bims-tucedo Biomed News
on Tumor cell dormancy
Issue of 2022‒05‒22
23 papers selected by
Isabel Puig Borreil
Vall d’Hebron Institute of Oncology

  1. Nature. 2022 May 18.
      Cancer metastasis requires the transient activation of cellular programs enabling dissemination and seeding in distant organs1. Genetic, transcriptional and translational heterogeneity contributes to this dynamic process2,3. Metabolic heterogeneity has also been observed4, yet its role in cancer progression is less explored. Here we find that the loss of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) potentiates metastatic dissemination. Specifically, we find that heterogeneous or low PHGDH expression in primary tumours of patients with breast cancer is associated with decreased metastasis-free survival time. In mice, circulating tumour cells and early metastatic lesions are enriched with Phgdhlow cancer cells, and silencing Phgdh in primary tumours increases metastasis formation. Mechanistically, Phgdh interacts with the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase, and the loss of this interaction activates the hexosamine-sialic acid pathway, which provides precursors for protein glycosylation. As a consequence, aberrant protein glycosylation occurs, including increased sialylation of integrin αvβ3, which potentiates cell migration and invasion. Inhibition of sialylation counteracts the metastatic ability of Phgdhlow cancer cells. In conclusion, although the catalytic activity of PHGDH supports cancer cell proliferation, low PHGDH protein expression non-catalytically potentiates cancer dissemination and metastasis formation. Thus, the presence of PHDGH heterogeneity in primary tumours could be considered a sign of tumour aggressiveness.
  2. Cancer Res. 2022 May 18. pii: canres.4152.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      The therapeutic benefit of approved BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi/MEKi) in patients with brain metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutated melanoma is limited and transient. Resistance largely occurs through the restoration of MAPK signaling via paradoxical BRAF activation, highlighting the need for more effective therapeutic options. Aiming to address this clinical challenge, we characterized the activity of a potent, brain-penetrant paradox breaker BRAFi (compound 1a, C1a) as first line therapy and following progression upon treatment with approved BRAFi and BRAFi/MEKi therapies. C1a activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cell lines and patient-derived models of BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma brain metastases following relapse after treatment with BRAFi/MEKi. C1a showed superior efficacy compared to approved BRAFi, both in subcutaneous and brain metastatic models. Importantly, C1a manifested potent and prolonged antitumor activity even in models that progressed on BRAFi/MEKi treatment. Analysis of mechanisms of resistance to C1a revealed MAPK reactivation under drug treatment as the predominant resistance-driving event in both subcutaneous and intracranial tumors. Specifically, BRAF kinase domain duplication was identified as a frequently occurring driver of resistance to C1a. Combination therapies of C1a and anti-PD1 antibody proved to significantly reduce disease recurrence. Collectively, these preclinical studies validate the outstanding antitumor activity of C1a in brain metastasis, support clinical investigation of this agent in patients pretreated with BRAFi/MEKi, unveil genetic drivers of tumor escape from C1a, and identify a combinatorial treatment that achieves long-lasting responses.
  3. Cancer Res. 2022 May 18. pii: canres.0410.2022. [Epub ahead of print]
      The transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is overexpressed in breast cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. Mechanistically, FoxM1 associates with CBP to activate transcription and with Rb to repress transcription. While the activating function of FoxM1 in breast cancer has been well documented, the significance of its repressive activity is poorly understood. Using CRISPR-Cas9 engineering, we generated a mouse model that expresses FoxM1 harboring point mutations that block binding to Rb while retaining its ability to bind CBP. Unlike FoxM1-null mice, mice harboring Rb-binding mutant FoxM1 did not exhibit significant developmental defects. The mutant mouse line developed PyMT-driven mammary tumors that were deficient in lung metastasis, which was tumor cell-intrinsic. Single-cell RNA-seq of the tumors revealed a deficiency in pro-metastatic tumor cells and an expansion of differentiated alveolar-type tumor cells, and further investigation identified that loss of the FoxM1/Rb interaction caused enhancement of the mammary alveolar differentiation program. The FoxM1 mutant tumors also showed increased Pten expression, and FoxM1/Rb was found to activate Akt signaling by repressing Pten. In human breast cancers, expression of FoxM1 negatively correlated with Pten mRNA. Furthermore, the lack of tumor-infiltrating cells in FoxM1 mutant tumors appeared related to decreases in pro-metastatic tumor cells that express factors required for infiltration. These observations demonstrate that the FoxM1/Rb-regulated transcriptome is critical for the plasticity of breast cancer cells that drive metastasis, identifying a pro-metastatic role of Rb when bound to FoxM1.
