bims-tunefa Biomed News
on Tumor necrosis factor superfamily and post-translational modifications
Issue of 2020‒03‒08
33 papers selected by
John Silke
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research


  1. Sci Adv. 2020 02;6(8): eaay5154
    Liu J, Chen H, Ma L, He Z, Wang D, Liu Y, Lin Q, Zhang T, Gray N, Kaniskan HÜ, Jin J, Wei W.
      By hijacking endogenous E3 ligase to degrade protein targets via the ubiquitin-proteasome system, PROTACs (PRoteolysis TArgeting Chimeras) provide a new strategy to inhibit protein targets that were regarded as undruggable before. However, the catalytic nature of PROTAC potentially leads to uncontrolled degradation that causes systemic toxicity issues, limiting the application of PROTAC in the clinic. Here, we introduce a light-inducible switch on PROTACs, thereafter termed as opto-PROTAC, to enable the degradation of protein targets in a spatiotemporal manner. By adding a photolabile caging group on pomalidomide as a parental compound and two additional PROTACs, dBET1 and dALK, we demonstrated light-inducible protein degradation. These opto-PROTACs display no activities in the dark, while the restricted degradation can be induced at a specific time and rate by ultraviolet A irradiation. Our approach provides a generalizable platform for the development of light-controlled PROTACs and enables PROTAC to be a precision medicine.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay5154
  2. Nature. 2020 03;579(7797): 35-36
    Krumm B, Roth BL.
      
    Keywords:  Molecular biology; Structural biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00411-y
  3. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Mar 04.
    Basavarajappa SC, Ramakrishnan P.
      B cells mediate humoral immune response and contribute to the regulation of cellular immune response. Members of the Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors play a major role in regulating B-cell functions. NF-κB subunit c-Rel is predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and in B cells, it is required for survival, proliferation, and antibody production. Dysregulation of c-Rel expression and activation alters B-cell homeostasis and is associated with B-cell lymphomas and autoimmune pathologies. Based on its essential roles, c-Rel may serve as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target. This review summarizes the current understanding of the multifaceted role of c-Rel in B cells and B-cell diseases.
    Keywords:  Antibody production; Autoimmunity; B lymphocytes; Lymphoma; Transcription
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03488-w
  4. Immunol Cell Biol. 2020 Mar 05.
    Horton MB, Hawkins ED, Heinzel S, Hodgkin PD.
      The protection of a multicellular organism from infection, at both a cell and humoral level has been a tremendous driver of gene selection and cellular response strategies. Here we focus on a critical event in the development of humoral immunity: The transition from principally innate responses, to a system of adaptive cell selection, with all the attendant mechanical problems that must be solved in order for it to work effectively. Here we review recent advances, but our major goal is to highlight that the development of adaptive immunity resulted from the adoption, reuse and repurposing of an ancient, autonomous cellular programme, that combines and exploits three titratable cellular fate timers. We illustrate how this common cell machinery recurs and appears throughout biology, and has been essential for the evolution of complex organisms, at many levels of scale.
    Keywords:  B cells; Evolutionary immunology; cell fate; cell signalling; comparative immunology; humoral immunity; proliferation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12323
  5. Inflammation. 2020 Mar 03.
    Liang JJ, Li HR, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Shi YQ, Zhang LL, Xin L, Zhao DB.
      Although the E3 ubiquitin ligase Zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway, its function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is elusive. Here, the effects and the mechanism of ZNRF3 on a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) obtained from RA patients were determined. Our results showed that ZNRF3 was highly expressed in tissues and FLSs compared to trauma patients. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of ZNRF3 induced apoptosis decreased cell viability and significantly attenuated inflammation in RA-FLSs via tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α). Additionally, silencing of ZNRF3 reduced knee joint damage and also decreased the level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the CIA mouse model. These effects were mediated by the crosstalk between Wnt and NF-κB pathways in RA-FLS.
    Keywords:  NF-κB pathway; Wnt/β-catenin pathway; ZNRF3; collagen-induced arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial fibroblasts
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01193-1
  6. Sci Adv. 2020 02;6(8): eaay5064
    Reynders M, Matsuura BS, Bérouti M, Simoneschi D, Marzio A, Pagano M, Trauner D.
      PROTACs (PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras) are bifunctional molecules that target proteins for ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase complex and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. They have emerged as powerful tools to control the levels of specific cellular proteins. We now introduce photoswitchable PROTACs that can be activated with the spatiotemporal precision that light provides. These trifunctional molecules, which we named PHOTACs (PHOtochemically TArgeting Chimeras), consist of a ligand for an E3 ligase, a photoswitch, and a ligand for a protein of interest. We demonstrate this concept by using PHOTACs that target either BET family proteins (BRD2,3,4) or FKBP12. Our lead compounds display little or no activity in the dark but can be reversibly activated with different wavelengths of light. Our modular approach provides a method for the optical control of protein levels with photopharmacology and could lead to new types of precision therapeutics that avoid undesired systemic toxicity.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay5064
  7. Nat Commun. 2020 Mar 02. 11(1): 1146
    Zuo Y, Feng Q, Jin L, Huang F, Miao Y, Liu J, Xu Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo T, Yuan Y, Zhang L, Wang J, Zheng H.
