bims-tremyl Biomed News
on Therapy resistance biology in myeloid leukemia
Issue of 2020‒10‒18
twenty-one papers selected by
Paolo Gallipoli
Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London


  1. Blood Adv. 2020 Oct 13. 4(19): 4945-4954
    Voso MT, Larson RA, Jones D, Marcucci G, Prior T, Krauter J, Heuser M, Lavorgna S, Nomdedeu J, Geyer SM, Walker A, Wei AH, Sierra J, Sanz MA, Brandwein JM, de Witte TM, Jansen JH, Niederwieser D, Appelbaum FR, Medeiros BC, Tallman MS, Schlenk RF, Ganser A, Amadori S, Cheng Y, Chen Y, Pallaud C, Du L, Piciocchi A, Ehninger G, Byrd J, Thiede C, Döhner K, Stone RM, Döhner H, Bloomfield CD, Lo-Coco F.
      The results from the RATIFY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00651261; CALGB 10603) showed that midostaurin combined with standard chemotherapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), compared with placebo. In this post hoc subgroup analysis from the trial, we evaluated the impact of midostaurin in 163 patients with FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations. At a median follow-up of 60.7 months (95% CI, 55.0-70.8), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was significantly higher in patients treated with midostaurin than in those treated with placebo (45.2% vs 30.1%; P = .044). A trend toward improved disease-free survival was also observed with midostaurin (67.3% vs 53.4%; P = .089), whereas overall survival (OS) was similar in the 2 groups. Patients with AML and NPM1mut/FLT3-TKDmut or core binding factor (CBF)-rearranged/FLT3-TKDmut genotypes had significantly prolonged OS with or without censoring at hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), compared with NPM1WT/CBF-negative AMLs. The multivariable model for OS and EFS adjusted for allogeneic HCT in first complete remission as a time-dependent covariable, revealed NPM1 mutations and CBF rearrangements as significant favorable factors. These data show that NPM1 mutations or CBF rearrangements identify favorable prognostic groups in patients with FLT3-TKD AMLs, independent of other factors, also in the context of midostaurin treatment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002904
  2. Haematologica. 2019 Nov 07. 105(9): 2286-2297
    Jianbiao Zhou , Jessie Yiying Quah , Yvonne Ng , Jing-Yuan Chooi , Sabrina Hui-Min Toh , Baohong Lin , Tuan Zea Tan , Hiroki Hosoi , Motomi Osato , Qihui Seet , A G Lisa Ooi , Bertil Lindmark , Mark McHale , Wee-Joo Chng .
      Differentiation therapies achieve remarkable success in acute promyelocytic leukemia, a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. However, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, clinical benefits of differentiation therapies are negligible in acute myeloid leukemia except for mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase catalyses the fourth step of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. ASLAN003 is a highly potent dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor that induces differentiation, as well as reduces cell proliferation and viability, of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia blasts including in chemo-resistant cells. Apoptotic pathways are triggered by ASLAN003, and it also significantly inhibits protein synthesis and activates AP-1 transcription, contributing to its differentiation promoting capacity. Finally, ASLAN003 substantially reduces leukemic burden and prolongs survival in acute myeloid leukemia xenograft mice and acute myeloid leukemia patient-derived xenograft models. Notably, the drug has no evident effect on normal hematopoietic cells and exhibits excellent safety profiles in mice, even after a prolonged period of administration. Our results, therefore, suggest that ASLAN003 is an agent targeting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase with potential in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. ASLAN003 is currently being evaluated in phase 2a clinical trial in acute myeloid leukemia patients.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.230482
  3. Haematologica. 2020 Oct 13. Online ahead of print
    Zalmaï L, Viailly PJ, Biichle S, Cheok M, Soret L, Angelot-Delettre F, Petrella T, Collonge-Rame MA, Seilles E, Geffroy S, Deconinck E, Daguindau E, Bouyer S, Dindinaud E, Baunin V, Le Garff-Tavernier M, Roos-Weil D, Wagner-Ballon O, Salaun V, Feuillard J, Brun S, Drenou B, Mayeur-Rousse C, Okamba P, Dorvaux V, Tichionni M, Rose J, Rubio MT, Jacob MC, Raggueneau V, Preudhomme C, Saas P, Ferrand C, Adotevi O, Roumier C, Jardin F, Garnache-Ottou F, Renosi F.
