bims-tubesc Biomed News
on Molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis
Issue of 2021‒06‒20
fourteen papers selected by
Marti Cadena Sandoval

  1. Nat Commun. 2021 06 16. 12(1): 3653
      The Mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway controls several aspects of neuronal development. Mutations in regulators of mTORC1, such as Tsc1 and Tsc2, lead to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with autism, intellectual disabilities and epilepsy. The correct development of inhibitory interneurons is crucial for functional circuits. In particular, the axonal arborisation and synapse density of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons change in the postnatal brain. How and whether mTORC1 signaling affects PV cell development is unknown. Here, we show that Tsc1 haploinsufficiency causes a premature increase in terminal axonal branching and bouton density formed by mutant PV cells, followed by a loss of perisomatic innervation in adult mice. PV cell-restricted Tsc1 haploinsufficient and knockout mice show deficits in social behavior. Finally, we identify a sensitive period during the third postnatal week during which treatment with the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin rescues deficits in both PV cell innervation and social behavior in adult conditional haploinsufficient mice. Our findings reveal a role of mTORC1 signaling in the regulation of the developmental time course and maintenance of cortical PV cell connectivity and support a mechanistic basis for the targeted rescue of autism-related behaviors in disorders associated with deregulated mTORC1 signaling.
  2. J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech. 2021 Jun;7(2): 364-367
      Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant multisystem neurocutaneous genetic condition. It is characterized by TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, epilepsy, tumors, and angiomyolipoma in multiple organs, such as the skin, lungs, and kidneys. TSC is also associated with the development of aneurysms of the medium and large arteries, including the renal arteries. This condition will usually be diagnosed early in life, and active surveillance is required of tumor and aneurysm growth to prevent life-threatening events. We have presented the case of a 41-year-old patient with TSC that had not been previously diagnosed. The patient had presented with retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to the rupture of two left renal artery branch aneurysms that had likely developed within the angiomyolipoma.
    Keywords:  Autosomal dominant; Coil embolization; Postembolization syndrome; Renal artery aneurysm; Tuberous sclerosis
  3. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2021 Jun 14. 16(1): 277
      BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and health economics of sequential everolimus in treating angiomyolipoma (AML) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients met the inclusion criteria received standard or sequential treatment according to their willingness. All patients received an initial dose of everolimus (10 mg oral, once a day) for 3 months. The standard treatment group maintained 10 mg QD for 12 months, while the sequential treatment group reduced the dose to 5 mg QD from the 4th month. The efficacy, serum everolimus concentration and safety were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with confirmed angiomyolipoma response of at least a 50% reduction in the total volume of target AML relative to baseline.
    RESULTS: Between June 1, 2016 and June 1, 2017, a total of 53 patients were included. Twenty-three patients received standard treatment, 30 patients received sequential treatment. At 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment, the proportion of patients whose total target tumor volume decreased by ≥ 50% from baseline was 39.1% versus 36.7%, 43.5% versus 56.7%, 47.8% versus 50%, 47.8% versus 60% and 47.8% versus 23.3% respectively (P > 0.05 for all). The overall response rate of skin lesions in the two groups was 40.4%, and the response rates of skin lesions at different times were similar for two groups (P > 0.05 for all). Major adverse effects (AEs) included mouth ulceration, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, menstrual disorders. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of AEs at 3 months after treatment. The incidence of overall and grade 3/4 AEs at 12 months after treatment were significantly lower in the sequential treatment group. The average direct cost of the two groups in 12 months was $15,466 and $11,120, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to standard treatment, sequential treatment was equally effective, with a lower incidence of adverse events and a lower direct cost, suggesting that it may be an alternative treatment for AML associated with TSC.
    Keywords:  Angiomyolipoma; Everolimus; Mammalian target of rapamyoin; Mutation; Tuberous sclerosis complex
  4. Cureus. 2021 May 12. 13(5): e14987
      Tuberous sclerosis complex is known to cause a variety of cutaneous hamartomas, most commonly hypomelanotic macules, angiofibromas, shagreen patches, and fibrous cephalic plaques. In recent years, a new cutaneous hamartoma that bears physical and histological resemblance to fibrous cephalic plaque has been proposed called folliculocystic and collagen hamartoma. The primary difference between the two diagnoses is the histologic presence of infundibular cysts in the latter. However, some authors have called into question if the two diagnoses are truly distinct. In this case report, we present a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex and fibrous cephalic plaque with infundibular cysts and propose that the presence of cysts should be incorporated into the possible histologic features of fibrous cephalic plaque.
