bims-unfpre Biomed news
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2019‒04‒07
twelve papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitboa


  1. Stem Cell Reports. 2019 Apr 09. pii: S2213-6711(19)30083-9. [Epub ahead of print]12(4): 712-727
    Pinkham K, Park DJ, Hashemiaghdam A, Kirov AB, Adam I, Rosiak K, da Hora CC, Teng J, Cheah PS, Carvalho L, Ganguli-Indra G, Kelly A, Indra AK, Badr CE.
      Inherent plasticity and various survival cues allow glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) to survive and proliferate under intrinsic and extrinsic stress conditions. Here, we report that GSCs depend on the adaptive activation of ER stress and subsequent activation of lipogenesis and particularly stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1), which promotes ER homeostasis, cytoprotection, and tumor initiation. Pharmacological targeting of SCD1 is particularly toxic due to the accumulation of saturated fatty acids, which exacerbates ER stress, triggers apoptosis, impairs RAD51-mediated DNA repair, and achieves a remarkable therapeutic outcome with 25%-100% cure rate in xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, divergent cell fates under varying levels of ER stress are primarily controlled by the ER sensor IRE1, which either promotes SCD1 transcriptional activation or converts to apoptotic signaling when SCD1 activity is impaired. Taken together, the dependence of GSCs on fatty acid desaturation presents an exploitable vulnerability to target glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  ER stress; glioblastoma; glioma stem cells; inositol-requiring enzyme 1; stearoyl CoA desaturase; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.02.012
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Apr 01. 10(4): 300
    Mahameed M, Wilhelm T, Darawshi O, Obiedat A, Tommy WS, Chintha C, Schubert T, Samali A, Chevet E, Eriksson LA, Huber M, Tirosh B.
      IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 are the three transducers of the mammalian canonical unfolded protein response (UPR). GSK2606414 is a potent inhibitor of PERK, while KIRA6 inhibits the kinase activity of IRE1. Both molecules are frequently used to probe the biological roles of the UPR in mammalian cells. In a direct binding assay, GSK2606414 bound to the cytoplasmic domain of KIT with dissociation constants (Kd) value of 664 ± 294 nM whereas KIRA6 showed a Kd value of 10.8 ± 2.9 µM. In silico docking studies confirmed a compact interaction of GSK2606414 and KIRA6 with KIT ATP binding pocket. In cultured cells, GSK2606414 inhibited KIT tyrosine kinase activity at nanomolar concentrations and in a PERK-independent manner. Moreover, in contrast to other KIT inhibitors, GSK2606414 enhanced KIT endocytosis and its lysosomal degradation. Although KIRA6 also inhibited KIT at nanomolar concentrations, it did not prompt KIT degradation, and rescued KIT from GSK2606414-mediated degradation. Consistent with KIT inhibition, nanomolar concentrations of GSK2606414 and KIRA6 were sufficient to induce cell death in a KIT signaling-dependent mast cell leukemia cell line. Our data show for the first time that KIT is a shared target for two seemingly unrelated UPR inhibitors at concentrations that overlap with PERK and IRE1 inhibition. Furthermore, these data underscore discrepancies between in vitro binding measurements of kinase inhibitors and inhibition of the tyrosine kinase receptors in living cells.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1523-3
  3. Front Mol Biosci. 2019 ;6 11
    Adams CJ, Kopp MC, Larburu N, Nowak PR, Ali MMU.
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important site for protein folding and maturation in eukaryotes. The cellular requirement to synthesize proteins within the ER is matched by its folding capacity. However, the physiological demands or aberrations in folding may result in an imbalance which can lead to the accumulation of misfolded protein, also known as "ER stress." The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cell-signaling system that readjusts ER folding capacity to restore protein homeostasis. The key UPR signal activator, IRE1, responds to stress by propagating the UPR signal from the ER to the cytosol. Here, we discuss the structural and molecular basis of IRE1 stress signaling, with particular focus on novel mechanistic advances. We draw a comparison between the recently proposed allosteric model for UPR induction and the role of Hsp70 during polypeptide import to the mitochondrial matrix.
    Keywords:  BiP; ER stress; Hsp70; IRE1 inositol-requiring enzyme 1; crystal structures; unfolded protein response (UPR)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2019.00011
  4. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2019 ;2019 2706783
    Enogieru AB, Omoruyi SI, Hiss DC, Ekpo OE.