  4. Cancer Res. 2022 May 16. 82(10): 1870-1871
      The invasive progression of cancer known as metastasis remains strongly associated with morbidity and lethality. New meaningful therapeutic interventions could be derived from a better understanding of the underlying processes driving cancer cell seeding and proliferation at secondary sites. Emerging findings regarding the heterogeneity of cancer cells observed in metastases have led us to revisit concepts surrounding metastatic fitness. Novel model systems to study the markers of cancer stem cell plasticity and their evolution during metastatic growth have uncovered that dynamic and heterogeneous cancer cell populations are observed during metastatic disease progression. Heinz and colleagues studied the heterogeneity of colorectal carcinomas, where primary tumors evolve alongside an epithelium well characterized for its self-renewing stem cell population. Their work revealed a functional dynamic interplay in the organization of the metastatic lesions as they transition from stagnating to expanding nodules, wherein the heterogeneous mixture of cancer cell stem cells with more differentiated cancer cells is essential for metastatic outgrowth. Their work supports that dynamic YAP signaling enables the growth-permissive heterogeneous composition of the metastatic nodule, in contrast with growth-restricted homogeneous compositions. See related article by Heinz et al., p. 1953.
  5. J Clin Invest. 2022 May 17. pii: e157644. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lymph node (LN) metastasis occurs frequently in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and predicts poor prognosis for patients. The KRASG12D mutation confers an aggressive PDAC phenotype that is susceptible to lymphatic dissemination. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying KRASG12D mutation-driven LN metastasis in PDAC remains unclear. Herein, we identified that PDAC with KRASG12D mutation (KRASG12D PDAC) sustained extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated transmission of hnRNPA1 in a SUMOylation-dependent manner and promoted lymphangiogenesis and LN metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, hnRNPA1 bound with SUMO2 at the lysine 113 residue via KRASG12D-induced hyperactivation of SUMOylation, which enabled its interaction with TSG101 to enhance hnRNPA1 packaging and transmission via EVs. Subsequently, SUMOylation induced EV-packaged hnRNPA1 anchoring to the adenylate and uridylate-rich elements of PROX1 in lymphatic endothelial cells, thus stabilizing PROX1 mRNA. Importantly, impeding SUMOylation of EV-packaged hnRNPA1 dramatically inhibited LN metastasis of KRASG12D PDAC in a genetically engineered KrasG12D/+; Trp53R172H/+; Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice model. Our findings highlight the mechanism by which KRAS mutant-driven SUMOylation triggers EV-packaged hnRNPA1 transmission to promote lymphangiogenesis and LN metastasis, shedding light on the potential application of hnRNPA1 as a therapeutic target in patients with KRASG12D PDAC.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Lymph; Molecular biology; Oncology
  6. Cancer Res. 2022 May 16. 82(10): 1953-1968
      Micrometastases of colorectal cancer can remain dormant for years prior to the formation of actively growing, clinically detectable lesions (i.e., colonization). A better understanding of this step in the metastatic cascade could help improve metastasis prevention and treatment. Here we analyzed liver specimens of patients with colorectal cancer and monitored real-time metastasis formation in mouse livers using intravital microscopy to reveal that micrometastatic lesions are devoid of cancer stem cells (CSC). However, lesions that grow into overt metastases demonstrated appearance of de novo CSCs through cellular plasticity at a multicellular stage. Clonal outgrowth of patient-derived colorectal cancer organoids phenocopied the cellular and transcriptomic changes observed during in vivo metastasis formation. First, formation of mature CSCs occurred at a multicellular stage and promoted growth. Conversely, failure of immature CSCs to generate more differentiated cells arrested growth, implying that cellular heterogeneity is required for continuous growth. Second, early-stage YAP activity was required for the survival of organoid-forming cells. However, subsequent attenuation of early-stage YAP activity was essential to allow for the formation of cell type heterogeneity, while persistent YAP signaling locked micro-organoids in a cellularly homogenous and growth-stalled state. Analysis of metastasis formation in mouse livers using single-cell RNA sequencing confirmed the transient presence of early-stage YAP activity, followed by emergence of CSC and non-CSC phenotypes, irrespective of the initial phenotype of the metastatic cell of origin. Thus, establishment of cellular heterogeneity after an initial YAP-controlled outgrowth phase marks the transition to continuously growing macrometastases.SIGNIFICANCE: Characterization of the cell type dynamics, composition, and transcriptome of early colorectal cancer liver metastases reveals that failure to establish cellular heterogeneity through YAP-controlled epithelial self-organization prohibits the outgrowth of micrometastases. See related commentary by LeBleu, p. 1870.
