thus, upon ER stress, ATF6α is converted from a stable, transmembrane protein, to a rapidly degraded, nuclear protein that is a potent transcription factor. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms governing ATF6α location, activity, and stability, as well as the transcriptional programs ATF6α regulates, whether canonical genes that restore ER protein-folding or unexpected, non-canonical genes affecting cellular functions beyond the ER. Moreover, we will review fascinating roles for an ATF6α isoform, ATF6β, which has a similar mode of activation but, unlike ATF6α, is a long-lived, weak transcription factor that may moderate the genetic effects of ATF6α.
    Keywords:  ATF6α; ATF6β; ER stress; OASIS; UPR; basic leucine-zipper; cardiac; endoplasmic reticulum; proteostasis; transcriptional regulation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031134
  9. JCI Insight. 2020 Feb 13. pii: 132364. [Epub ahead of print]
    Stone S, Wu S, Nave KA, Lin W.
      Maintaining cellular proteostasis is essential for oligodendrocyte viability and function; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. The UPR, comprising three parallel branches IRE1, PERK, and ATF6α, is a major mechanism that maintains cellular proteostasis by facilitating protein folding, attenuating protein translation, and enhancing autophagy and ERAD. Here we reported that impaired UPR in oligodendrocytes via deletion of PERK and ATF6α did not affect developmental myelination, but caused late-onset mature oligodendrocyte dysfunction and death in young adult mice. The detrimental effects of the impaired UPR on mature oligodendrocytes were accompanied by autophagy impairment and intracellular PLP accumulation, and were rescued by PLP deletion. Data indicate that PLP is degraded by autophagy and that intracellular PLP accumulation is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes. Thus, these findings imply that the UPR is required for maintaining cellular proteostasis and the viability and function of mature oligodendrocytes in adults by regulating autophagy of PLP.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell stress; Demyelinating disorders; Neuroscience
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.132364
  10. Front Oncol. 2019 ;9 1530
    Borjan B, Kern J, Steiner N, Gunsilius E, Wolf D, Untergasser G.
      Background: Mechanisms mediating resistance against the proteasome inhibition by bortezomib (BTZ) in multiple myeloma (MM) cells are still unclear. We analyzed the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), induction of prosurvival, and apoptotic pathways after proteasome inhibition in BTZ-sensitive and -resistant cells. Thereafter, these findings from tissue culture were proofed on MM cells of BTZ-sensitive and BTZ-refractory patients. Methods: Proteasomal and ABC transporter activities were measured in sensitive and resistant cell lines by the use of the respective substrates. TP53 gene loss and mutations were determined by cytogenetics and targeted NGS. UPR pathways, proteasome subunit levels and protein secretion were studied by Western Blot analysis, and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. MM cell lines were stably transfected with inducible GRP78 expression to study unfolded protein expression. Transient knock-down of GRP78 was done by RNA interference. Splicing of XBP1 and expression of GRP78 was studied by real-time PCR in CD138-enriched MM primary cells of BTZ-refractory and -sensitive patients. Results: BTZ-sensitive cells displayed lower basal proteasomal activities. Similar activities of all three major ABC transporter proteins were detected in BTZ-sensitive and resistant cells. Sensitive cells showed deficiencies in triggering canonical prosurvival UPR provoked by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction. BTZ treatment did not increase unfolded protein levels or induced GRP78-mediated UPR. BTZ-resistant cells and BTZ-refractory patients exhibited lower sXBP1 levels. Apoptosis of BTZ-sensitive cells was correlating with induction of p53 and NOXA. Tumor cytogenetics and NGS analysis revealed more frequent TP53 deletions and mutations in BTZ-refractory MM patients. Conclusions: We identified low sXBP1 levels and TP53 abnormalities as factors correlating with bortezomib resistance in MM. Therefore, determination of sXBP1 levels and TP53 status prior to BTZ treatment in MM may be beneficial to predict BTZ resistance.
    Keywords:  UPR; bortezomib; myeloma; p53; resistance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01530
  11. iScience. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S2589-0042(20)30043-2. [Epub ahead of print]23(2): 100860
    Yang H, Niemeijer M, van de Water B, Beltman JB.
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway senses unfolded proteins and regulates proteostasis and cell fate through activity of the transcription factors ATF4, ATF6, and XBP1 within a complex network of three main branches. Here, we investigated contributions of the three branches to UPR activity in single cells using microscopy-based quantification and dynamic modeling. BAC-GFP HepG2 reporter cell lines were exposed to tunicamycin, and activation of various UPR components was monitored for 24 h. We constructed a dynamic model to describe the adaptive UPR signaling network, for which incorporation of all three branches was required to match the data. Our calibrated model suggested that ATF6 shapes the early dynamics of pro-apoptotic CHOP. We confirmed this hypothesis by measurements beyond 24 h, by perturbing single siRNA knockdowns and by ATF6 measurements. Overall, our work indicates that ATF6 is an important regulator of CHOP, which in turn regulates cell fate decisions.
    Keywords:  Biocomputational Method; Bioinformatics; Optical Imaging; Systems Biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.100860