      Neoplasms involving plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) include Blastic pDC Neoplasms (BPDCN) and other pDC proliferations, where pDCs are associated with myeloid malignancies: most frequently Chronic MyeloMonocytic Leukemia (CMML) but also Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), hereafter named pDC-AML. We aimed to determine the reactive or neoplastic origin of pDCs in pDC-AML, and their link with the CD34+ blasts, monocytes or conventional DCs (cDCs) associated in the same sample, by phenotypic and molecular analyses (targeted NGS, 70 genes). We compared 15 pDC-AML at diagnosis with 21 BPDCN and 11 normal pDCs from healthy donors. CD45low CD34+ blasts were found in all cases (10-80% of medullar cells), associated with pDCs (4-36%), monocytes in 14 cases (1-10%) and cDCs (2 cases, 4.8-19%). pDCs in pDC-AML harbor a clearly different phenotype from BPDCN: CD4+ CD56- in 100% of cases, most frequently CD303+, CD304+ and CD34+; lower expression of cTCL1 and CD123 with isolated lymphoid markers (CD22/CD7/CD5) in some cases, suggesting a pre-pDC stage. In all cases, pDCs, monocytes and cDC are neoplastic since they harbor the same mutations as CD34+ blasts. RUNX1 is the most commonly mutated gene: detected in all AML with minimal differentiation (M0-AML) but not in the other cases. Despite low number of cases, the systematic association between M0-AML, RUNX1 mutations and an excess of pDC is puzzling. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is required to confirm RUNX1 mutations in pDC-AML with minimal differentiation and to investigate whether it represents a proliferation of blasts with macrophage and DC progenitor potential.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.253740
  4. Blood Adv. 2020 Oct 27. 4(20): 5011-5024
    Vadakekolathu J, Lai C, Reeder S, Church SE, Hood T, Lourdusamy A, Rettig MP, Aldoss I, Advani AS, Godwin J, Wieduwilt MJ, Arellano M, Muth J, Yau TO, Ravandi F, Sweet K, Altmann H, Foulds GA, Stölzel F, Middeke JM, Ciciarello M, Curti A, Valk PJM, Löwenberg B, Gojo I, Bornhäuser M, DiPersio JF, Davidson-Moncada JK, Rutella S.
      Somatic TP53 mutations and 17p deletions with genomic loss of TP53 occur in 37% to 46% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with adverse-risk cytogenetics and correlate with primary induction failure, high risk of relapse, and dismal prognosis. Herein, we aimed to characterize the immune landscape of TP53-mutated AML and determine whether TP53 abnormalities identify a patient subgroup that may benefit from immunotherapy with flotetuzumab, an investigational CD123 × CD3 bispecific dual-affinity retargeting antibody (DART) molecule. The NanoString PanCancer IO360 assay was used to profile 64 diagnostic bone marrow (BM) samples from patients with TP53-mutated (n = 42) and TP53-wild-type (TP53-WT) AML (n = 22) and 45 BM samples from patients who received flotetuzumab for relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML (15 cases with TP53 mutations and/or 17p deletion). The comparison between TP53-mutated and TP53-WT primary BM samples showed higher expression of IFNG, FOXP3, immune checkpoints, markers of immune senescence, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and NF-κB signaling intermediates in the former cohort and allowed the discovery of a 34-gene immune classifier prognostic for survival in independent validation series. Finally, 7 out of 15 patients (47%) with R/R AML and TP53 abnormalities showed complete responses to flotetuzumab (<5% BM blasts) on the CP-MGD006-01 clinical trial (NCT #02152956) and had significantly higher tumor inflammation signature, FOXP3, CD8, inflammatory chemokine, and PD1 gene expression scores at baseline compared with nonresponders. Patients with TP53 abnormalities who achieved a complete response experienced prolonged survival (median, 10.3 months; range, 3.3-21.3 months). These results encourage further study of flotetuzumab immunotherapy in patients with TP53-mutated AML.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002512
  5. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(10): e0240120
    Nagel S, Pommerenke C, Meyer C, MacLeod RAF, Drexler HG.
