bims-tumhet Biomed News
on Tumor Heterogeneity
Issue of 2021‒08‒22
three papers selected by
Sergio Marchini
Humanitas Research

  1. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 697952
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of the effect of olaparib on platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer with unknown germline BRCA mutations. We retrospectively examined 20 patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer who were treated at the Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Japan, from 2018 to 2020. We found that the median progression-free survival was 11.4 months (95% Confidence interval (CI): 3.8-Not Available (NA)) in the group with NLPN score [recurrent neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (rNLR) × number of previous regimens] >7.51, and median progression-free survival was not reached in the group with NLPN score <7.51 (95% CI: 21.8-NA) (p = 0.0185). There was a clear correlation between the degree of dose reduction of olaparib and recurrence (p = 0.00249). Our results show that NLPN scores lower than 7.51 are associated with a favorable outcome of olaparib treatment for platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. In cases with a high rNLR, it may be necessary to start olaparib treatment as early as possible to obtain low NLPN scores. Our results imply that the effectiveness of olaparib can be determined after recurrence and before platinum treatment begins. As newer drugs for ovarian cancer are developed, the measurement of biomarker levels at the start of treatment for recurrent ovarian cancer, as shown in our study, may provide strong support for cancer treatment protocols.
    Keywords:  BRCA mutations; neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio; olaparib; ovarian cancer; systemic inflammation index
  2. Acta Clin Belg. 2021 Aug 17. 1-13
      Introduction: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a less common subtype accounting for approximately 5% of all epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Clinical experience and research findings confirm the remarkable differences in clinical behavior, molecular alterations and pathogenesis of OCCC. The diagnosis of OCCC is typically set at a younger age, and earlier stage and in a background of endometriosis.Results: Molecularly, OCCCs rarely harbor BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and have fewer copy number variants (CNVs). The most common molecular changes occur in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex genes, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signaling pathway.Five-year disease-specific survival of patients with OCCC is worse compared to high grade serous carcinomas (HGSOC). The current treatment options for OCCC are based on studies that included patients with predominantly HGSOC and only a minor proportion of cancers with clear cell histology. In order to improve outcomes for patients with OCCC, research should be specific for this subtype.Discussion: As the available information about the specific characteristics of OCCC is increasing, especially at a molecular level, it should be possible to continuously improve the specific diagnostics and treatment. Since OCCC is so rare, it is essential to collect new evidence at an international level. To avoid extrapolation from EOC trials with possible erroneous conclusions, patients should always be encouraged to participate in specific histological trials and basket trials, while paying extra attention to OCCC-like subtypes.
    Keywords:  Chemotherapy; Endometriosis; Gynecological surgery; Ovarian clear cell carcinoma; Radiotherapy