  7. Cancer Discov. 2022 May 20. OF1
      Colonization of the lymph node promotes distant organ metastasis through induction of immune tolerance.
  8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 May 24. 119(21): e2114324119
      SignificanceThis study reveals that antiandrogen therapy induces viral mimicry responses that are crucial for antitumor activity. H3K9 trimethylation to silence endogenous repeat elements is essential for regaining heterochromatin stability and progression to antiandrogen resistance in prostate cancer. We found that the H3K9 trimethylation machinery is linked to poor outcomes in men with prostate cancer. Blockade of this epigenetic axis can resensitize drug-resistant tumors and elicit cytotoxic interferon responses. Antiandrogen timing and regulation of the H3K9 methylation-endogenous repeat elements- interferon axis should be considered in the development of novel epigenetic therapies and immunotherapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.
    Keywords:  androgens; enzalutamide; epigenetics; hormonal therapy; prostate cancer
  9. Cancer Res. 2022 May 18. pii: canres.3844.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      One of the current stumbling blocks in our fight against cancer is the development of acquired resistance to therapy, which is attributable to approximately ninety percent of cancer-related deaths. Undercutting this process during treatment could significantly improve cancer management. In many cases, drug resistance is mediated by a drug-tolerant persister (DTP) cell subpopulation present in tumors, often referred to as persister cells. This review provides a summary of currently known persister cell subpopulations and approaches to target them. A specific DTP cell subpopulation with elevated levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has stem cell-like characteristics and a high level of plasticity, enabling them to switch rapidly between high and low ALDH activity. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the functions of ALDH-high DTP cells, how they withstand drug concentrations that kill other cells, and how they rapidly adapt under levels of high cellular stress and eventually lead to more aggressive, recurrent, and drug-resistant cancer. Furthermore, this review addresses the processes used by the ALDH-high persister cell subpopulation to enable cancer progression, the ALDH isoforms important in these processes, interactions of ALDH-high DTPs with the tumor microenvironment, and approaches to therapeutically modulate this subpopulation in order to more effectively manage cancer.
  10. Nature. 2022 May 18.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Medical research; Metabolism
  11. Cancer Res. 2022 May 18. pii: canres.CAN-21-2352-E.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Altered metabolisms helps sustain cancer cell proliferation and survival. Most cancers, including prostate cancers, express the M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase (Pkm2), which can support anabolic metabolism to support cell proliferation. However, Pkm2 expression is dispensable for the formation and growth of many cancers in vivo. Expression of pyruvate kinase isoform M1 (Pkm1) is restricted to relatively few tissues and has been reported to promote growth of select tumors, but the role of Pkm1 in cancer has been less studied than Pkm2. To test how differential expression of pyruvate kinase isoforms affects cancer initiation and progression, we generated mice harboring a conditional allele of Pkm1, and crossed these mice or those with a Pkm2 conditional allele with a Pten loss-driven prostate cancer model. Pkm1 loss led to increased Pkm2 expression and accelerated prostate cancer development, while Pkm2 deletion of led to increased Pkm1 expression and suppressed tumor progression. Metabolic profiling revealed altered nucleotide levels in tumors with high Pkm1 expression, and failure of these tumors to progress was associated with DNA replication stress and senescence. Consistent with these data, a small molecule pyruvate kinase activator that mimics a high activity Pkm1-like state suppressed progression of established prostate tumors. Analysis of human specimens showed PKM2 expression is retained in most human prostate cancers. Overall, this study uncovers a role for pyruvate kinase isoforms in prostate cancer initiation and progression, and argues that pharmacological pyruvate kinase activation may be beneficial for treating prostate cancer.