      Linear ubiquitination is a critical regulator of inflammatory signaling pathways. However, linearly ubiquitinated substrates and the biological significance of linear ubiquitination is incompletely understood. Here, we show that STAT1 has linear ubiquitination at Lys511 and Lys652 residues in intact cells, which inhibits STAT1 binding to the type-I interferon receptor IFNAR2, thereby restricting STAT1 activation and resulting in type-I interferon signaling homeostasis. Linear ubiquitination of STAT1 is removed rapidly by OTULIN upon type-I interferon stimulation, which facilitates activation of interferon-STAT1 signaling. Furthermore, viruses induce HOIP expression through the NF-κB pathway, which in turn increases linear ubiquitination of STAT1 and thereby inhibits interferon antiviral response. Consequently, HOIL-1L heterozygous mice have active STAT1 signaling and enhanced responses to type-I interferons. These findings demonstrate a linear ubiquitination-mediated switch between homeostasis and activation of type-I interferon signaling, and suggest potential strategies for clinical antiviral therapy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14948-z
  8. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2020 Feb 27. pii: S0955-0674(20)30023-5. [Epub ahead of print]63 174-185
    Trenker R, Jura N.
      Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are single-span transmembrane receptors in which relatively conserved intracellular kinase domains are coupled to divergent extracellular modules. The extracellular domains initiate receptor signaling upon binding to either soluble or membrane-embedded ligands. The diversity of extracellular domain structures allows for coupling of many unique signaling inputs to intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation. The combinatorial power of this receptor system is further increased by the fact that multiple ligands can typically interact with the same receptor. Such ligands often act as biased agonists and initiate distinct signaling responses via activation of the same receptor. Mechanisms behind such biased agonism are largely unknown for RTKs, especially at the level of receptor-ligand complex structure. Using recent progress in understanding the structures of active RTK signaling units, we discuss selected mechanisms by which ligands couple receptor activation to distinct signaling outputs.
    Keywords:  Biased agonism; Growth factor; Ligand; Receptor tyrosine kinase; Signaling
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2020.01.016
  9. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Mar 05.
    Zhang N, Zhang Y, Qian H, Wu S, Cao L, Sun Y.
      The elevated expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and increased PARP1 activity, namely, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), have been observed in cardiac remodeling, leading to extreme energy consumption and myocardial damage. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PARP1 require further study. WWP2, a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is highly expressed in the heart, but its function there is largely unknown. Here, we clarified the role of WWP2 in the regulation of PARP1 and the impact of this regulatory process on cardiac remodeling. We determined that the knockout of WWP2 specifically in myocardium decreased the level of PARP1 ubiquitination and increased the effects of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced PARP1 and PARylation, in turn aggravating ISO-induced myocardial hypertrophy, heart failure, and myocardial fibrosis. Similar findings were obtained in a model of ISO-induced H9c2 cells with WWP2 knockdown, while the reexpression of WWP2 significantly increased PARP1 ubiquitination and decreased PAPR1 and PARylation levels. Mechanistically, coimmunoprecipitation results identified that WWP2 is a novel interacting protein of PARP1 and mainly interacts with its BRCT domain, thus mediating the degradation of PARP1 through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In addition, lysine 418 (K418) and lysine 249 (K249) were shown to be of critical importance in regulating PARP1 ubiquitination and degradation by WWP2. These findings reveal a novel WWP2-PARP1 signal transduction pathway involved in controlling cardiac remodeling and may provide a basis for exploring new strategies for treating heart disorders related to cardiac remodeling.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0523-2
  10. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 39
    Garcia-Barcena C, Osinalde N, Ramirez J, Mayor U.
      E3 ubiquitin ligases are the ultimate enzymes involved in the transfer of ubiquitin to substrate proteins, a process that determines the fate of the modified protein. Numerous diseases are caused by defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery, including when the activity of a given E3 ligase is hampered. Thus, inactivation of E3 ligases and the resulting effects at molecular or cellular level have been the focus of many studies during the last few years. For this purpose, site-specific mutation of key residues involved in either protein interaction, substrate recognition or ubiquitin transfer have been reported to successfully inactivate E3 ligases. Nevertheless, it is not always trivial to predict which mutation(s) will block the catalytic activity of a ligase. Here we review over 250 site-specific inactivating mutations that have been carried out in 120 human E3 ubiquitin ligases. We foresee that the information gathered here will be helpful for the design of future experimental strategies.