      The NKL-code describes normal expression patterns of NKL homeobox genes in hematopoiesis. Aberrant expression of NKL homeobox gene subclass members have been reported in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we analyzed the oncogenic role of the HMX-group of NKL homeobox genes in AML. Public expression profiling data-available for HMX1 and HMX2-indicate aberrant activity of HMX2 in circa 2% AML patients overall, rising to 31% in those with KMT2A/MLL rearrangements whereas HMX1 expression remains inconspicuous. AML cell lines EOL-1, MV4-11 and MOLM-13 expressed both, HMX2 and neighboring HMX3 genes, and harbored KMT2A aberrations, suggesting their potential functional association. Surprisingly, knockdown experiments in these cell lines demonstrated that KMT2A inhibited HMX2/3 which, in turn, did not regulate KMT2A expression. Furthermore, karyotyping and genomic profiling analysis excluded rearrangements of the HMX2/3 locus in these cell lines. However, comparative expression profiling and subsequent functional analyses revealed that IRF8, IL7- and WNT-signalling activated HMX2/3 expression while TNFa/NFkB- signalling proved inhibitory. Whole genome sequencing of EOL-1 identified two mutations in the regulatory upstream regions of HMX2/3 resulting in generation of a consensus ETS-site and transformation of a former NFkB-site into an SP1-site. Reporter-gene assays demonstrated that both mutations contributed to HMX2/3 activation, modifying ETS1/ELK1- and TNFalpha-mediated gene regulation. Moreover, DMSO-induced eosinophilic differentiation of EOL-1 cells coincided with HMX2/3 downregulation while knockdown of HMX2 induced cell differentiation, collectively supporting a fundamental role for these genes in myeloid differentiation arrest. Finally, target genes of HMX2/3 were identified in EOL-1 and included suppression of differentiation gene EPX, and activation of fusion gene FIP1L1-PDGFRA and receptor-encoding gene HTR7, both of which enhanced oncogenic ERK-signalling. Taken together, our study documents a leukemic role for deregulated NKL homeobox genes HMX2 and HMX3 in AML, revealing molecular mechanisms of myeloid differentiation arrest.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240120
  6. Haematologica. 2019 Sep 26. 105(9): 2273-2285
    James Ropa , Nirmalya Saha , Hsiangyu Hu , Luke F Peterson , Moshe Talpaz , Andrew G Muntean .
      Epigenetic regulators play a critical role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Deregulation, including epigenetic deregulation, of the HOXA gene cluster drives transformation of about 50% of acute myeloid leukemia. We recently showed that the Histone 3 Lysine 9 methyltransferase SETDB1 negatively regulates the expression of the pro-leukemic genes Hoxa9 and its cofactor Meis1 through deposition of promoter H3K9 trimethylation in MLL-AF9 leukemia cells. Here, we investigated the biological impact of altered SETDB1 expression and changes in H3K9 methylation on acute myeloid leukemia. We demonstrate that SETDB1 expression is correlated to disease status and overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients. We recapitulated these findings in mice, where high expression of SETDB1 delayed MLL-AF9 mediated disease progression by promoting differentiation of leukemia cells. We also explored the biological impact of treating normal and malignant hematopoietic cells with an H3K9 methyltransferase inhibitor, UNC0638. While myeloid leukemia cells demonstrate cytotoxicity to UNC0638 treatment, normal bone marrow cells exhibit an expansion of cKit+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Consistent with these data, we show that bone marrow treated with UNC0638 is more amenable to transformation by MLL-AF9. Next generation sequencing of leukemia cells shows that high expression of SETDB1 induces repressive changes to the promoter epigenome and downregulation of genes linked with acute myeloid leukemia, including Dock1 and the MLL-AF9 target genes Hoxa9, Six1, and others. These data reveal novel targets of SETDB1 in leukemia that point to a role for SETDB1 in negatively regulating pro-leukemic target genes and suppressing acute myeloid leukemia.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.223883
  7. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Oct 12. pii: E2933. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
    Mouchel PL, Serhan N, Betous R, Farge T, Saland E, De Medina P, Hoffmann JS, Sarry JE, Poirot M, Silvente-Poirot S, Récher C.