  12. Nat Commun. 2022 May 19. 13(1): 2791
      Tumour cell plasticity is a major barrier to the efficacy of targeted cancer therapies but the mechanisms that mediate it are poorly understood. Here, we identify dysregulated RNA splicing as a key driver of tumour cell dedifferentiation in colorectal cancer (CRC). We find that Apc-deficient CRC cells have dysregulated RNA splicing machinery and exhibit global rewiring of RNA splicing. We show that the splicing factor SRSF1 controls the plasticity of tumour cells by controlling Kras splicing and is required for CRC invasion in a mouse model of carcinogenesis. SRSF1 expression maintains stemness in human CRC organoids and correlates with cancer stem cell marker expression in human tumours. Crucially, partial genetic downregulation of Srsf1 does not detrimentally affect normal tissue homeostasis, demonstrating that tumour cell plasticity can be differentially targeted. Thus, our findings link dysregulation of the RNA splicing machinery and control of tumour cell plasticity.
  13. Sci Adv. 2022 May 20. 8(20): eabk2746
      Anti-HER2 therapies have markedly improved prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer. However, different mechanisms play a role in treatment resistance. Here, we identified AXL overexpression as an essential mechanism of trastuzumab resistance. AXL orchestrates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and heterodimerizes with HER2, leading to activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways in a ligand-independent manner. Genetic depletion and pharmacological inhibition of AXL restored trastuzumab response in vitro and in vivo. AXL inhibitor plus trastuzumab achieved complete regression in trastuzumab-resistant patient-derived xenograft models. Moreover, AXL expression in HER2-positive primary tumors was able to predict prognosis. Data from the PAMELA trial showed a change in AXL expression during neoadjuvant dual HER2 blockade, supporting its role in resistance. Therefore, our study highlights the importance of targeting AXL in combination with anti-HER2 drugs across HER2-amplified breast cancer patients with high AXL expression. Furthermore, it unveils the potential value of AXL as a druggable prognostic biomarker in HER2-positive breast cancer.
  14. J Clin Invest. 2022 May 17. pii: e145099. [Epub ahead of print]
      Molecularly targeted cancer therapy has improved outcomes for cancer patients with targetable oncoproteins, such as mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung cancer. Yet, long-term patient survival remains limited because treatment responses are typically incomplete. One potential explanation for the lack of complete and durable responses is that oncogene-driven cancers with activating mutations in the EGFR often harbor additional co-occurring genetic alterations. This hypothesis remains untested for most genetic alterations that co-occur with mutant EGFR. Here, we report the functional impact of inactivating genetic alteration of the mRNA splicing factor RBM10 that co-occur with mutant EGFR. RBM10 deficiency decreased EGFR inhibitor efficacy in patient-derived EGFR mutant tumor models. RBM10 modulated mRNA alternative splicing of the mitochondrial apoptotic regulator Bcl-x to regulate tumor cell apoptosis during treatment. Genetic inactivation of RBM10 diminished EGFR inhibitor-mediated apoptosis by decreasing the ratio of Bcl-xS-(pro-apoptotic)-to-Bcl-xL(anti-apoptotic) Bcl-x isoforms. RBM10 deficiency was a biomarker of poor response to EGFR inhibitor treatment in clinical samples. Co-inhibition of Bcl-xL and mutant EGFR overcame resistance induced by RBM10 deficiency. This study sheds light on the role of co-occurring genetic alterations, and on the impact of splicing factor deficiency in the modulation of sensitivity to targeted kinase inhibitor cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Cancer gene therapy; Lung cancer; Oncology; Therapeutics
  15. Nat Commun. 2022 May 19. 13(1): 2793
      Although stromal fibroblasts play a critical role in cancer progression, their identities remain unclear as they exhibit high heterogeneity and plasticity. Here, a master transcription factor (mTF) constructing core-regulatory circuitry, PRRX1, which determines the fibroblast lineage with a myofibroblastic phenotype, is identified for the fibroblast subgroup. PRRX1 orchestrates the functional drift of fibroblasts into myofibroblastic phenotype via TGF-β signaling by remodeling a super-enhancer landscape. Such reprogrammed fibroblasts have myofibroblastic functions resulting in markedly enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of cancer. PRRX1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) has an unfavorable prognosis in multiple cancer types. Fibroblast-specific PRRX1 depletion induces long-term and sustained complete remission of chemotherapy-resistant cancer in genetically engineered mice models. This study reveals CAF subpopulations based on super-enhancer profiles including PRRX1. Therefore, mTFs, including PRRX1, provide another opportunity for establishing a hierarchical classification system of fibroblasts and cancer treatment by targeting fibroblasts.
