bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2019‒11‒17
seven papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba


  1. Autophagy. 2019 Nov 11. 1-15
    Liang S, Wang F, Bao C, Han J, Guo Y, Liu F, Zhang Y.
      BAG2 (BCL2 associated athanogene 2) is associated with cell fate determination in response to various pathological conditions. However, the effects of BAG2 on M. tuberculosis-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remain elusive. Herein, we report that M. tuberculosis infection of macrophages triggered ER stress and downregulated BAG2 expression. Overexpression of BAG2 enhanced autophagic flux and activated macroautophagy/autophagy targeted to the ER (reticulophagy). In addition, through increasingly localizing SQSTM1 to the ER in BAG2-overexpressing macrophages, we found that the autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) is associated with the BAG2-induced reticulophagy. Our data also confirmed that BAG2 could render cells resistant to M. tuberculosis-induced cellular damage, and the anti-apoptotic effects of BAG2 in M. tuberculosis-treated macrophages were partially abolished by the autophagic flux inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Furthermore, the dissociation of BECN1 and BCL2 mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was responsible for BAG2-activated autophagy. In addition, XBP1 downstream of the ERN1/IRE1 signaling pathway was bound to the Bag2 promoter region and transcriptionally inhibited BAG2 expression. Collectively, these results indicated that BAG2 has anti-apoptotic effects on M. tuberculosis-induced ER stress, which is dependent on the promotion of autophagic flux and the induction of selective autophagy. We revealed a potential host defense mechanism that links BAG2 to ER stress and autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection.Abbreviations: ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BECN1: beclin 1; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; CASP3: caspase 3; DDIT3/CHOP/GADD153: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; HSPA5/GRP78/BiP: heat shock protein 5; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; BCL2 associated athanogene 2; M. tuberculosis; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum stress; reticulophagy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1687214
  2. Mol Cells. 2019 Nov 11.
    Kim JI, Kaufman RJ, Back SH, Moon JY.
      When endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions are perturbed, the ER induces several signaling pathways called unfolded protein response to reestablish ER homeostasis through three ER transmembrane proteins: inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Although it is important to measure the activity of ATF6 that can indicate the status of the ER, no specific cell-based reporter assay is currently available. Here, we report a new cell-based method for monitoring ER stress based on the cleavage of ATF6α by sequential actions of proteases at the Golgi apparatus during ER stress. A new expressing vector was constructed by using fusion gene of GAL4 DNA binding domain (GAL4DBD) and activation domain derived from herpes simplex virus VP16 protein (VP16AD) followed by a human ATF6α N-terminal deletion variant. During ER stress, the GAL4DBD-VP16AD(GV)-hATF6α deletion variant was cleaved to liberate active transcription activator encompassing GV-hATF6α fragment which could translocate into the nucleus. The translocated GV-hATF6α fragment strongly induced the expression of firefly luciferase in HeLa Luciferase Reporter cell line containing a stably integrated 5X GAL4 site-luciferase gene. The established double stable reporter cell line HLR-GV-hATF6α(333) represents an innovative tool to investigate regulated intramembrane proteolysis of ATF6α. It can substitute active pATF6(N) binding motif-based reporter cell lines.
    Keywords:  ER stress; GAL4 binding site; activating transcription factor 6; luciferase; regulated intramembrane proteolysis; reporter cell line; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0104
  3. F1000Res. 2019 ;pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-1840. [Epub ahead of print]8
    Karagöz GE, Aragón T, Acosta-Alvear D.
      Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, great progress has been made in our understanding of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic mechanism that adjusts endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function to satisfy the physiological demands of the cell. However, if ER homeostasis is unattainable, the UPR switches to drive cell death to remove defective cells in an effort to protect the health of the organism. This functional dichotomy places the UPR at the crossroads of the adaptation versus apoptosis decision. Here, we focus on new developments in UPR signaling mechanisms, in the interconnectivity among the signaling pathways that make up the UPR in higher eukaryotes, and in the coordination between the UPR and other fundamental cellular processes.
    Keywords:  ER stress; signal transduction pathway interconnectivity; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.19848.1
  4. J Cell Sci. 2019 Nov 13. pii: jcs.237610. [Epub ahead of print]
    Nascimento Da Conceicao V, Sun Y, Zboril EK, De la Chapa JJ, Singh BB.
      Activation of cellular stresses is associated with inflammation; however, the mechanisms are not well identified. Here, we provide evidence that loss of Ca2+ influx induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in primary macrophage and in murine macrophage cell line Raw 264.7, which initiates the unfolded protein response to modulate cytokine production thereby activating the immune response. Stressors that initiates the ER stress response blocks store-dependent Ca2+ entry in macrophage cells prior to the activation of the unfolded protein response. The endogenous Ca2+ entry channel was dependent on the Orai1-TRPC1-STIM1 complex and the presence of ER stressors decreased TRPC1/Orai1/STIM1 expression. Additionally, blocking Ca2+ entry with SKF-96365 also induced ER stress, promoted cytokine production, activation of autophagy, increased caspase activation and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ER stress inducers inhibited cell cycle progression, promoted inflammatory M1 phenotype, and increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, restoration of Orai1-STIM1 expression inhibited ER stress-mediated loss of Ca2+ entry that prevents ER stress, inhibits cytokine production, and induced cell survival. These results suggest an unequivocal role of Ca2+ entry in modulating ER stress and in the induction of inflammation.