      Dendrogenin A (DDA), a mammalian cholesterol metabolite with tumor suppressor properties, has recently been shown to exhibit strong anti-leukemic activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by triggering lethal autophagy. Here, we demonstrated that DDA synergistically enhanced the toxicity of anthracyclines in AML cells but not in normal hematopoietic cells. Combination index of DDA treatment with either daunorubicin or idarubicin indicated a strong synergism in KG1a, KG1 and MV4-11 cell lines. This was confirmed in vivo using immunodeficient mice engrafted with MOLM-14 cells as well as in a panel of 20 genetically diverse AML patient samples. This effect was dependent on Liver X Receptor β, a major target of DDA. Furthermore, DDA plus idarubicin strongly increased p53BP1 expression and the number of DNA strand breaks in alkaline comet assays as compared to idarubicin alone, whereas DDA alone was non-genotoxic. Mechanistically, DDA induced JNK phosphorylation and the inhibition of AKT phosphorylation, thereby maximizing DNA damage induced by idarubicin and decreasing DNA repair. This activated autophagic cell death machinery in AML cells. Overall, this study shows that the combination of DDA and idarubicin is highly promising and supports clinical trials of dendrogenin A in AML patients.
    Keywords:  AML; CLDX; DDA; DNA damage; LXR; anthracycline; autophagy; dendrogenin A; primary sample; synergy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102933
  8. Leuk Lymphoma. 2020 Oct 12. 1-8
    Willekens C, Rahme R, Duchmann M, Vidal V, Saada V, Broutin S, Delahousse J, Renneville A, Marceau A, Clappier E, Uzunov M, Rossignol J, Pascal L, Simon L, Micol JB, Pasquier F, Raffoux E, Preudhomme C, Quivoron C, Itzykson R, Penard-Lacronique V, Paci A, Fenaux P, Attar EC, Frattini M, Braun T, Ades L, De Botton S.
      Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and 2 (IDH2) mutations in Myeloid Neoplams (MNs) exhibit DNA hypermethylation via 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) over-production. Clinical impact of azacitidine (AZA) remains inconsistent in IDH1/2-mutated MNs and the potential of serum 2HG as a suitable marker of response to AZA is unknown. To address these questions, we retrospectively analyzed 93 MNs patients (78 AML, 11 MDS, 4 CMML) with IDH1/2 mutations treated with AZA. After a median of 5 cycles of AZA, overall response rate was 28% (including 15% complete remission) and median OS was 12.3 months (significantly shorter in AML compared to MDS/CMML patients). In multivariate analysis of AML patients, DNMT3A mutation was associated with shorter OS while IDH1/2 mutation subtypes had no independent impact. No difference was observed in serum 2HG levels upon AZA treatment between responding and refractory patients suggesting that serum 2HG cannot be used as a surrogate marker of AZA response.
    Keywords:  2-hydroxyglutarate; Acute myeloid leukemia; IDH1; IDH2; azacitidine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1832661
  9. Haematologica. 2019 Nov 07. 105(10): 2420-2431
    Debora Soncini , Stefania Orecchioni , Samantha Ruberti , Paola Minetto , Claudia Martinuzzi , Luca Agnelli , Katia Todoerti , Antonia Cagnetta , Maurizio Miglino , Marino Clavio , Paola Contini , Riccardo Varaldo , Micaela Bergamaschi , Fabio Guolo , Mario Passalacqua , Alessio Nencioni , Fiammetta Monacelli , Marco Gobbi , Antonino Neri , Giovanni Abbadessa , Sudharshan Eathiraj , Brian Schwartz , Francesco Bertolini , Roberto M Lemoli , Michele Cea .
      Tyrosine kinases have been implicated in promoting tumorigenesis of several human cancers. Exploiting these vulnerabilities has been shown to be an effective anti-tumor strategy as demonstrated for example by the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, ibrutinib, for treatment of various blood cancers. Here, we characterize a new multiple kinase inhibitor, ARQ531, and evaluate its mechanism of action in preclinical models of acute myeloid leukemia. Treatment with ARQ531, by producing global signaling pathway deregulation, resulted in impaired cell cycle progression and survival in a large panel of leukemia cell lines and patient-derived tumor cells, regardless of the specific genetic background and/or the presence of bone marrow stromal cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that ARQ531 constrained tumor cell proliferation and survival through Bruton's tyrosine kinase and transcriptional program dysregulation, with proteasome-mediated MYB degradation and depletion of short-lived proteins that are crucial for tumor growth and survival, including ERK, MYC and MCL1. Finally, ARQ531 treatment was effective in a patient-derived leukemia mouse model with significant impairment of tumor progression and survival, at tolerated doses. These data justify the clinical development of ARQ531 as a promising targeted agent for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.224956