    Keywords:  E3; inactivation; ligase; mutation; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00039
  11. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(3): e0228385
    Zhu Y, Cui H, Lv J, Li G, Li X, Ye F, Zhong L.
      Our earlier studies proved that RIPK3-mediated necroptosis might be an important mode of renal tubular cell death in rats with chronic renal injury and the necroptotic cell death can be triggered by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro, but the triggering role of angiotensin II (AngII), which exerts notable effects on renal cells for the initiation and progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, is largely unknown. Here, we identified the presence of necroptotic cell death in the tubular cells of AngII-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis mice and assessed the percentage of necroptotic renal tubular cell death with the disruption of this necroptosis by the addition of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Furthermore, the observation was further confirmed in HK-2 cells treated with AngII and RIPK1/3 or MLKL inhibitors. The detection of Fas and FasL proteins led us to investigate the contribution of the Fas/FasL signaling pathway to AngII-induced necroptosis. Disruption of FasL decreased the percentage of necroptotic cells, suggesting that Fas and FasL are likely key signal molecules in the necroptosis of HK-2 cells induced by AngII. Our data suggest that AngII exposure might trigger RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells by activating the Fas/FasL signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228385
  12. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Mar 03.
    Chu KL, Batista NV, Girard M, Law JC, Watts TH.
      Tissue resident memory T cells (Trm) are critical for local protection against reinfection. The accumulation of T cells in the tissues requires a post-priming signal from TNFR superfamily members, referred to as signal 4. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR; TNFRSF18) signaling is important for this post-priming signal and for Trm formation during respiratory infection with influenza virus. As GITR signaling impacts both effector T cell accumulation and Trm formation, we asked if GITR differentially affects subsets of effector cells with different memory potential. Effector CD4+ T cells can be subdivided into 2 populations based on expression of lymphocyte antigen 6C (Ly6C), whereas effector CD8+ cells can be divided into 3 populations based on Ly6C and CX3CR1. The Ly6Chi and CX3CR1hi T cell populations represent the most differentiated effector T cells. Upon transfer, the Ly6Clo CD4+ effector T cells preferentially enter the lung parenchyma, compared to the Ly6Chi CD4+ T cells. We show that GITR had a similar effect on the accumulation of both the Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo CD4+ T cell subsets. In contrast, whereas GITR increased the accumulation of all three CD8+ T cell subsets defined by CX3CR1 and Ly6C expression, it had a more substantial effect on the least differentiated Ly6Clo CX3CR1lo subset. Moreover, GITR selectively up-regulated CXCR6 on the less differentiated CX3CR1lo CD8+ T cell subsets and induced a small but significant increase in CD127 selectively on the Ly6Clo CD4+ T cell subset. Thus, GITR contributes to accumulation of both differentiated effector cells as well as memory precursors, but with some differences between subsets.
    Keywords:  TNFR superfamily; TNFRSF18; influenza; lung; tissue resident memory T cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4AB1219-254R
  13. FASEB Bioadv. 2020 Feb;2(2): 126-144
    Bradley JR, Wang J, Pacey S, Warren AY, Pober JS, Al-Lamki RS.
      Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) contains cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) that express CD133 (ccRCC-CD133+). CSCs are rarely in cell cycle and, as nonproliferating cells, resist most chemotherapeutic agents. Previously, we reported that tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2) signaling promotes the cell cycle entry of ccRCC-CD133+CSCs, rendering them susceptible to cell-cycle-dependent chemotherapeutics. Here, we describe a TNFR2-activated signaling pathway in ccRCC-CD133+CSCs that is required for cell survival. Wild-type (wt)TNF or R2TNF but not R1TNF (TNF muteins that selectively bind to TNFR2 and TNFR1) induces phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on serine727 but not tyrosine705, resulting in pSTAT3Ser727 translocation to and colocalization with TNFR2 in mitochondria. R2TNF signaling activates a kinase cascade involving the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, PI-3K, Akt, and mTORC. Inhibition of any of the kinases or siRNA knockdown of TNFR2 or STAT3 promotes cell death associated with mitochondrial morphological changes, cytochrome c release, generation of reactive oxygen species, and TUNEL+cells expressing phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL). Pretreatment with necrostatin-1 is more protective than z-VAD.fmk, suggesting that most death is necroptotic and TNFR2 signaling promotes cell survival by preventing mitochondrial-mediated necroptosis. These data suggest that a TNFR2 selective agonist may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for ccRCC.
    Keywords:  R1TNF; R2TNF; STAT3; ccRCC; cell signaling
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1096/fba.2019-00071
  14. Mol Cancer. 2020 Mar 02. 19(1): 49
    Zhu H, Wei M, Xu J, Hua J, Liang C, Meng Q, Zhang Y, Liu J, Zhang B, Yu X, Shi S.
      Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with a poor prognosis, and existing therapies offer only limited effectiveness. Mutation gene sequencing has shown several gene associations that may account for its carcinogenesis, revealing a promising research direction. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors target tumor cells with a homologous recombination repair (HRR) deficiency based on the concept of synthetic lethality. The most prominent target gene is BRCA, in which mutations were first identified in breast cancer and ovarian cancer. PARP inhibitors can trap the PARP-1 protein at a single-stranded break/DNA lesion and disrupt its catalytic cycle, ultimately leading to replication fork progression and consequent double-strand breaks. For tumor cells with BRCA mutations, HRR loss would result in cell death. Pancreatic cancer has also been reported to have a strong relationship with BRCA gene mutations, which indicates that pancreatic cancer patients may benefit from PARP inhibitors. Several clinical trials are being conducted and have begun to yield results. For example, the POLO (Pancreatic Cancer Olaparib Ongoing) trial has demonstrated that the median progression-free survival was observably longer in the olaparib group than in the placebo group. However, PARP inhibitor resistance has partially precluded their use in clinical applications, and the major mechanism underlying this resistance is the restoration of HRR. Therefore, determining how to use PARP inhibitors in more clinical applications and how to avoid adverse effects, as well as prognosis and treatment response biomarkers, require additional research. This review elaborates on future prospects for the application of PARP inhibitors in pancreatic cancer.
    Keywords:  BRCA; Biomarkers; Chemotherapy resistance; Homologous recombination repair; PARP inhibitor; Pancreatic cancer; Synthetic lethality
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-020-01167-9
  15. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2020 ;pii: S1937-6448(19)30101-7. [Epub ahead of print]350 63-118
    Sprooten J, Garg AD.
      Type I interferons (IFNs) comprise of pro-inflammatory cytokines created, as well as sensed, by all nucleated cells with the main objective of blocking pathogens-driven infections. Owing to this broad range of influence, type I IFNs also exhibit critical functions in many sterile inflammatory diseases and immunopathologies, especially those associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-driven signaling pathways. Indeed, over the years accumulating evidence has indicated that the presence of ER stress can influence the production, or sensing of, type I IFNs induced by perturbations like pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists, infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic) or autoimmunity. In this article we discuss the link between type I IFNs and ER stress in various diseased contexts. We describe how ER stress regulates type I IFNs production or sensing, or how type I IFNs may induce ER stress, in various circumstances like microbial infections, autoimmunity, diabetes, cancer and other ER stress-related contexts.
    Keywords:  Chemokine; Danger signals; IRE1; Inflammation; Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs); NF-κB; Oncolytic viruses; PERK; STING; Toll-like receptors (TLRs); Unfolded protein response (UPR)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.ircmb.2019.10.004
  16. Cell Death Discov. 2020 ;6 6
    Brito H, Marques V, Afonso MB, Brown DG, Börjesson U, Selmi N, Smith DM, Roberts IO, Fitzek M, Aniceto N, Guedes RC, Moreira R, Rodrigues CMP.
      Regulated necrosis or necroptosis, mediated by receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory, infectious and degenerative diseases. Recently identified necroptosis inhibitors display moderate specificity, suboptimal pharmacokinetics, off-target effects and toxicity, preventing these molecules from reaching the clinic. Here, we developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) cascade for the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of necroptosis. From the initial library of over 250,000 compounds, the primary screening phase identified 356 compounds that strongly inhibited TNF-α-induced necroptosis, but not apoptosis, in human and murine cell systems, with EC50 < 6.7 μM. From these, 251 compounds were tested for RIPK1 and/or RIPK3 kinase inhibitory activity; some were active and several have novel mechanisms of action. Based on specific chemical descriptors, 110 compounds proceeded into the secondary screening cascade, which then identified seven compounds with maximum ability to reduce MLKL activation, IC50 >100 μM, EC50 2.5-11.5 μM under long-term necroptosis execution in murine fibroblast L929 cells, and full protection from ATP depletion and membrane leakage in human and murine cells. As a proof of concept, compound SN-6109, with binding mode to RIPK1 similar to that of necrostatin-1, confirmed RIPK1 inhibitory activity and appropriate pharmacokinetic properties. SN-6109 was further tested in mice, showing efficacy against TNF-α-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In conclusion, a phenotypic-driven HTS cascade promptly identified robust necroptosis inhibitors with in vivo activity, currently undergoing further medicinal chemistry optimization. Notably, the novel hits highlight the opportunity to identify new molecular mechanisms of action in necroptosis.
    Keywords:  Drug development; Screening
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0240-0
  17. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 42
    La Marca JE, Richardson HE.