    Keywords:  fibrous cephalic plaque; folliculocystic and collagen hamartoma; hamartoma; tuberous sclerosis complex
  5. Cureus. 2021 May 11. 13(5): e14951
      Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors with a natural history ranging from indolent benign lesions to ones with an aggressive clinical course including distant metastases. Recent reports have suggested that mTOR inhibitor sirolimus and related drugs show some benefit in non-tuberous sclerosis complex PEComas. However, therapeutic options for patients who progress on sirolimus are very limited. We describe a patient with metastatic uterine PEComa, who progressed on mTOR inhibitor everolimus but had a rapid and durable response to nab-sirolimus.
    Keywords:  gynecological cancer; pecoma; pharmacology and therapeutics
  6. Epilepsia. 2021 Jun 14.
      OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) during the first few months of life is challenging and necessitates aggressive treatment, including surgery. Because the most common causes of DRE in infancy are related to extensive developmental anomalies, surgery often entails extensive tissue resections or disconnection. The literature on "ultra-early" epilepsy surgery is sparse, with limited data concerning efficacy controlling the seizures, and safety. The current study's goal is to review the safety and efficacy of ultra-early epilepsy surgery performed before the age of 3 months.METHODS: To achieve a large sample size and external validity, a multinational, multicenter retrospective study was performed, focusing on epilepsy surgery for infants younger than 3 months of age. Collected data included epilepsy characteristics, surgical details, epilepsy outcome, and complications.
    RESULTS: Sixty-four patients underwent 69 surgeries before the age of 3 months. The most common pathologies were cortical dysplasia (28), hemimegalencephaly (17), and tubers (5). The most common procedures were hemispheric surgeries (48 procedures). Two cases were intentionally staged, and one was unexpectedly aborted. Nearly all patients received blood products. There were no perioperative deaths and no major unexpected permanent morbidities. Twenty-five percent of patients undergoing hemispheric surgeries developed hydrocephalus. Excellent epilepsy outcome (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] grade I) was achieved in 66% of cases over a median follow-up of 41 months (19-104 interquartile range [IQR]). The number of antiseizure medications was significantly reduced (median 2 drugs, 1-3 IQR, p < .0001). Outcome was not significantly associated with the type of surgery (hemispheric or more limited resections).
    SIGNIFICANCE: Epilepsy surgery during the first few months of life is associated with excellent seizure control, and when performed by highly experienced teams, is not associated with more permanent morbidity than surgery in older infants. Thus surgical treatment should not be postponed to treat DRE in very young infants based on their age.
    Keywords:  epilepsy surgery; hemispherotomy; infants; neonatal seizures; safety; seizure control; very early
  7. Brain. 2021 Jun 18. pii: awab233. [Epub ahead of print]
      To evaluate the diagnostic value of genome sequencing in children with epilepsy, and to provide genome sequencing-based insights into the molecular genetic mechanisms of epilepsy to help establish accurate diagnoses, design appropriate treatments, and assist in genetic counseling. We performed genome sequencing on 320 Chinese children with epilepsy, and interpreted single nucleotide variants and copy number variants of all samples. The complete pedigree and clinical data of the probands were established and followed up. The clinical phenotypes, treatments, prognoses, and genotypes of the patients were analyzed. Age at seizure onset ranged from 1 day to 17 years, with a median of 4.3 years. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were found in 117 of the 320 children (36.6%), of whom 93 (29.1%) had single nucleotide variants, 22 (6.9%) had copy number variants, and 2 had both single nucleotide variants and copy number variants. Single nucleotide variants were most frequently found in SCN1A (10/95, 10.5%), which is associated with Dravet syndrome, followed by PRRT2 (8/95, 8.4%), which is associated with benign familial infantile epilepsy, and TSC2 (7/95, 7.4%), which is associated with tuberous sclerosis. Among the copy number variants, there were 3 with a length < 25Kb. The most common recurrent copy number variants were 17p13.3 deletions (5/24, 20.8%), 16p11.2 deletions (4/24, 16.7%), and 7q11.23 duplications (2/24, 8.3%), which are associated with epilepsy, developmental retardation, and congenital abnormalities. Four particular 16p11.2 deletions and two 15q11.2 deletions were considered to be susceptibility factors contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders associated with epilepsy. The diagnostic yield was 75.0% in patients with seizure onset during the first postnatal month, and gradually decreased in patients with seizure onset at a later age. Forty-two patients (13.1%) were found to be specifically treatable for the underlying genetic cause identified by genome sequencing. Three of them received corresponding targeted therapies and demonstrated favorable prognoses. Genome sequencing provides complete genetic diagnosis, thus enabling individualized treatment and genetic counseling for the parents of the patients. Genome sequencing is expected to become the first choice of methods for genetic testing of patients with epilepsy.