  10. Int J Hematol. 2020 Oct 17.
    Nakatani K, Matsuo H, Harata Y, Higashitani M, Koyama A, Noura M, Nishinaka-Arai Y, Kamikubo Y, Adachi S.
      The t(8;21) translocation is the most common cytogenetic abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although t(8;21) AML patients have a relatively favorable prognosis, relapse is a frequent occurrence, underscoring the need to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we showed that t(8;21) AML is characterized by frequent mutation and overexpression of CCND2. Analysis of 19 AML cell lines showed that t(8;21) AML cells had lower IC50 values for the selective CDK4/6 inhibitors palbociclib and abemaciclib than non-t(8;21) AML cells. CDK4/6 inhibitors caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and impaired cell proliferation in t(8;21) AML cells. CDK4/6 inhibition decreased MAP-ERK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway activity, induced LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion, and enhanced autophagosome formation, suggesting autophagy induction. Treatment of t(8;21) AML cells with the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) or LY294002 in combination with the CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic (Annexin V positive) cells, whereas CQ or LY294002 single treatment had no significant effects. The effectiveness of co-inhibiting CDK4/6 and autophagy was confirmed in primary t(8;21) AML cells. The results suggest that the combination of CDK4/6 and autophagy inhibitors had a synergistic effect on inducing apoptosis, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of t(8;21) AML.
    Keywords:  Acute myeloid leukemia; Autophagy; CDK4/6; Cyclin D2; t(8;21)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03015-4
  11. Haematologica. 2020 Oct 09. Online ahead of print 1-13
    Madan V, Koeffler HP.
      Acute myeloid leukemia is characterized by arrested differentiation, and agents that overcome this block are therapeutically useful, as shown by the efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the early promise of differentiation therapy did not translate into clinical benefit for other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia, in which cytotoxic chemotherapeutic regimens remained the standard of care. Recent advances, including insights from sequencing of acute myeloid leukemia genomes, have led to the development of targeted therapies, comprising agents that induce differentiation of leukemic cells in preclinical models and clinical trials, thus rejuvenating interest in differentiation therapy. These agents act on various cellular processes including dysregulated metabolic programs, signaling pathways, epigenetic machinery and the cell cycle. In particular, inhibitors of mutant IDH1/2 and FLT3 have shown clinical benefit, leading to approval by regulatory bodies of their use. Besides the focus on recently approved differentiation therapies, this review also provides an overview of differentiation- inducing agents being tested in clinical trials or investigated in preclinical research. Combinatorial strategies are currently being tested for several agents (inhibitors of KDM1A, DOT1L, BET proteins, histone deacetylases), which were not effective in clinical studies as single agents, despite encouraging anti-leukemic activity observed in preclinical models. Overall, recently approved drugs and new investigational agents being developed highlight the merits of differentiation therapy; and ongoing studies promise further advances in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in the near future.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.262121
  12. Leuk Res. 2020 Sep 16. pii: S0145-2126(20)30158-2. [Epub ahead of print]98 106453
    Menghrajani K, Zhang Y, Famulare C, Devlin SM, Tallman MS.