      The highly conserved c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signalling pathway has many functions, regulating a diversity of processes: from cell movement during embryogenesis to the stress response of cells after environmental insults. Studies modelling cancer using the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have identified both pro- and anti-tumourigenic roles for JNK signalling, depending on context. As a tumour suppressor, JNK signalling commonly is activated by conserved Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) signalling, which promotes the caspase-mediated death of tumourigenic cells. JNK pathway activation can also occur via actin cytoskeleton alterations, and after cellular damage inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, JNK signalling frequently acts in concert with Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) signalling - either upstream of or parallel to this potent growth-suppressing pathway. As a tumour promoter, JNK signalling is co-opted by cells expressing activated Ras-MAPK signalling (among other pathways), and used to drive cell morphological changes, induce invasive behaviours, block differentiation, and enable persistent cell proliferation. Furthermore, JNK is capable of non-autonomous influences within tumour microenvironments by effecting the transcription of various cell growth- and proliferation-promoting molecules. In this review, we discuss these aspects of JNK signalling in Drosophila tumourigenesis models, and highlight recent publications that have expanded our knowledge of this important and versatile pathway.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; JNK; Ras; apoptosis; scrib; tumourigenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00042
  18. Mol Cell. 2020 Mar 05. pii: S1097-2765(20)30105-2. [Epub ahead of print]77(5): 1107-1123.e10
    Phu L, Rose CM, Tea JS, Wall CE, Verschueren E, Cheung TK, Kirkpatrick DS, Bingol B.
      Mitochondria import nearly their entire proteome from the cytoplasm by translocating precursor proteins through the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex. Here, we show dynamic regulation of mitochondrial import by the ubiquitin system. Acute pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of the mitochondrial deubiquitinase (DUB) USP30 triggers accumulation of Ub-substrates that are normally localized inside the mitochondria. Mitochondrial import of USP30 substrates is impaired in USP30 knockout (KO) cells, suggesting that deubiquitination promotes efficient import. Upstream of USP30, the E3 ligase March5 ubiquitinates mitochondrial proteins whose eventual import depends on USP30. In USP30 KOs, exogenous March5 expression induces accumulation of unimported translocation intermediates that are degraded by the proteasomes. In USP30 KO mice, TOM subunits have reduced abundance across multiple tissues. Together these data highlight how protein import into a subcellular compartment can be regulated by ubiquitination and deubiquitination by E3 ligase and DUB machinery positioned at the gate.
    Keywords:  Deubiquitinase; E3 Ubiquitin Ligase; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial Import; TOM complex; Ubiquitin System
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.02.012
  19. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 101
    Almeida CR, Bottazzi B, De Nardo D, Lawlor KE.
      
    Keywords:  PRRs; immunomodulation; innate immunity; macrophage polarization; pattern recognition
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00101
  20. Front Microbiol. 2020 ;11 24
    Murphy Schafer AR, Smith JL, Pryke KM, DeFilippis VR, Hirsch AJ.
      The dengue virus presents a serious threat to human health globally and can cause severe, even life-threatening, illness. Dengue virus (DENV) is endemic on all continents except Antarctica, and it is estimated that more than 100 million people are infected each year. Herein, we further mine the data from a previously described screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) that block flavivirus replication. We use miR-424, a member of the miR-15/16 family, as a tool to further dissect the role of host cell proteins during DENV infection. We observed that miR-424 suppresses expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH1, which is normally induced during dengue virus 2 (DENV2) infection through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of SIAH1 also results in inhibition of DENV replication, demonstrating that this target is at least partly responsible for the antiviral activity of miR-424. We further show that SIAH1 binds to and ubiquitinates the innate immune adaptor protein MyD88 and that the antiviral effect of SIAH1 knockdown is reduced in cells in which MyD88 has been deleted by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. Additionally, MyD88-dependent signaling, triggered either by DENV2 infection or the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) ligand imiquimod, is increased in cells in which SIAH1 has been knocked down by miR-424 or a SIAH1-specific siRNA. These observations suggest an additional pathway by which DENV2 harnesses aspects of the UPR to dampen the host innate immune response and promote viral replication.
    Keywords:  dengue; flavivirus; microRNA; ubiquitin; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00024
  21. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2020 Mar 03.
    Wcisło-Dziadecka DL, Grabarek B, Kruszniewska-Rajs C, Gola JM, Simka K, Mazurek U.
      BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody that shows the ability to bind to subunit p40, common for interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-23, which prevents the activation of the JAK STAT signaling pathway.OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of therapy that uses anti-IL-12/23 medicine in patients with psoriasis vulgaris, based on the disease clinical progression indices (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Body Surface Area (BSA)) and to determine the possibilities of using changes in the expression profiles of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) and TNFR2 as molecular markers showing the response to ustekinumab therapy.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The group under study was composed of 14 patients (10 men and 4 women, aged 49.3 ±10.2 years) with diagnosed psoriasis vulgaris, treated with ustekinumab. The group was divided into subgroups because of the selected 3 stages of therapy. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers (11 men and 9 women, aged 46 ±10 years). The 120-week long observation involved a clinical assessment of the patients (PASI, BSA and DLQI), based on the following scheme: 0-4-12 weeks of the observation. The analysis of molecular changes in the TNF-α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression profiles was performed with the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method, using the patients' full blood. The statistical analysis was performed with STATISTICA v. 12.0 PL (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, USA) with the level of statistical significance p < 0.05.
    RESULTS: Gradually reduced PASI, BSA and DLQI values were observed during anti-IL-12/23 therapy. An increased level of the TNF-α transcription activity was observed in the analyzed group when compared to the control. Correlations between the clinical and molecular parameters were also indicated.
    CONCLUSIONS: Ustekinumab constitutes an efficient and safe form of pharmacotherapy in psoriasis vulgaris. We did not observe any reduced efficacy of the treatment when reclassifying patients for the therapy. Tumor necrosis factor α, TNFR1 and TNFR2 may serve as supplementary markers of molecular response to the medicine.
    Keywords:  JAK STAT signaling pathway; TNF-α; anti-IL-12/23 therapy; molecular marker; psoriasis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/112607
  22. J Biol Chem. 2020 Mar 02. pii: jbc.RA119.011622. [Epub ahead of print]
    Douglas T, Saleh M.
      The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) is an essential component of the innate and adaptive immune system. Modification of cellular substrates with linear polyubiquitin chains is a key regulatory step in signal transduction that impacts cell death and inflammatory signaling downstream of various innate immunity receptors. Loss of function mutations in the LUBAC components HOIP and HOIL-1 yields a systemic autoinflammatory disease in humans, while their genetic ablation is embryonically lethal in mice. Deficiency of the LUBAC adaptor protein Sharpin results in a multi-organ inflammatory disease in mice characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm), which is propagated by TNFR1-induced and RIPK1-mediated keratinocyte cell death. We have previously shown that caspases-1 and -11 promoted the dermatitis pathology of cpdm mice and mediated cell death in the skin. Here, we describe a reciprocal regulation of caspase-1 and LUBAC activities in keratinocytes. We show that LUBAC interacted with caspase-1 via HOIP and modified its CARD domain with linear polyubiquitin, and that depletion of HOIP or Sharpin resulted in heightened caspase-1 activation and cell death in response to inflammasome activation, unlike what is observed in macrophages. Reciprocally, caspase-1, as well as caspase-8, regulated LUBAC activity by proteolytically processing HOIP at Asp-348 and Asp-387 during the execution of cell death. HOIP processing impeded substrate ubiquitination in the NF-κB pathway and resulted in enhanced apoptosis. These results highlight a regulatory mechanism underlying efficient apoptosis in keratinocytes and provide further evidence of a cross-talk between inflammatory and cell death pathways.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; apoptosis; caspase 1 (CASP1); inflammasome; keratinocyte
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.011622
  23. Microb Pathog. 2020 Mar 01. pii: S0882-4010(20)30151-0. [Epub ahead of print] 104113
    Li Y, Yang J, Wu X, Sun W.
      BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms might influence predisposition to periodontitis, but the results of already published studies were still controversial and ambiguous. So the authors designed this meta-analysis to more precisely estimate relationship between TNF-α polymorphisms and periodontitis by pooling the results of already published related studies.METHODS: The authors searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and CNKI for already published studies. Forty-five already published studies were pooled analyzed in this meta-analysis.
    RESULTS: The crude pooled meta-analyses results showed that distributions of TNF-α rs361525, rs1800629, rs1800630 and rs1799964 polymorphisms among patients and controls differed significantly, which suggested that these polymorphisms might influence predisposition to periodontitis in the general population. We also got similar significant results for rs361525, rs1800629, rs1800630 and rs1799964 polymorphisms in subgroup analyses in Asians. The crude findings were further subjected to Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. For rs361525, rs1800629 and rs1799964 polymorphisms, basically no changes of results were detected. But for rs1800630 polymorphism, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.
    CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that TNF-α rs361525, rs1800629 and rs1799964 polymorphisms might influence predisposition to periodontitis, particularly in Asians.
    Keywords:  Asians; Meta-analysis; Periodontitis; Polymorphisms; Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104113
  24. Nat Commun. 2020 Mar 05. 11(1): 1195
    Park TS, Zimmerlin L, Evans-Moses R, Thomas J, Huo JS, Kanherkar R, He A, Ruzgar N, Grebe R, Bhutto I, Barbato M, Koldobskiy MA, Lutty G, Zambidis ET.