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. Reports from postmortem studies in the human PD brain, and experimental PD models reveal that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. In times of stress, the unfolded or misfolded proteins overload the folding capacity of the ER to induce a condition generally known as ER stress. During ER stress, cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to handle increasing amounts of abnormal proteins, and recent evidence has demonstrated the activation of the ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein), which is important for proper folding of newly synthesized and partly folded proteins to maintain protein homeostasis. Although the activation of this protein is essential for the initiation of the UPR in PD, there are inconsistent reports on its expression in various PD models. Consequently, this review article aims to summarize current knowledge on neuroprotective agents targeting the expression of GRP78/BiP in the regulation of ER stress in experimental PD models.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2706783
  5. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019 ;13 101
    Wei J, Wu X, Luo P, Yue K, Yu Y, Pu J, Zhang L, Dai S, Han D, Fei Z.
      Homer1a is the short form of a scaffold protein that plays a protective role in many forms of stress. However, the role of Homer1a in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its potential mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we found that Homer1a was upregulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and that overexpression of Homer1a alleviated OGD-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell death in cultured cortical neurons. After OGD treatment, the overexpression of Homer1a preserved mitochondrial function, as evidenced by less cytochrome c release, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, less ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, less caspase-9 activation, and inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress confirmed by the decreased expression of phosphate-PKR-like ER Kinase (p-PERK)/PERK and phosphate- inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1)/IRE1 and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In addition, mitochondrial protection of Homer1a was blocked by the ER stress activator Tunicamycin (TM) with a re-escalated ROS level, increasing ATP and MMP loss. Furthermore, Homer1a overexpression-induced mitochondrial stress attenuation was significantly reversed by activating the PERK pathway with TM and p-IRE1 inhibitor 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde (DBSA), as evidenced by increased cytochrome c release, increased ATP loss and a higher ROS level. However, activating the IRE1 pathway with TM and p-PERK inhibitor GSK2656157 showed little change in cytochrome c release and exhibited a moderate upgrade of ATP loss and ROS production in neurons. In summary, these findings demonstrated that Homer1a protects against OGD-induced injury by preserving mitochondrial function through inhibiting the PERK pathway. Our finding may reveal a promising target of protecting neurons from cerebral I/R injury.
    Keywords:  PERK kinase; endoplasmic reticulum stress; homer1a; ischemic stroke; mitochondrial dysfunction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00101
  6. J Cell Physiol. 2019 Apr 02.
    Zhang J, Wei Y, Qu T, Wang Z, Xu S, Peng X, Yan X, Chang H, Wang H, Gao Y.
      Stress conditions like hypoxia, ischemia, and ischemia/reperfusion can trigger excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which can lead to cell apoptosis-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in non-hibernators. However, although hibernators experience multiple stress conditions during hibernation, their skeletal muscles appear to be well protected. We hypothesize that hibernators effectively avoid cell apoptosis, at least partially, by controlling ERS level. Here, we focused on the potential occurrence of ERS and how hibernators cope with it during different hibernation states. Results indicated that the protein expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated PKR-like ER protein kinase, phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 were significantly increased during hibernation, but primarily recovered in posthibernation. In the torpor-arousal cycle, the expression levels of the above indicators were lower during inter-bout arousal (IBA) than that during late torpor (LT). However, there was no change in C/EBP homologous protein expression and no apoptosis in skeletal muscles during the different hibernation states. In conclusion, the upregulation of p-eIF2α and GRP78 were identified as two crucial mechanisms mediated by the PERK signaling pathway to alleviate elevated ERS. The downregulation of ERS during IBA may be a unique countermeasure for hibernating squirrels to prevent excessive ERS. Thus, these special anti-excessive ERS abilities of ground squirrels contribute to the prevention of skeletal muscle cell apoptosis during hibernation.
    Keywords:  ERS; PERK signaling pathway; hibernation; skeletal muscle
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28572
  7. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(4): e0212235
    Serrano RL, Yu W, Graham RM, Bryan RL, Terkeltaub R.
