bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2019‒06‒30
seven papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Elife. 2019 Jun 25. pii: e44199. [Epub ahead of print]8
    Peschek J, Walter P.
      Yeast tRNA ligase (Trl1) is an essential trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes exon-exon ligation during tRNA biogenesis and the non-conventional splicing of HAC1 mRNA during the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR regulates the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress activates Ire1, an ER-resident kinase/RNase, which excises an intron from HAC1 mRNA followed by exon-exon ligation by Trl1. The spliced product encodes for a potent transcription factor that drives the UPR. Here we report the crystal structure of Trl1 RNA ligase domain from Chaetomium thermophilum at 1.9 Å resolution. Structure-based mutational analyses uncovered kinetic competition between RNA ligation and degradation during HAC1 mRNA splicing. Incompletely processed HAC1 mRNA is degraded by Xrn1 and the Ski/exosome complex. We establish cleaved HAC1 mRNA as endogenous substrate for ribosome-associated quality control. We conclude that mRNA decay and surveillance mechanisms collaborate in achieving fidelity of non-conventional mRNA splicing during the UPR.
    Keywords:  RNA ligase; RNA processing; S. cerevisiae; biochemistry; chemical biology; mRNA quality control; molecular biophysics; no-go decay; structural biology; tRNA splicing; unfolded protein response
  2. Elife. 2019 Jun 27. pii: e46267. [Epub ahead of print]8
    Shanmuganathan V, Schiller N, Magoulopoulou A, Cheng J, Braunger K, Cymer F, Berninghausen O, Beatrix B, Kohno K, Heijne GV, Beckmann R.
      XBP1u, a central component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a mammalian protein containing a functionally critical translational arrest peptide (AP). Here, we present a 3 Å cryo-EM structure of the stalled human XBP1u AP. It forms a unique turn in the ribosomal exit tunnel proximal to the peptidyl transferase center where it causes a subtle distortion, thereby explaining the temporary translational arrest induced by XBP1u. During ribosomal pausing the hydrophobic region 2 (HR2) of XBP1u is recognized by SRP, but fails to efficiently gate the Sec61 translocon. An exhaustive mutagenesis scan of the XBP1u AP revealed that only 8 out of 20 mutagenized positions are optimal; in the remaining 12 positions, we identify 55 different mutations increase the level of translational arrest. Thus, the wildtype XBP1u AP induces only an intermediate level of translational arrest, allowing efficient targeting by SRP without activating the Sec61 channel.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; chemical biology; molecular biophysics; structural biology
  3. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2019 ;7 84
    Chadwick SR, Lajoie P.
      Multiple factors lead to proteostatic perturbations, often resulting in the aberrant accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins. Cells, from yeast to humans, can respond to sudden accumulation of secretory proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through pathways such as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The ability of cells to adapt the ER folding environment to the misfolded protein burden ultimately dictates cell fate. The aging process is a particularly important modifier of the proteostasis network; as cells age, both their ability to maintain this balance in protein folding/degradation and their ability to respond to insults in these pathways can break down, a common element of age-related diseases (including neurodegenerative diseases). ER stress coping mechanisms are central to lifespan regulation under both normal and disease states. In this review, we give a brief overview of the role of ER stress response pathways in age-dependent neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  aging; endoplasm reticulum stress; neurodegeneration; proteostasis; unfolded protein response
  4. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Jun 26. 10(7): 504
    Chern YJ, Wong JCT, Cheng GSW, Yu A, Yin Y, Schaeffer DF, Kennecke HF, Morin G, Tai IT.
      Therapy-refractory disease is one of the main contributors of treatment failure in cancer. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SPARC can function as a sensitizer to conventional chemotherapy by enhancing apoptosis by interfering with the activity of Bcl-2. Here, we examine a novel mechanism by which SPARC further potentiates apoptosis via its modulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Using mass spectrometry to identify SPARC-associated proteins, GRP78 was identified as a protein partner for SPARC in CRC. In vitro studies conducted to assess the signaling events resulting from this interaction, included induction of ER stress with tunicamycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and irinotecan (CPT-11). We found that the interaction between GRP78 and SPARC increased during exposure to 5-FU, CPT-11, and tunicamycin, resulting in an attenuation of GRP78's inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, we also show that SPARC can sensitize CRC cells to PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1 UPR signaling by interfering with ER stress following binding to GRP78, which leads to ER stress-associated cell death in CRC cells. In line with these findings, a lower expression of GRP78 relative to SPARC in CRC is associated with a lower IC50 for 5-FU in either sensitive or therapy-refractory CRC cells. Interestingly, this observation correlates with tissue microarray analysis of 143 human CRC, where low GRP78 to SPARC expression level was prognostic of higher survival rate (P = 0.01) in individuals with CRC. This study demonstrates that modulation of UPR signaling by SPARC promotes ER stress-associated death and potentiates apoptosis. This may be an effective strategy that can be combined with current treatment options to improve therapeutic efficacy in CRC.