      Here, we report that the functionality of vascular progenitors (VP) generated from normal and disease-primed conventional human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can be significantly improved by reversion to a tankyrase inhibitor-regulated human naïve epiblast-like pluripotent state. Naïve diabetic vascular progenitors (N-DVP) differentiated from patient-specific naïve diabetic hiPSC (N-DhiPSC) possessed higher vascular functionality, maintained greater genomic stability, harbored decreased lineage-primed gene expression, and were more efficient in migrating to and re-vascularizing the deep neural layers of the ischemic retina than isogenic diabetic vascular progenitors (DVP). These findings suggest that reprogramming to a stable naïve human pluripotent stem cell state may effectively erase dysfunctional epigenetic donor cell memory or disease-associated aberrations in patient-specific hiPSC. More broadly, tankyrase inhibitor-regulated naïve hiPSC (N-hiPSC) represent a class of human stem cells with high epigenetic plasticity, improved multi-lineage functionality, and potentially high impact for regenerative medicine.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14764-5
  25. Cancer Immunol Res. 2020 Mar 02. pii: canimm.0261.2019. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wu L, Zhang X, Zheng L, Zhao H, Yan G, Zhang Q, Zhou Y, Lei J, Zhang J, Wang J, Xin R, Jiang L, Peng J, Chen Q, Lam SM, Shui G, Miao H, Li Y.
      Metabolic reprogramming is critical for the polarization and function of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and hepatocarcinogenesis, but how this reprogramming occurs is unknown. Here, we showed that receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), a central factor in necroptosis, is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-associated macrophages, which correlated with tumorigenesis and enhanced the accumulation and polarization of M2 TAM. Mechanistically, RIPK3 deficiency in TAMs reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and significantly inhibited caspase1-mediated cleavage of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These effects enabled PPAR activation and facilitated fatty acid metabolism, including fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and induced M2 polarization in the tumor microenvironment (TME). RIPK3 upregulation or FAO blockade reversed the immunosuppressive activity of TAMs and dampened HCC tumorigenesis. Our findings provide molecular basis for the regulation of RIPK3-mediated, lipid metabolic reprogramming of TAMs, thus highlighting a potential strategy for targeting the immunometabolism of HCC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-19-0261
  26. Leukemia. 2020 Mar 03.
    Arindrarto W, Borràs DM, de Groen RAL, van den Berg RR, Locher IJ, van Diessen SAME, van der Holst R, van der Meijden ED, Honders MW, de Leeuw RH, Verlaat W, Jedema I, Kroes WGM, Knijnenburg J, van Wezel T, Vermaat JSP, Valk PJM, Janssen B, de Knijff P, van Bergen CAM, van den Akker EB, Hoen PAC', Kiełbasa SM, Laros JFJ, Griffioen M, Veelken H.
      Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is caused by genetic aberrations that also govern the prognosis of patients and guide risk-adapted and targeted therapy. Genetic aberrations in AML are structurally diverse and currently detected by different diagnostic assays. This study sought to establish whole transcriptome RNA sequencing as single, comprehensive, and flexible platform for AML diagnostics. We developed HAMLET (Human AML Expedited Transcriptomics) as bioinformatics pipeline for simultaneous detection of fusion genes, small variants, tandem duplications, and gene expression with all information assembled in an annotated, user-friendly output file. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing was performed on 100 AML cases and HAMLET results were validated by reference assays and targeted resequencing. The data showed that HAMLET accurately detected all fusion genes and overexpression of EVI1 irrespective of 3q26 aberrations. In addition, small variants in 13 genes that are often mutated in AML were called with 99.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity, and tandem duplications in FLT3 and KMT2A were detected by a novel algorithm based on soft-clipped reads with 100% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. In conclusion, HAMLET has the potential to provide accurate comprehensive diagnostic information relevant for AML classification, risk assessment and targeted therapy on a single technology platform.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0762-8
  27. Nat Commun. 2020 Mar 06. 11(1): 1237
    Ray JP, de Boer CG, Fulco CP, Lareau CA, Kanai M, Ulirsch JC, Tewhey R, Ludwig LS, Reilly SK, Bergman DT, Engreitz JM, Issner R, Finucane HK, Lander ES, Regev A, Hacohen N.