      We described the clinical features and outcomes for 63 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a translocation involving the 11q23 locus (MLL) who were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK). The population included 40 female (63 %) and 23 male (37 %) patients, with a median age of 51 years old (range 18-82 years). Of the 31 patients who had had an antecedent malignancy, 14 (45 %) had had breast cancer or DCIS and 22 (71 %) had received anthracycline-based systemic chemotherapy. The translocation partner for the 11q23 rearrangement was identified in 60 of the 63 patients (95 %) studied. The distribution of translocation partners differed for those who had previously received cytotoxic chemotherapy. Most patients with therapy-related disease had a 9p22 or 19p13 partner, as compared to those with de novo disease (95 % vs. 68 %, p = 0.023). Of the 30 patients who received all therapy under observation, 15 (50 %) patients had de novo disease and 15 (50 %) had received antecedent chemotherapy. No significant difference in survival was observed between groups (p = 0.44). Twenty-two patients received induction as up-front therapy, of whom 11 (50 %) achieved CR / CRi. The achievement of CR / CRi with one course of induction was associated with improved OS, with a 6-month OS of 73 % as compared to 23 % for those who did not (p = 0.018). The achievement of CR / CRi with a single course of induction may be a marker of favorable survival in this subtype of high-risk AML. KEY POINT: Response to a single induction was associated with favorable survival in this population.
    Keywords:  11q23; AML; Cytogenetics; KMT2A; MLL; Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106453
  13. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Oct 14. JCO1903250
    Salamero O, Montesinos P, Willekens C, Pérez-Simón JA, Pigneux A, Récher C, Popat R, Carpio C, Molinero C, Mascaró C, Vila J, Arévalo MI, Maes T, Buesa C, Bosch F, Somervaille TCP.
      PURPOSE: Iadademstat is a novel, highly potent, and selective inhibitor of LSD1 (KDM1A), with preclinical in vitro and in vivo antileukemic activity. This study aimed to determine safety and tolerability of iadademstat as monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML).METHODS: This phase I, nonrandomized, open-label, dose-escalation (DE), and extension-cohort (EC) trial included patients with R/R AML and evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary antileukemic activity of this orally bioavailable first-in-class lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor.
    RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were treated with iadademstat on days 1 to 5 (5-220 µg/m2/d) of each week in 28-day cycles in a DE phase that resulted in a recommended dose of 140 µg/m2/d of iadademstat as a single agent. This dose was chosen to treat all patients (n = 14) in an EC enriched with patients with MLL/KMT2A-rearranged AML. Most adverse events (AEs) were as expected in R/R AML and included myelosuppression and nonhematologic AEs, such as infections, asthenia, mucositis, and diarrhea. PK data demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in plasma exposure, and PD data confirmed a potent time- and exposure-dependent induction of differentiation biomarkers. Reductions in blood and bone marrow blast percentages were observed, together with induction of blast cell differentiation, in particular, in patients with MLL translocations. One complete remission with incomplete count recovery was observed in the DE arm.
    CONCLUSION: Iadademstat exhibits a good safety profile together with signs of clinical and biologic activity as a single agent in patients with R/R AML. A phase II trial of iadademstat in combination with azacitidine is ongoing (EudraCT No.: 2018-000482-36).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03250
  14. Haematologica. 2020 Sep 14. Online ahead of print
    Flach J, Jann JC, Knaflic A, Riabov V, Streuer A, Altrock E, Xu Q, Schmitt N, Obländer J, Nowak V, Danner J, Mehralivand A, Hofmann F, Palme I, Jawhar A, Wuchter P, Metzgeroth G, Nolte F, Hofmann WK, Nowak D.
      Somatic mutations in genes coding for splicing factors, e.g. SF3B1, U2AF1, SRSF2, and others are found in approximately 50% of patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). These mutations have been predicted to frequently occur early in the mutational hierarchy of the disease therefore making them particularly attractive potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies in cell lines engineered to carry splicing factor mutations have revealed a strong association with elevated levels of DNA:RNA intermediates (R-loops) and a dependency on proper ATR function. However, data confirming this hypothesis in a representative cohort of primary MDS patient samples have so far been missing. Using CD34+ cells isolated from MDS patients with and without splicing factor mutations as well as healthy controls we show that splicing factor mutation-associated R-loops lead to elevated levels of replication stress and ATR pathway activation. Moreover, splicing factor mutated CD34+ cells are more susceptible to pharmacological inhibition of ATR resulting in elevated levels of DNA damage, cell cycle blockade, and cell death. This can be enhanced by combination treatment with low-dose splicing modulatory compound Pladienolide B. We further confirm the direct association of R-loops and ATR sensitivity with the presence of a splicing factor mutation using lentiviral overexpression of wild-type and mutant SRSF2 P95H in cord blood CD34+ cells. Collectively, our results from n=53 MDS patients identify replication stress and associated ATR signaling to be critical pathophysiological mechanisms in primary MDS CD34+ cells carrying splicing factor mutations, and provide a preclinical rationale for targeting ATR signaling in these patients.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.254193