  16. Nat Commun. 2022 May 19. 13(1): 2757
      Currently, imaging, fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tests are not adequate for the early detection and evaluation of metastasis and recurrence in colorectal cancer (CRC). To comprehensively identify and validate more accurate noninvasive biomarkers in urine, we implement a staged discovery-verification-validation pipeline in 657 urine and 993 tissue samples from healthy controls and CRC patients with a distinct metastatic risk. The generated diagnostic signature combined with the FIT test reveals a significantly increased sensitivity (+21.2% in the training set, +43.7% in the validation set) compared to FIT alone. Moreover, the generated metastatic signature for risk stratification correctly predicts over 50% of CEA-negative metastatic patients. The tissue validation shows that elevated urinary protein biomarkers reflect their alterations in tissue. Here, we show promising urinary protein signatures and provide potential interventional targets to reliably detect CRC, although further multi-center external validation is needed to generalize the findings.
  17. Nat Commun. 2022 May 16. 13(1): 2699
      Metastasis is the most common cause of death in cancer patients. Canonical drugs target mainly the proliferative capacity of cancer cells, which leaves slow-proliferating, persistent cancer cells unaffected. Metabolic determinants that contribute to growth-independent functions are still poorly understood. Here we show that antifolate treatment results in an uncoupled and autarkic mitochondrial one-carbon (1C) metabolism during cytosolic 1C metabolism impairment. Interestingly, antifolate dependent growth-arrest does not correlate with decreased migration capacity. Therefore, using methotrexate as a tool compound allows us to disentangle proliferation and migration to profile the metabolic phenotype of migrating cells. We observe that increased serine de novo synthesis (SSP) supports mitochondrial serine catabolism and inhibition of SSP using the competitive PHGDH-inhibitor BI-4916 reduces cancer cell migration. Furthermore, we show that sole inhibition of mitochondrial serine catabolism does not affect primary breast tumor growth but strongly inhibits pulmonary metastasis. We conclude that mitochondrial 1C metabolism, despite being dispensable for proliferative capacities, confers an advantage to cancer cells by supporting their motility potential.
  18. Cell Rep. 2022 May 17. pii: S2211-1247(22)00585-X. [Epub ahead of print]39(7): 110814
      Small cell lung cancers (SCLCs) have high mutational burden but are relatively unresponsive to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Using SCLC models, we demonstrate that inhibition of WEE1, a G2/M checkpoint regulator induced by DNA damage, activates the STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway, which increases type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) and pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL5), facilitating an immune response via CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration. We further show that WEE1 inhibition concomitantly activates the STAT1 pathway, increasing IFN-γ and PD-L1 expression. Consistent with these findings, combined WEE1 inhibition (AZD1775) and PD-L1 blockade causes remarkable tumor regression, activation of type I and II interferon pathways, and infiltration of cytotoxic T cells in multiple immunocompetent SCLC genetically engineered mouse models, including an aggressive model with stabilized MYC. Our study demonstrates cell-autonomous and immune-stimulating activity of WEE1 inhibition in SCLC models. Combined inhibition of WEE1 plus PD-L1 blockade represents a promising immunotherapeutic approach in SCLC.
