bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2019‒04‒28
four papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Mol Cell. 2019 Apr 13. pii: S1097-2765(19)30235-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Balsa E, Soustek MS, Thomas A, Cogliati S, García-Poyatos C, Martín-García E, Jedrychowski M, Gygi SP, Enriquez JA, Puigserver P.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response are energetically challenging under nutrient stress conditions. However, the regulatory mechanisms that control the energetic demand under nutrient and ER stress are largely unknown. Here we show that ER stress and glucose deprivation stimulate mitochondrial bioenergetics and formation of respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) through protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK). Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of PERK suppresses nutrient and ER stress-mediated increases in SC levels and reduces oxidative phosphorylation-dependent ATP production. Conversely, PERK activation augments respiratory SCs. The PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 axis increases supercomplex assembly factor 1 (SCAF1 or COX7A2L), promoting SCs and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. PERK activation is sufficient to rescue bioenergetic defects caused by complex I missense mutations derived from mitochondrial disease patients. These studies have identified an energetic communication between ER and mitochondria, with implications in cell survival and diseases associated with mitochondrial failures.
    Keywords:  ATF4; ER stress; PERK; hexosamine pathway; mitochondria; mitochondrial cristae; mitochondrial diseases; nutrient stress; protein glycosylation; respiratory chain supercomplexes
  2. Mol Cell. 2019 Apr 11. pii: S1097-2765(19)30258-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    An H, Ordureau A, Paulo JA, Shoemaker CJ, Denic V, Harper JW.
      Cells respond to nutrient stress by trafficking cytosolic contents to lysosomes for degradation via macroautophagy. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as an initiation site for autophagosomes and is also remodeled in response to nutrient stress through ER-phagy, a form of selective autophagy. Quantitative proteome analysis during nutrient stress identified an unstudied single-pass transmembrane ER protein, TEX264, as an ER-phagy receptor. TEX264 uses an LC3-interacting region (LIR) to traffic into ATG8-positive puncta that often initiate from three-way ER tubule junctions and subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Interaction and proximity biotinylation proteomics identified a cohort of autophagy regulatory proteins and cargo adaptors located near TEX264 in an LIR-dependent manner. Global proteomics and ER-phagy flux analysis revealed the stabilization of a cohort of ER proteins in TEX264-/- cells during nutrient stress. This work reveals TEX264 as an unrecognized ER-phagy receptor that acts independently of other candidate ER-phagy receptors to remodel the ER during nutrient stress.
    Keywords:  ER-phagy; TEX264; selective autophagy
  3. Autophagy. 2019 Apr 21. 1-18
    Yang H, Wen Y, Zhang M, Liu Q, Zhang H, Zhang J, Lu L, Ye T, Bai X, Xiao G, Wang M.