  15. Nature. 2020 Oct 14.
    Bao EL, Nandakumar SK, Liao X, Bick AG, Karjalainen J, Tabaka M, Gan OI, Havulinna AS, Kiiskinen TTJ, Lareau CA, de Lapuente Portilla AL, Li B, Emdin C, Codd V, Nelson CP, Walker CJ, Churchhouse C, de la Chapelle A, Klein DE, Nilsson B, Wilson PWF, Cho K, Pyarajan S, Gaziano JM, Samani NJ, , , Regev A, Palotie A, Neale BM, Dick JE, Natarajan P, O'Donnell CJ, Daly MJ, Milyavsky M, Kathiresan S, Sankaran VG.
      Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2786-7
  16. Hematol Rep. 2020 Sep 21. 12(Suppl 1): 8957
    Haferlach T.
      AML diagnostics, initially based solely on morphological evaluation, now relies on multiple disciplines to reach its full potential. Only by integrating the results of cytomorphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics it is possible to fulfil WHO classification and ELN prognostication systems. Especially molecular genetics has gained a lot of interest over the last decade, mainly through the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS application ranges from the investigation of single genes and panels to even whole exomes, transcriptomes and genomes. In routine AML diagnostics panels are the preferred NGS methodology. Here, we will review the power and limitations of NGS in the context of diagnosis, prognosis and precision medicine. Due to high dimensionality, NGS data interpretation is challenging but it also offers a unique investigatory chance and the opportunity to apply data mining techniques such as artificial intelligence. We will also reflect on how the incorporation of the improved knowledge base into routine diagnostics can pave the way for better treatment and more cure in AML.
    Keywords:  acute myeloid leukemia; multidisciplinary diagnostics; next generation sequencing; precision medicine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4081/hr.2020.8957
  17. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 586530
    Grignano E, Birsen R, Chapuis N, Bouscary D.
      Despite its crucial importance in numerous physiological processes, iron also causes oxidative stress and damage which can promote the growth and proliferation of leukemic cells. Iron metabolism is strictly regulated and the related therapeutic approaches to date have been to restrict iron availability to tumor cells. However, since a new form of iron-catalyzed cell death has been described, termed ferroptosis, and subsequently better understood, iron excess is thought to represent an opportunity to selectively kill leukemic cells and spare normal hematopoietic cells, based on their differential iron needs. This review summarizes the physiology of iron metabolism and its deregulation in leukemia, the known ferrotoposis pathways, and therapeutic strategies to target the altered iron metabolism in leukemia for the purposes of initiating ferroptosis in these cancer cells.
    Keywords:  acute myeloid leukemia; ferritinophagy; ferroptosis; iron; reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.586530
  18. Blood Cancer J. 2020 Oct 14. 10(10): 100
    Carobbio A, Guglielmelli P, Rumi E, Cavalloni C, De Stefano V, Betti S, Rambaldi A, Finazzi MC, Thiele J, Vannucchi AM, Tefferi A, Barbui T.
      Among 382 patients with WHO-defined prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) followed for a median of 6.9 years, fibrotic or leukemic transformation or death accounts for 15, 7, and 27% of cases, respectively. A multistate model was applied to analyze survival data taking into account intermediate states that are part of the clinical course of pre-PMF, including overt PMF and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Within this multistate framework, multivariable models disclosed older age (>65 years) and leukocytosis (>15 × 109/L) as predictors of death and leukemic transformation. The risk factors for fibrotic progression included anemia and grade 1 bone marrow fibrosis. The outcome was further affected by high molecular risk (HMR) but not driver mutations. Direct transition to overt PMF, AML, or death occurred in 15.2, 4.7, and 17.3% of patients, respectively. The risk of AML was the highest in the first 5 years (7%), but leveled off thereafter. Conversely, the probability of death from overt PMF or AML increased more rapidly over time, especially when compared to death in the pre-PMF state without disease progression. The probability of being alive with pre-PMF status decreased to 70 and 30% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. This study highlights the aspects of the clinical course and estimates of disease progression in pre-PMF.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00368-1