    Keywords:  copy number variants; epilepsy; genome sequencing; seizure; single nucleotide variants
  8. Mod Pathol. 2021 Jun 15.
      Uterine PEComas often present a diagnostic challenge as they share morphological and immunohistochemical features with smooth muscle tumors. Herein we evaluated a series of 19 uterine PEComas to compare the degree of melanocytic marker expression with their molecular profile. Patients ranged from 32-77 (median 48) years, with six tumors classified as malignant based on the modified gynecologic-specific prognostic algorithm. All patients with malignant PEComas were alive with disease or dead  of disease at last follow-up, while all those of uncertain malignant potential were alive and well (median follow-up, 47 months).Seventeen of 19 (89%) PEComas harbored either a TSC1 or TSC2 alteration. One of the two remaining tumors showed a TFE3 rearrangement, but the other lacked alterations in all genes evaluated. All showed at least focal (usually strong) positivity for HMB-45, with 15/19 (79%) having >50% expression, while the tumor lacking TSC or TFE3 alterations was strongly positive in 10% of cells. Melan-A and MiTF were each positive in 15/19 (79%) tumors, but staining extent and intensity were much more variable than HMB-45. Five of six (83%) malignant PEComas also harbored alterations in TP53, ATRX, or RB1, findings not identified in any tumors of uncertain malignant potential. One malignant PEComa was microsatellite-unstable/mismatch repair protein-deficient.In summary, TSC alterations/TFE3 fusions and diffuse (>50%) HMB-45 expression are characteristic of uterine PEComas. In morphologically ambiguous mesenchymal neoplasms with myomelanocytic differentiation, especially those with metastatic or recurrent disease, next-generation sequencing is recommended to evaluate for TSC alterations; as such, patients can be eligible for targeted therapy.
  9. Nat Commun. 2021 06 16. 12(1): 3660
      The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates cellular nutrient signaling and hormonal cues to control metabolism. We have previously shown that constitutive nutrient signaling to mTORC1 by means of genetic activation of RagA (expression of GTP-locked RagA, or RagAGTP) in mice resulted in a fatal energetic crisis at birth. Herein, we rescue neonatal lethality in RagAGTP mice and find morphometric and metabolic alterations that span glucose, lipid, ketone, bile acid and amino acid homeostasis in adults, and a median lifespan of nine months. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of livers from RagAGTP mice reveal a failed metabolic adaptation to fasting due to a global impairment in PPARα transcriptional program. These metabolic defects are partially recapitulated by restricting activation of RagA to hepatocytes, and revert by pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1. Constitutive hepatic nutrient signaling does not cause hepatocellular damage and carcinomas, unlike genetic activation of growth factor signaling upstream of mTORC1. In summary, RagA signaling dictates dynamic responses to feeding-fasting cycles to tune metabolism so as to match the nutritional state.
  10. Mol Omics. 2021 Jun 18.
      Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer with very little treatment options. TNBC is very heterogeneous with large alterations in the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic landscapes leading to various subtypes with differing responses to therapeutic treatments. We applied a multi-omics data integration method to evaluate the correlation of important regulatory features in TNBC BRCA1 wild-type MDA-MB-231 and TNBC BRCA1 5382insC mutated HCC1937 cells compared with non-tumorigenic epithelial breast MCF10A cells. The data includes DNA methylation, RNAseq, protein, phosphoproteomics, and histone post-translational modification. Data integration methods identified regulatory features from each omics method that had greater than 80% positive correlation within each TNBC subtype. Key regulatory features at each omics level were identified distinguishing the three cell lines and were involved in important cancer related pathways such as TGFβ signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We observed overexpression of PTEN, which antagonizes the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and MYC, which downregulates the same pathway in the HCC1937 cells relative to the MDA-MB-231 cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways are both downregulated in HCC1937 cells relative to MDA-MB-231 cells, which likely explains the divergent sensitivities of these cell lines to inhibitors of downstream signaling pathways. The DNA methylation and RNAseq data is freely available via GEO GSE171958 and the proteomics data is available via the ProteomeXchange PXD025238.