    Keywords:  CD8(+) T cells; CP: Cancer; CP: Immunology; PD-L1; SCLC; STAT1 pathway; STING pathway; WEE1 inhibition; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy; interferon
  19. Oncogene. 2022 May 19.
      RIO Kinase 1 (RIOK1) is involved in various pathologies, including cancer. However, the role of RIOK1 in radioresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we reported that RIOK1 was overexpressed in rectal cancer tissue with weaker tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neoCRT). Moreover, higher RIOK1 expression predicted a poor prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Blockade of RIOK1 using Toyocamycin, a pharmacological inhibitor of RIOK1, or by knocking down its expression, decreased the resistance of CRC cells to radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo. A mechanistic study revealed that RIOK1 regulates radioresistance by suppressing the p53 signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that RIOK1 and Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein 2 (G3BP2) interact with each other. RIOK1 phosphorylates G3BP2 at Thr226, which increases the activity of G3BP2. RIOK1-mediated phosphorylation of G3BP2 facilitated ubiquitination of p53 by murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2). Altogether, our study revealed the clinical significance of RIOK1 in CRC, and therapies targeting RIOK1 might alleviate the CRC tumor burden in patients.
  20. Nat Commun. 2022 May 16. 13(1): 2698
      Purine nucleotides are necessary for various biological processes related to cell proliferation. Despite their importance in DNA and RNA synthesis, cellular signaling, and energy-dependent reactions, the impact of changes in cellular purine levels on cell physiology remains poorly understood. Here, we find that purine depletion stimulates cell migration, despite effective reduction in cell proliferation. Blocking purine synthesis triggers a shunt of glycolytic carbon into the serine synthesis pathway, which is required for the induction of cell migration upon purine depletion. The stimulation of cell migration upon a reduction in intracellular purines required one-carbon metabolism downstream of de novo serine synthesis. Decreased purine abundance and the subsequent increase in serine synthesis triggers an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, in cancer models, promotes metastatic colonization. Thus, reducing the available pool of intracellular purines re-routes metabolic flux from glycolysis into de novo serine synthesis, a metabolic change that stimulates a program of cell migration.
  21. Nat Commun. 2022 May 19. 13(1): 2792
      Human tubulin beta class IVa (TUBB4A) is a member of the β-tubulin family. In most normal tissues, expression of TUBB4A is little to none, but it is highly expressed in human prostate cancer. Here we show that high expression levels of TUBB4A are associated with aggressive prostate cancers and poor patient survival, especially for African-American men. Additionally, in prostate cancer cells, TUBB4A knockout (KO) reduces cell growth and migration but induces DNA damage through increased γH2AX and 53BP1. Furthermore, during constricted cell migration, TUBB4A interacts with MYH9 to protect the nucleus, but either TUBB4A KO or MYH9 knockdown leads to severe DNA damage and reduces the NF-κB signaling response. Also, TUBB4A KO retards tumor growth and metastasis. Functional analysis reveals that TUBB4A/GSK3β binds to the N-terminal of MYH9, and that TUBB4A KO reduces MYH9-mediated GSK3β ubiquitination and degradation, leading to decreased activation of β-catenin signaling and its relevant epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Likewise, prostate-specific deletion of Tubb4a reduces spontaneous tumor growth and metastasis via inhibition of NF-κB, cyclin D1, and c-MYC signaling activation. Our results suggest an oncogenic role of TUBB4A and provide a potentially actionable therapeutic target for prostate cancers with TUBB4A overexpression.
  22. Mol Cell. 2022 May 04. pii: S1097-2765(22)00386-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Defects in DNA double-strand break repair are thought to render BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutant tumors selectively sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). Challenging this framework, BRCA and PARP1 share functions in DNA synthesis on the lagging strand. Thus, BRCA deficiency or "BRCAness" could reflect an inherent lagging strand problem that is vulnerable to drugs such as PARPi that also target the lagging strand, a combination that generates a toxic accumulation of replication gaps.
    Keywords:  BRCA cancer; PARP inhibitor; cancer therapy; chemoresistance; single-stranded DNA; synthetic lethality