  19. Nature. 2020 Oct 14.
    Bick AG, Weinstock JS, Nandakumar SK, Fulco CP, Bao EL, Zekavat SM, Szeto MD, Liao X, Leventhal MJ, Nasser J, Chang K, Laurie C, Burugula BB, Gibson CJ, Lin AE, Taub MA, Aguet F, Ardlie K, Mitchell BD, Barnes KC, Moscati A, Fornage M, Redline S, Psaty BM, Silverman EK, Weiss ST, Palmer ND, Vasan RS, Burchard EG, Kardia SLR, He J, Kaplan RC, Smith NL, Arnett DK, Schwartz DA, Correa A, de Andrade M, Guo X, Konkle BA, Custer B, Peralta JM, Gui H, Meyers DA, McGarvey ST, Chen IY, Shoemaker MB, Peyser PA, Broome JG, Gogarten SM, Wang FF, Wong Q, Montasser ME, Daya M, Kenny EE, North KE, Launer LJ, Cade BE, Bis JC, Cho MH, Lasky-Su J, Bowden DW, Cupples LA, Mak ACY, Becker LC, Smith JA, Kelly TN, Aslibekyan S, Heckbert SR, Tiwari HK, Yang IV, Heit JA, Lubitz SA, Johnsen JM, Curran JE, Wenzel SE, Weeks DE, Rao DC, Darbar D, Moon JY, Tracy RP, Buth EJ, Rafaels N, Loos RJF, Durda P, Liu Y, Hou L, Lee J, Kachroo P, Freedman BI, Levy D, Bielak LF, Hixson JE, Floyd JS, Whitsel EA, Ellinor PT, Irvin MR, Fingerlin TE, Raffield LM, Armasu SM, Wheeler MM, Sabino EC, Blangero J, Williams LK, Levy BD, Sheu WH, Roden DM, Boerwinkle E, Manson JE, Mathias RA, Desai P, Taylor KD, Johnson AD, , Auer PL, Kooperberg C, Laurie CC, Blackwell TW, Smith AV, Zhao H, Lange E, Lange L, Rich SS, Rotter JI, Wilson JG, Scheet P, Kitzman JO, Lander ES, Engreitz JM, Ebert BL, Reiner AP, Jaiswal S, Abecasis G, Sankaran VG, Kathiresan S, Natarajan P.
      Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2819-2
  20. Blood Adv. 2020 Oct 13. 4(19): 4955-4964
    van der Ploeg K, Le Luduec JB, Stevenson PA, Park S, Gooley TA, Petersdorf EW, Shaffer BC, Hsu KC.
      HLA-B allotypes exhibiting the Bw4 epitope trigger variable inhibitory signaling of KIR3DL1 receptor types, where strong inhibitory HLA-B and KIR3DL1 allele combinations are associated with increased risk for relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several HLA-A allotypes also exhibit the Bw4 epitope. Studies with natural killer (NK) cell clones have demonstrated NK inhibition via KIR3DL1 by HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, but did not delineate strengths of inhibition or hierarchies of NK education. Using primary NK cells from healthy donors, we demonstrate that HLA-A*23, HLA-A*24, and HLA-A*32 proteins are expressed at different densities and exhibit different capacities to educate and inhibit KIR3DL1-expressing NK cells in vitro. Among the HLA-A Bw4+ allotypes, HLA-A*24 and HLA-A*32 demonstrate the strongest inhibitory capacity. To determine if HLA-A allotypes with strong inhibitory capacity have similar negative impact in allogeneic HCT as HLA-B Bw4+ allotypes, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1729 patients with AML who received an allogeneic HCT from a 9/10 or 10/10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donor. Examination of the donor-recipient pairs whose Bw4 epitope was exclusively contributed from HLA-A*24 and A*32 allotypes revealed that patients with HLA-A*24 who received an allograft from a KIR3DL1+ donor experienced a higher risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.32; P = .004) when compared with patients without a Bw4 epitope. These findings indicate that despite weak affinity interactions with KIR3DL1, common HLA-A allotypes with the Bw4 epitope can interact with KIR3DL1+ donor NK cells with clinically meaningful impact and provide additional insight to donor NK alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002086