  11. Bio Protoc. 2021 Apr 20. 11(8): e3989
      Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls many crucial cellular functions, including protein synthesis, cell size, energy metabolism, lysosome and mitochondria biogenesis, and autophagy. Consequently, deregulation of mTOR signaling plays a role in numerous pathological conditions such as cancer, metabolic disorders and neurological diseases. Developing new tools to monitor mTOR spatiotemporal activation is crucial to better understand its roles in physiological and pathological conditions. However, the most widely used method to report mTOR activity relies on the quantification of specific mTOR-phosphorylated substrates by western blot. This approach requires cellular lysate preparation, which restricts the quantification to a single time point. Here, we present a simple protocol to study mTOR activity in living cells in real time using AIMTOR, an intramolecular BRET-based (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) biosensor that we recently designed ( Bouquier et al., 2020 ). We describe transfection of AIMTOR in the C2C12 cell line and procedures to monitor BRET in a cell population using a plate reader and in single cells by microscopy. Importantly, this protocol is transposable to any cell line and primary cells. In addition, several subcellular compartment-specific versions of AIMTOR have been developed, enabling compartmentalized assessment of mTOR activity. This protocol describes how to use the sensitive AIMTOR biosensor to investigate mTOR signaling dynamics in living cells. Graphic abstract: AIMTOR protocol overview from seeding cells to live BRET recording.
    Keywords:  BRET; Kinase activity; Living cells; Real time imaging; mTOR signaling; mTORC1 biosensor
  12. JCI Insight. 2021 Jun 17. pii: 137708. [Epub ahead of print]
      The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly lethal condition that impairs lung function and causes respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation maintains gas exchange in patients with ARDS, but exposes lung cells to physical forces that exacerbate lung injury. Our data demonstrate that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a mechanosensor in lung epithelial cells and that activation of this pathway during mechanical ventilation impairs lung function. We found that mTORC1 is activated in lung epithelial cells following volutrauma and atelectrauma in mice and humanized in vitro models of the lung microenvironment. mTORC1 is also activated in lung tissue of mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. Deletion of Tsc2, a negative regulator of mTORC1, in epithelial cells impairs lung compliance during mechanical ventilation. Conversely, treatment with rapamycin at the time mechanical ventilation is initiated improves lung compliance without altering lung inflammation or barrier permeability. mTORC1 inhibition mitigates physiologic lung injury by preventing surfactant dysfunction during mechanical ventilation. Our data demonstrate that in contrast to canonical mTORC1 activation under favorable growth conditions, activation of mTORC1 during mechanical ventilation exacerbates lung injury and inhibition of this pathway may be a novel therapeutic target to mitigate ventilator-induced lung injury during ARDS.
    Keywords:  Pulmonary surfactants; Pulmonology; Signal transduction
  13. Front Genet. 2021 ;12 667283
      Discovered in 2009, the DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein, DEPTOR, is a known regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved kinase that regulates diverse cellular processes in response to environmental stimuli. DEPTOR was originally identified as a negative regulator of mTOR complexes 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). However, recent discoveries have started to unravel the roles of DEPTOR in mTOR-independent responses. In the past few years, mTOR emerged as an important regulator of skeletal development, growth, and homeostasis; the dysregulation of its activity contributes to the development of several skeletal diseases, both chronic and genetic. Even more recently, several groups have reported on the relevance of DEPTOR in skeletal biology through its action on mTOR-dependent and mTOR-independent pathways. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of DEPTOR in skeletal development and disease.
    Keywords:  DEPTOR; bone; cartilage; mTOR; skeleton
  14. Commun Biol. 2021 Jun 14. 4(1): 736
      Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a pathological hallmark of more than 20 distinct neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and frontotemporal dementia. While the exact mechanism of tau aggregation is unknown, the accumulation of aggregates correlates with disease progression. Here we report a genome-wide CRISPR screen to identify modulators of endogenous tau protein for the first time. Primary screens performed in SH-SY5Y cells, identified positive and negative regulators of tau protein levels. Hit validation of the top 43 candidate genes was performed using Ngn2-induced human cortical excitatory neurons. Using this approach, genes and pathways involved in modulation of endogenous tau levels were identified, including chromatin modifying enzymes, neddylation and ubiquitin pathway members, and components of the mTOR pathway. TSC1, a critical component of the mTOR pathway, was further validated in vivo, demonstrating the relevance of this screening strategy. These findings may have implications for treating neurodegenerative diseases in the future.