      Neointimal hyperplasia, stimulated by injury and certain vascular diseases, promotes artery obstruction and tissue ischemia. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs), multiple modulators of protein handling machinery regulate intimal hyperplasia. These include elements of the VSMC unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress (UPRER), and transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which catalyzes post-translational protein modification. Previous results for deficiency of UPRER-specific mediator XBP1, and of TG2, have been significant, but in multiple instances contradictory, for effects on cultured VSMC function, and, using multiple models, for neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Here, we engineered VSMC-specific deficiency of XBP1, and studied cultured VSMCs, and neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid artery ligation in vivo. Intimal area almost doubled in Xbp1fl/fl SM22α-CRE+ mice 21 days post-ligation. Cultured murine Xbp1 deficient VSMCs migrated more in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) than control VSMCs, and had an increased level of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (Ire1α), a PDGF receptor-binding UPRER transmembrane endonuclease whose substrates include XBP1. Cultured XBP1-deficient VSMCs demonstrated decreased levels of TG2 protein, in association with increased TG2 polyubiquitination, but with increased TG transamidation catalytic activity. Moreover, IRE1α, and TG2-specific transamidation cross-links were increased in carotid artery neointima in Xbp1fl/fl SM22α-CRE+ mice. Cultured TG2-deficient VSMCs had decreased XBP1 associated with increased IRE1α, and increased migration in response to PDGF. Neointimal hyperplasia also was significantly increased in Tgm2fl/fl SM22α-CRE+ mice at 21 days after carotid ligation. In conclusion, a VSMC regulatory circuit between XBP1 and TG2 limits neointimal hyperplasia in response to carotid ligation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212235
  8. Cell Rep. 2019 Apr 02. pii: S2211-1247(19)30324-9. [Epub ahead of print]27(1): 307-320.e5
    Cho H, Stanzione F, Oak A, Kim GH, Yerneni S, Qi L, Sum AK, Chan C.
      Activation of inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE1α) is an indispensable step in remedying the cellular stress associated with lipid perturbation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. IRE1α is a single-spanning ER transmembrane protein possessing both kinase and endonuclease functions, and its activation can be fully achieved through the dimerization and/or oligomerization process. How IRE1α senses membrane lipid saturation remains largely unresolved. Using both computational and experimental tools, we systematically investigated the dimerization process of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of IRE1α and found that, with help of the serine 450 residue, the conserved tryptophan 457 residue buttresses the core dimerization interface of IRE1α-TMD. BiFC (bimolecular fluorescence complementation) experiments revealed that mutation on these residues abolished the saturated fatty acid-induced dimerization in the ER membrane and subsequently inactivated IRE1α activity in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that the structural elements of IRE1α-TMD serve as a key sensor that detects membrane aberrancy.
    Keywords:  IRE1α; UPR; dimerization; membrane lipid saturation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.017
  9. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Apr 05. 10(4): 311
    Jin HR, Du CH, Wang CZ, Yuan CS, Du W.
      Ginseng is one of the most commonly used herbs that is believed to have a variety of biological activities, including reducing blood sugar and cholesterol levels, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetes activities. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we showed that protopanaxadiol (PPD), a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides that are the major pharmacological constituents of ginsengs, significantly altered the expression of genes involved in metabolism, elevated Sestrin2 (Sesn2) expression, activated AMPK, and induced autophagy. Using CRISPR/CAS9-mediated gene editing and shRNA-mediated gene silencing, we demonstrated that Sesn2 is required for PPD-induced AMPK activation and autophagy. Interestingly, we showed that PPD-induced Sesn2 expression is mediated redundantly by the GCN2/ATF4 amino acid-sensing pathway and the PERK/ATF4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Our results suggest that ginseng metabolite PPD modulates the metabolism of amino acids and lipids, leading to the activation of the stress-sensing kinases GCN2 and PERK to induce Sesn2 expression, which promotes AMPK activation, autophagy, and metabolic health.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1548-7
  10. JCI Insight. 2019 Apr 04. pii: 125570. [Epub ahead of print]4(7):
    Abe JI, Ko KA, Kotla S, Wang Y, Paez-Mayorga J, Shin IJ, Imanishi M, Vu HT, Tao Y, Leiva-Juarez MM, Thomas TN, Medina JL, Won JH, Fujii Y, Giancursio CJ, McBeath E, Shin JH, Guzman L, Abe RJ, Taunton J, Mochizuki N, Faubion W, Cooke JP, Fujiwara K, Evans SE, Le NT.
