bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2019‒12‒15
seven papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba


  1. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Dec 03. pii: E1929. [Epub ahead of print]11(12):
    Roy A, Kumar A.
      Cancer cachexia is a devastating syndrome characterized by unintentional weight loss attributed to extensive skeletal muscle wasting. The pathogenesis of cachexia is multifactorial because of complex interactions of tumor and host factors. The irreversible wasting syndrome has been ascribed to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, dysfunctional mitochondria, oxidative stress, and heightened activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system and macroautophagy. Accumulating evidence suggests that deviant regulation of an array of signaling pathways engenders cancer cachexia where the human body is sustained in an incessant self-consuming catabolic state. Recent studies have further suggested that several components of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) are activated in skeletal muscle of animal models and muscle biopsies of cachectic cancer patients. However, the exact role of ER stress and the individual arms of the UPR in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in various catabolic states including cancer has just begun to be elucidated. This review provides a succinct overview of emerging roles of ER stress and the UPR in cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting.
    Keywords:  ATF4; ATF6; ER stress; IRE1; PERK; Skeletal muscle; XBP1; and signaling.; cancer cachexia
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121929
  2. Mol Cell Biochem. 2019 Dec 13.
    Oh-Hashi K, Kohno H, Kandeel M, Hirata Y.
      IRE1 is the most conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident stress sensor. Its activation not only splices XBP1 but also participates in a variety of cell signaling. We elucidated the role of IRE1α in Neuro2a cells by establishing IRE1α-deficient cells and applying four IRE1 inhibitors. IRE1α deficiency prevented almost all spliced XBP1 (sXBP1) protein expression by treatment with thapsigargin (Tg) and tunicamycin (Tm); these phenomena paralleled the values measured by our two Nanoluciferase-based IRE1 assays. However, cell viability and protein expression of other ER stress-responsive factors in the IRE1α-deficient cells were comparable to those in the parental wild-type cells with or without Tm treatment. Next, we elucidated the IRE1 inhibitory actions and cytotoxicity of four compounds: STF083010, KIRA6, 4μ8C, and toyocamycin. KIRA6 attenuated IRE1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, but it showed severe cytotoxicity even in the IRE1α-deficient cells at a low concentration. The IRE1α-deficient cells were slightly resistant to KIRA6 at 0.1 μM in both the presence and absence of ER stress; however, resistance was not observed at 0.02 μM. Treatment with only KIRA6 at 0.1 μM for 12 h remarkably induced LC3 II, an autophagic marker, in both parental and IRE1α-deficient cells. Co-treatment with KIRA6 and Tm induced LC3 II, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3; however, IRE1α-deficiency did not abolish the expression of these two cleaved caspases. On the other hand, KIRA6 prohibited Tm-induced ATF4 induction in an IRE1-independent manner; however, co-treatment with KIRA6 and Tm also induced LC3 II and two cleaved caspases in the ATF4-deficient Neuro2a cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IRE1α deficiency has little impact on cell viability and expression of ER stress-responsive factors in Neuro2a cells, and the pharmacological actions of KIRA6 include IRE1-independent ways.
    Keywords:  ER stress; IRE1; XBP1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-019-03666-w
  3. Front Immunol. 2019 ;10 2756
    Ebstein F, Poli Harlowe MC, Studencka-Turski M, Krüger E.
      Type I interferonopathies cover a phenotypically heterogeneous group of rare genetic diseases including the recently described proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS). By definition, PRAAS are caused by inherited and/or de novo loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding proteasome subunits such as PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB7, PSMA3, or proteasome assembly factors including POMP and PSMG2, respectively. Disruption of any of these subunits results in perturbed intracellular protein homeostasis including accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins which is accompanied by a type I interferon (IFN) signature. The observation that, similarly to pathogens, proteasome dysfunctions are potent type I IFN inducers is quite unexpected and, up to now, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. One promising candidate for triggering type I IFN under sterile conditions is the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is typically initiated in response to an accumulation of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (also referred to as ER stress). The recent observation that the UPR is engaged in subjects carrying POMP mutations strongly suggests its possible implication in the cause-and-effect relationship between proteasome impairment and interferonopathy onset. The purpose of this present review is therefore to discuss the possible role of the UPR in the pathogenesis of PRAAS. We will particularly focus on pathways initiated by the four ER-membrane proteins ATF6, PERK, IRE1-α, and TCF11/Nrf1 which undergo activation under proteasome inhibition. An overview of the current understanding of the mechanisms and potential cross-talk between the UPR and inflammatory signaling casacades is provided to convey a more integrated picture of the pathophysiology of PRAAS and shed light on potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
    Keywords:  ER stress; TCF11/Nrf1; autoinflammation; mTORC1; proteasome; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02756
  4. Cell Death Differ. 2019 Dec 11.
    Li L, Wang H, Zhang J, Sha Y, Wu F, Wen S, He L, Sheng L, You Q, Shi M, Liu L, Zhou H.
      Acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), whose formation is catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SPHK)-1 or -2, is a bioactive lipid implicated in human health and disease. Here, we show that APAP-treated sphK1-deficient (sphK1-/-) mice exhibited markedly less liver damage and reduced inflammation compared with the wild-type mice. SPHK1 deficiency alleviated APAP-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by affecting the phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and activation of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). SPHK1 deficiency also inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), as evidenced by the impaired phosphorylation of JNK, apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (ASK1), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). In addition, SPHK1 deficiency reduced the levels of histone deacetylase and promoted the acetylation of p65 and STAT1, thereby impairing the transcription of inflammatory genes. Supplementation with exogenous S1P significantly reversed the activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway and ATF6 during ER stress as well as the activation of GSK3β, ASK1, and JNK during MPT. Both FTY720, a functional S1P receptor antagonist, and PF543, an SPHK1 inhibitor, significantly ameliorated APAP-induced liver injury and improved animal survival. Our study reveals a critical role for SPHK1 in mediating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by promoting ER stress and MPT.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-019-0471-x
  5. J Leukoc Biol. 2019 Dec 12.
    Wu J, Wu D, Zhang L, Lin C, Liao J, Xie R, Li Z, Wu S, Liu A, Hu W, Xi Y, Bu S, Wang F.
      High-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress drives insulin resistance (IR) and steatosis. NK cells in adipose tissue play an important role in the pathogenesis of IR in obesity. Whether NK cells in the liver can induce hepatic ER stress and thus promote IR in obesity is still unknown. We demonstrate that HFD-fed mice display elevated production of proinflammatory cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in hepatic NK cells, especially in CD49a+ DX5- tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells. Obesity-induced ER stress, IR, and steatosis in the liver are ameliorated by ablating NK cells with neutralizing antibody in HFD-fed mice. OPN treatment enhances the expression of ER stress markers, including p-PERK, p-eIF2, ATF4, and CHOP in both murine liver tissues and HL-7702, a human liver cell line. Pretreatment of HL-7702 cells with OPN promotes hyperactivation of JNK and subsequent decrease of tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), resulting in impaired insulin signaling, which can be reversed by inhibiting ER stress. Collectively, we demonstrate that hepatic NK cells induce obesity-induced hepatic ER stress, and IR through OPN production.
    Keywords:  ER stress, IR, NK cells, obesity, OPN, steatosis; inflammation; tissue resident
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MA1119-173R
  6. Cells. 2019 Dec 04. pii: E1563. [Epub ahead of print]8(12):
    Flores-Santibáñez F, Medel B, Bernales JI, Osorio F.
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response that maintains the fidelity of the cellular proteome in conditions that subvert the folding capacity of the cell, such as those noticed in infection and inflammatory contexts. In immunity, the UPR sensor IRE1 (Inositol-requiring enzyme 1-alpha) has emerged as a critical regulator of the homeostasis of antigen presenting cells (APCs). In the past few years, it has become clear that IRE1 plays canonical and non-canonical roles in APCs, many of which intersect with key features of these cells, including the initiation of inflammation, antibody production, and antigen presentation. The aims of the present review are to provide recent insights on the mechanisms by which IRE1 regulates the diversity of APC functions and to highlight its relevance in the coordination of innate and adaptive immunity.
    Keywords:  antigen presenting cell; immunity; infection; inflammation; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8121563
  7. EMBO J. 2019 Dec 10. e100875
    Toyofuku T, Okamoto Y, Ishikawa T, Sasawatari S, Kumanogoh A.
      Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Impaired mitochondrial function is suspected to play a major role in PD. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism by which impaired LRRK2 activity contributes to PD pathology remains unclear. Here, we identified the role of LRRK2 in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial tethering, which is essential for mitochondrial bioenergetics. LRRK2 regulated the activities of E3 ubiquitin ligases MARCH5, MULAN, and Parkin via kinase-dependent protein-protein interactions. Kinase-active LRRK2(G2019S) dissociated from these ligases, leading to their PERK-mediated phosphorylation and activation, thereby increasing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ER-mitochondrial tethering proteins. By contrast, kinase-dead LRRK2(D1994A)-bound ligases blocked PERK-mediated phosphorylation and activation of E3 ligases, thereby increasing the levels of ER-mitochondrial tethering proteins. Thus, the role of LRRK2 in the ER-mitochondrial interaction represents an important control point for cell fate and pathogenesis in PD.
    Keywords:   PERK ; LRRK2; endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria; ubiquitin ligase
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2018100875