      Genome-wide association studies have associated thousands of genetic variants with complex traits and diseases, but pinpointing the causal variant(s) among those in tight linkage disequilibrium with each associated variant remains a major challenge. Here, we use seven experimental assays to characterize all common variants at the multiple disease-associated TNFAIP3 locus in five disease-relevant immune cell lines, based on a set of features related to regulatory potential. Trait/disease-associated variants are enriched among SNPs prioritized based on either: (1) residing within CRISPRi-sensitive regulatory regions, or (2) localizing in a chromatin accessible region while displaying allele-specific reporter activity. Of the 15 trait/disease-associated haplotypes at TNFAIP3, 9 have at least one variant meeting one or both of these criteria, 5 of which are further supported by genetic fine-mapping. Our work provides a comprehensive strategy to characterize genetic variation at important disease-associated loci, and aids in the effort to identify trait causal genetic variants.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15022-4
  28. J Clin Invest. 2020 Mar 03. pii: 130426. [Epub ahead of print]
    Alvisi G, Brummelman J, Puccio S, Mazza EMC, Paoluzzi Tomada E, Losurdo A, Zanon V, Peano C, Colombo FS, Scarpa A, Alloisio M, Vasanthakumar A, Roychoudhuri R, Kallikourdis M, Pagani M, Lopci E, Novellis P, Blume J, Kallies A, Veronesi G, Lugli E.
      The molecular mechanisms responsible for the high immunosuppressive capacity of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumors are poorly known. High-dimensional single cell profiling of T cells from chemotherapy-naïve individuals with non-small cell lung cancer identified the transcription factor IRF4 as specifically expressed by a subset of intratumoral CD4+ effector Tregs with superior suppressive activity. In contrast to the IRF4- counterparts, IRF4+ Tregs expressed a vast array of suppressive molecules, and their presence correlated with multiple exhausted subpopulations of T cells. Integration of transcriptomic and epigenomic data revealed that IRF4, either alone or in combination with its partner BATF, directly controlled a molecular program responsible for immunosuppression in tumors. Accordingly, deletion of Irf4 exclusively in Tregs resulted in delayed tumor growth in mice while the abundance of IRF4+ Tregs correlated with poor prognosis in patients with multiple human cancers. Thus, a common mechanism underlies immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment irrespectively of the tumor type.
    Keywords:  Adaptive immunity; Cancer immunotherapy; Immunology; Oncology; T cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI130426
  29. Anal Biochem. 2020 Feb 26. pii: S0003-2697(20)30178-0. [Epub ahead of print]596 113646
    Schuster L, Sauter M, Uhl P, Meid A, Haefeli WE, Weiss J, Theile D.
      Quantification of therapeutic antibodies is commonly based on physico-chemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunoabsorption assays (ELISA) and lately on mass spectrometry. However, the functional integrity of evaluated immunoglobulins is yet not assessed. Consequently, a commercially available reporter cell line was used to quantify the functional concentration of the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody adalimumab present in serum of a healthy beagle dog treated with 3 mg intravenous adalimumab (Humira®). HEK-Blue™-hTLR3 cells express a secreted alkaline phosphatase under the control of a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) response element. Its enzymatic activity can be recorded using colorimetry, which reports activity of extracellular NF-κB stimuli such as TNF-α. Using an adalimumab concentration-response calibration curve, the functional concentration of serum adalimumab was estimated to be 4.9 ± 1.4 μg/ml, which was in excellent agreement with ELISA results (4.8 μg/ml). The obtained data suggest that this simple, easy-to-handle reporter cell assay can be used for the functional quantification of adalimumab present in samples from in vitro or pre-clinical in vivo experiments. Moreover, this assay could be used in vitro to compare the pharmacodynamics of adalimumab biosimilars or different anti-TNF-α compounds, respectively.
    Keywords:  Adalimumab; HEK-Blue™-hTLR3; NF-κB; Reporter cell assay; Tumor necrosis factor
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2020.113646
  30. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 05.
    Liu W, Vetreno RP, Crews FT.
      The relationship between increased neuroimmune gene expression and hippocampal degeneration in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental diseases is poorly understood. We report here that tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily death receptor 3 (TNFRSF25, DR3) and Fas receptors (Fas) that initiate caspase cell death cascades are increased in AUD hippocampus and following a rat adolescent binge drinking model. Death receptors are known inducers of apoptosis and cell death that recruit death domain (DD) proteins FADD and TRADD and caspases to form death-inducing signaling complexes (DISC). In postmortem human AUD hippocampus, mRNA and IHC protein are increased for the entire death receptor cascade. In AUD hippocampus, ligand-death receptor pairs, i.e., TL1A-DR3 and FasL-Fas, were increased, as well as FADD and TRADD, and active caspase-8, -7, -9, and caspase-3. Further, pNFκB p65, a key neuroimmune transcription factor, and IL-8, a chemokine, were significantly increased. Interestingly, across AUD patients, increases in DR3 and Fas correlated with TRADD, and TRADD with active caspase+IR and IL-8+IR, consistent with coordinated activation of neuronal DISC mediated death cascades and neuroimmune gene induction in AUD. These findings support a role for DR3 and Fas neuroimmune signaling in AUD hippocampal neurodegeneration.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0698-4
  31. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 59
    Sung MH, Regot S.
      
    Keywords:  NF-kappaB (NF-κB); high throughput profiling; mathematical modeling; microscopy; quantitative methodologies; systems biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00059