  5. J Clin Med. 2019 Jun 25. pii: E906. [Epub ahead of print]8(6):
    McLaughlin T, Siddiqi M, Wang JJ, Zhang SX.
      Retinal neuronal injury and degeneration is one of the primary manifestations of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of vision loss in working age adults. In pathological conditions, including diabetes and some physiological conditions such as aging, protein homeostasis can become disrupted, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Severe or unmitigated ER stress can lead to cell death, which in retinal neurons results in irreversible loss of visual function. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major transcription factor responsible for the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) to maintain protein homeostasis in cells undergoing ER stress. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of XBP1-mediated UPR in retinal neuronal survival and function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Using a conditional retina-specific XBP1 knockout mouse line, we demonstrate that depletion of XBP1 in retinal neurons results in early onset retinal function decline, loss of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors, disrupted photoreceptor ribbon synapses, and Müller cell activation after induction of diabetes. Our findings suggest an important role of XBP1-mediated adaptive UPR in retinal neuronal survival and function in diabetes.
    Keywords:  X-box binding protein 1; diabetic retinopathy; neurodegeneration; photoreceptors; synapses
  6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 24. pii: 201813580. [Epub ahead of print]
    Park SJ, Kim Y, Yang SM, Henderson MJ, Yang W, Lindahl M, Urano F, Chen YM.
      Emerging evidence has established primary nephrotic syndrome (NS), including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), as a primary podocytopathy. Despite the underlying importance of podocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathogenesis of NS, no treatment currently targets the podocyte ER. In our monogenic podocyte ER stress-induced NS/FSGS mouse model, the podocyte type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel on the ER was phosphorylated, resulting in ER calcium leak and cytosolic calcium elevation. The altered intracellular calcium homeostasis led to activation of calcium-dependent cytosolic protease calpain 2 and cleavage of its important downstream substrates, including the apoptotic molecule procaspase 12 and podocyte cytoskeletal protein talin 1. Importantly, a chemical compound, K201, can block RyR2-Ser2808 phosphorylation-mediated ER calcium depletion and podocyte injury in ER-stressed podocytes, as well as inhibit albuminuria in our NS model. In addition, we discovered that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) can revert defective RyR2-induced ER calcium leak, a bioactivity for this ER stress-responsive protein. Thus, podocyte RyR2 remodeling contributes to ER stress-induced podocyte injury. K201 and MANF could be promising therapies for the treatment of podocyte ER stress-induced NS/FSGS.
    Keywords:  ER calcium stabilizer; K201; endoplasmic reticulum stress; podocytes; type 2 ryanodine receptor
  7. BMB Rep. 2019 Jun 25. pii: 4485. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lee SJ, Kim TW, Park GL, Hwang YS, Cho HJ, Kim JT, Lee HG.
      G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is known to play an important role in hormone-associated cancers. G-1, a novel synthetic GPER agonist, has been reported to exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the chemotherapeutic mechanism of GPER is yet unclear. Here, we evaluated GPER expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cells. We found that G-1 treatment attenuates GPER expression in gastric cancer. GPER expression increased G-1-induced antitumor effects in mouse xenograft model. We analyzed the effects of knockdown/overexpression of GPER on G-1-induced cell death in cancer cells. Increased GPER expression in human gastric cancer cells increased G-1-induced cell death via increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, -9, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Interestingly, during G-1-induced cell death, GPER mRNA and protein expression was attenuated and associated with ER stress-induced expression of PERK, ATF-4, GRP-78, and CHOP. Furthermore, PERK-dependent induction of ER stress activation increased G-1-induced cell death, whereas PERK silencing decreased cell death and increased drug sensitivity. Taken together, the data suggest that the induction of ER stress via GPER expression may increase G-1-induced cell death in gastric cancer cells. These results may contribute to a new paradigm shift in gastric cancer therapy.