    Keywords:  Calcium modulation; ER stress; Immune activation; SOCE channels; TRPC1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.237610
  5. J Biol Chem. 2019 Nov 13. pii: jbc.RA119.010295. [Epub ahead of print]
    Buchanan BW, Mehrtash AB, Broshar CL, Runnebohm AM, Snow BJ, Scanameo LN, Hochstrasser M, Rubenstein EM.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when the abundance of unfolded proteins in the ER exceeds the capacity of the folding machinery. Despite the expanding cadre of characterized cellular adaptations to ER stress, knowledge of the effects of ER stress on cellular physiology remains incomplete. We investigated the impact of ER stress on ER and inner nuclear membrane protein quality control mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We analyzed the turnover of substrates of four ubiquitin ligases (Doa10, Rkr1/Ltn1, Hrd1, and the Asi complex) and the metalloprotease Ste24 in induced models of ER stress. ER stress did not substantially impact Doa10 or Rkr1 substrates. However, Hrd1-mediated destruction of a protein that aberrantly engages the translocon (Deg1-Sec62) and substrates with luminal degradation signals was markedly impaired by ER stress; by contrast, Hrd1-dependent degradation of proteins with intramembrane degrons was largely unperturbed by ER stress. ER stress impaired the degradation of one of two Asi substrates analyzed and caused a translocon-clogging Ste24 substrate to accumulate in a form consistent with persistent translocon occupation. Degradation of Deg1-Sec62 in the absence of stress and stabilization during ER stress were independent of four ER-stress sensing pathways. Our results indicate ER stress differentially impacts degradation of protein quality control substrates, including those mediated by the same ubiquitin ligase. These observations suggest the existence of additional regulatory mechanisms dictating substrate selection during ER stress.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Ste24; endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD); inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD); protein quality control; protein translocation; translocon; yeast genetics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.010295
  6. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Nov 12. 10(11): 858
    Ning J, Lin Z, Zhao X, Zhao B, Miao J.
      The level of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in cancer cells is higher than that in non-cancer cells. HOCl is an essential signal for the regulation of cell fate and works mainly through the protein post-translational modifications in cancer cells. However, the mechanism of HOCl regulating autophagy has not been clarified. Here we reported that a HOCl probe named ZBM-H targeted endoplasmic reticulum and induced an intact autophagy flux in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ZBM-H promoted the binding of GRP78 to AMPK and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GRP78 knockdown inhibited ZBM-H-induced AMPK phosphorylation and ZBM-H-stimulated autophagy. In addition, mass spectrometry combined with point mutation experiments revealed that ZBM-H increased GRP78 activity by inhibiting HOCl-induced lysine 353 oxidation of GRP78. Following ZBM-H treatment in vitro and in vivo, cell growth was significantly inhibited while apoptosis was induced. Nevertheless, exogenous HOCl partially reversed ZBM-H-inhibited cell growth and ZBM-H-induced GRP78 activation. In brief, we found that an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted HOCl probe named ZBM-H, acting through attenuating HOCl-induced GRP78 oxidation, inhibited tumor cell survival by promoting autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, these data demonstrated a novel mechanism of hypochlorous acid regulating autophagy by promoting the oxidation modification of GRP78.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-2095-y
  7. Aging Cell. 2019 Nov 12. e13065
    Ashkavand Z, Sarasija S, Ryan KC, Laboy JT, Norman KR.
      Aging and age-related diseases are associated with a decline of protein homeostasis (proteostasis), but the mechanisms underlying this decline are not clear. In particular, decreased proteostasis is a widespread molecular feature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Familial AD is largely caused by mutations in the presenilin encoding genes; however, their role in AD is not understood. In this study, we investigate the role of presenilins in proteostasis using the model system Caenorhabditis elegans. Previously, we found that mutations in C. elegans presenilin cause elevated ER to mitochondria calcium signaling, which leads to an increase in mitochondrial generated oxidative stress. This, in turn, promotes neurodegeneration. To understand the cellular mechanisms driving neurodegeneration, using several molecular readouts of protein stability in C. elegans, we find that presenilin mutants have widespread defects in proteostasis. Markedly, we demonstrate that these defects are independent of the protease activity of presenilin and that reduction in ER to mitochondrial calcium signaling can significantly prevent the proteostasis defects observed in presenilin mutants. Furthermore, we show that supplementing presenilin mutants with antioxidants suppresses the proteostasis defects. Our findings indicate that defective ER to mitochondria calcium signaling promotes proteostatic collapse in presenilin mutants by increasing oxidative stress.
    Keywords:   Caenorhabditis elegans ; Alzheimer's disease; calcium homeostasis; mitochondria; oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13065