      The possible association between the membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted domain structure-1 (MAGI1) and inflammation has been suggested, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this link, especially during atherogenesis, remain unclear. In endothelial cells (ECs) exposed to disturbed flow (d-flow), p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) bound to MAGI1, causing MAGI1-S741 phosphorylation and sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 2 T368 phosphorylation-mediated MAGI1-K931 deSUMOylation. MAGI1-S741 phosphorylation upregulated EC activation via activating Rap1. MAGI1-K931 deSUMOylation induced both nuclear translocation of p90RSK-MAGI1 and ATF-6-MAGI1 complexes, which accelerated EC activation and apoptosis, respectively. Microarray screening revealed key roles for MAGI1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. In this context, MAGI1 associated with activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6). MAGI1 expression was upregulated in ECs and macrophages found in atherosclerotic-prone regions of mouse aortas as well as in the colonic epithelia and ECs of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Further, reduced MAGI1 expression in Magi1-/+ mice inhibited d-flow-induced atherogenesis. In sum, EC activation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are regulated in concert by two different types of MAGI1 posttranslational modifications, elucidating attractive drug targets for chronic inflammatory disease, particularly atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis pathways; Cardiology; Cardiovascular disease; Cell Biology; Signal transduction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125570
  11. Cell Death Dis. 2019 Apr 05. 10(4): 309
    Vig S, Buitinga M, Rondas D, Crèvecoeur I, van Zandvoort M, Waelkens E, Eizirik DL, Gysemans C, Baatsen P, Mathieu C, Overbergh L.
      The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, with a central role in maintaining protein homeostasis. Recently, an alternative role for GRP78 under stress conditions has been proposed, with stress-induced extracellular secretion and translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface where it acts as a multifunctional signaling receptor. Here we demonstrate translocation of GRP78 to the surface of human EndoC-βH1 cells and primary human islets upon cytokine exposure, in analogy to observations in rodent INS-1E and MIN6 beta cell lines. We show that GRP78 is shuttled via the anterograde secretory pathway, through the Golgi complex and secretory granules, and identify the DNAJ homolog subfamily C member 3 (DNAJC3) as a GRP78-interacting protein that facilitates its membrane translocation. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways, using N- and C-terminal anti-GRP78 blocking antibodies, demonstrates that both GRP78 signaling domains initiate pro-apoptotic signaling cascades in beta cells. Extracellular GRP78 itself is identified as a ligand for cell surface GRP78 (sGRP78), increasing caspase 3/7 activity and cell death upon binding, which is accompanied by enhanced Chop and Bax mRNA expression. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines induce a self-destructive pro-apoptotic feedback loop through the secretion and membrane translocation of GRP78. This proapoptotic function distinguishes the role of sGRP78 in beta cells from its reported anti-apoptotic and proliferative role in cancer cells, opening the road for the use of compounds that block sGRP78 as potential beta cell-preserving therapies in type 1 diabetes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1518-0
  12. Nat Commun. 2019 04 02. 10(1): 1492
    Li Y, Tinoco R, Elmén L, Segota I, Xian Y, Fujita Y, Sahu A, Zarecki R, Marie K, Feng Y, Khateb A, Frederick DT, Ashkenazi SK, Kim H, Perez EG, Day CP, Segura Muñoz RS, Schmaltz R, Yooseph S, Tam MA, Zhang T, Avitan-Hersh E, Tzur L, Roizman S, Boyango I, Bar-Sela G, Orian A, Kaufman RJ, Bosenberg M, Goding CR, Baaten B, Levesque MP, Dummer R, Brown K, Merlino G, Ruppin E, Flaherty K, Ramer-Tait A, Long T, Peterson SN, Bradley LM, Ronai ZA.
      Accumulating evidence points to an important role for the gut microbiome in anti-tumor immunity. Here, we show that altered intestinal microbiota contributes to anti-tumor immunity, limiting tumor expansion. Mice lacking the ubiquitin ligase RNF5 exhibit attenuated activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) components, which coincides with increased expression of inflammasome components, recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and reduced expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Reduced UPR expression is also seen in murine and human melanoma tumor specimens that responded to immune checkpoint therapy. Co-housing of Rnf5-/- and WT mice abolishes the anti-tumor immunity and tumor inhibition phenotype, whereas transfer of 11 bacterial strains, including B. rodentium, enriched in Rnf5-/- mice, establishes anti-tumor immunity and restricts melanoma growth in germ-free WT mice. Altered UPR signaling, exemplified in Rnf5-/- mice, coincides with altered gut microbiota composition and anti-tumor immunity to control melanoma growth.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09525-y