      A switch from autophagy to apoptosis is implicated in chondrocytes during the osteoarthritis (OA) progression with currently unknown mechanism(s). In this study we utilized a flow fluid shear stress (FFSS) model in cultured chondrocytes and a unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) animal model. We found that both FFSS and UAC actively induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) chondrocytes, as demonstrated by dramatic increases in expression of HSPA5, p-EIF2AK3, p-ERN1 and ATF6. Interestingly, both FFSS and UAC activated not only pro-death p-EIF2AK3-mediated ERS-apoptosis programs but also pro-survival p-ERN1-mediated autophagic flux in chondrocytes. Data from FFSS demonstrated that MTORC1, a downstream of p-ERN1, suppressed autophagy but promoted p-EIF2AK3 mediated ERS-apoptosis. Data from UAC model demonstrated that at early stage both the p-ERN1 and p-EIF2AK3 were activated and MTORC1 was inhibited in TMJ chondrocytes. At late stage, MTORC1-p-EIF2AK3-mediated ERS apoptosis were predominant, while p-ERN1 and autophagic flux were inhibited. Inhibition of MTORC1 by TMJ local injection of rapamycin in rats or inducible ablation of MTORC1 expression selectively in chondrocytes in mice promoted chondrocyte autophagy and suppressed apoptosis, and reduced TMJ cartilage loss induced by UAC. In contrast, MTORC1 activation by TMJ local administration of MHY1485 or genetic deletion of Tsc1, an upstream MTORC1 suppressor, resulted in opposite effects. Collectively, our results establish that aberrant mechanical loading causes cartilage degeneration by activating, at least in part, the MTORC1 signaling which modulates the autophagy and apoptosis programs in TMJ chondrocytes. Thus, inhibition of MTORC1 provides a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of OA. Abbreviations : ACTB: actin beta; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BECN1: beclin 1; BFL: bafilomycin A1; CASP12: caspase 12; CASP3: caspase 3; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DDIT3: DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERS: endoplasmic reticulum stress; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; FFSS: flow fluid shear stress; HSPA5/GRP78/BiP: heat shock protein 5; LAMP2: lysosome-associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; OA: osteoarthritis; PRKAA1/2/AMPK1/2: protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1/2 catalytic subunit; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; Rapa: rapamycin; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TG: thapsigargin; TMJ: temporomandibular joints; TSC1/2: tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2; UAC: unilateral anterior crossbite; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; chondrocyte; endoplasmic reticulum stress; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; osteoarthritis
  4. J Mol Med (Berl). 2019 Apr 26.
    Klymenko O, Huehn M, Wilhelm J, Wasnick R, Shalashova I, Ruppert C, Henneke I, Hezel S, Guenther K, Mahavadi P, Samakovlis C, Seeger W, Guenther A, Korfei M.
      Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease characterized by type-II alveolar epithelial cell (AECII) injury and fibroblast hyperproliferation. Severe AECII endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to underlie IPF, but is yet incompletely understood. We studied the regulation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a proapoptotic ER-stress-related transcription factor (TF) in AECII-like cells. Interestingly, single or combined overexpression of the active ER stress transducers activating transcription factor-4 (Atf4) and activating transcription factor-6 (p50Atf6) or spliced x-box-binding protein-1 (sXbp1) in MLE12 cells did not result in a substantial Chop induction, as compared to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin. Employing reporter gene assays of distinct CHOP promoter fragments, we could identify that, next to the conventional amino acid (AARE) and ER stress response elements (ERSE) within the CHOP promoter, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Ets-1 TF binding sites are necessary for CHOP induction. Serial deletion and mutation analyses revealed that both AP-1 and c-Ets-1 motifs act in concert to induce CHOP expression. In agreement, CHOP promoter activity was greatly enhanced upon combined versus single overexpression of AP-1 and c-Ets-1. Moreover, combined overexpression of AP-1 and c-Ets-1 in MLE12 cells alone in the absence of any other ER stress inducer was sufficient to induce Chop protein expression. Further, AP-1 and c-Ets-1 were upregulated in AECII under ER stress conditions and in human IPF. Finally, Chop overexpression in vitro resulted in AECII apoptosis, lung fibroblast proliferation, and collagen-I production. We propose that CHOP activation by AP-1 and c-Ets-1 plays a key role in AECII maladaptive ER stress responses and consecutive fibrosis, offering new therapeutic prospects in IPF. KEY MESSAGES: Overexpression of active ER stress sensors Atf4, Atf6, and Xbp1 does not induce Chop. AP-1 and c-Ets-1 TFs are necessary for induction of the ER stress factor Chop. AP-1 and c-Ets-1 alone induce Chop expression in the absence of any ER stress inducers. AP-1 and c-Ets-1 are induced in AECII under ER stress conditions and in human IPF. Chop expression alone triggers AECII apoptosis and consecutive profibrotic responses.
    Keywords:  Activator protein-1 (AP-1); C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP); Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; Protein c-Ets-1; Transcriptional regulation; Type-II alveolar epithelial cells (AECII)