bims-traimu Biomed News
on Trained immunity
Issue of 2022‒10‒02
four papers selected by
Yantong Wan
Southern Medical University

  1. Elife. 2022 Sep 29. pii: e74690. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Macrophages are a highly adaptive population of innate immune cells. Polarization with IFNγ and LPS into the 'classically activated' M1 macrophage enhances pro-inflammatory and microbicidal responses, important for eradicating bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By contrast, 'alternatively activated' M2 macrophages, polarized with IL-4, oppose bactericidal mechanisms and allow mycobacterial growth. These activation states are accompanied by distinct metabolic profiles, where M1 macrophages favor near exclusive use of glycolysis, whereas M2 macrophages up-regulate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Here we demonstrate that activation with IL-4 and IL-13 counterintuitively induces protective innate memory against mycobacterial challenge. In human and murine models, prior activation with IL-4/13 enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a secondary stimulation with mycobacterial ligands. In our murine model, enhanced killing capacity is also demonstrated. Despite this switch in phenotype, IL-4/13 trained murine macrophages do not demonstrate M1-typical metabolism, instead retaining heightened use of OXPHOS. Moreover, inhibition of OXPHOS with oligomycin, 2-deoxy glucose or BPTES all impeded heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from IL-4/13 trained macrophages. Lastly, this work identifies that IL-10 attenuates protective IL-4/13 training, impeding pro-inflammatory and bactericidal mechanisms. In summary, this work provides new and unexpected insight into alternative macrophage activation states in the context of mycobacterial infection.
    Keywords:  immunology; inflammation; mouse
  2. Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2022 Sep 28.
      Viruses are obligatory protein-coated units and often utilize the metabolic functions of the cells they infect. Viruses hijack cellular metabolic functions and cause consequences that can range from minor to devastating, as we have all witnessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. For understanding the virus-driven pathogenesis and its implications on the host, the cellular metabolism needs to be elucidated. How SARS-CoV-2 triggers metabolic functions and rewires the metabolism remains unidentified but the implications of the metabolic patterns are under investigation by several researchers. In this review, we have described the SARS-CoV-2-mediated metabolic alterations from in vitro studies to metabolic changes reported in victims of COVID-19. We have also discussed potential therapeutic targets to diminish the viral infection and suppress the inflammatory response, with respect to evidenced studies based on COVID-19 research. Finally, we aimed to explain how we could extend vaccine-induced immunity in people by targeting the immunometabolism.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; immune therapy; metabolic drugs; metabolism; vaccination
  3. Curr Opin Immunol. 2022 Sep 26. pii: S0952-7915(22)00094-2. [Epub ahead of print]78 102247
      The transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been mainly investigated as a regulator of redox homeostasis. However, research over the past years has implicated Nrf2 as an important regulator of innate immunity. Here, we discuss the role of Nrf2 in the innate immune response, highlighting the interaction between Nrf2 and major components of the innate immune system. Indeed, Nrf2 has been shown to widely control the immune response by interacting directly or indirectly with important innate immune components, including the toll-like receptors-Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway, inflammasome signaling, and the type-I interferon response. This indicates an essential role for Nrf2 in diseases related to microbial infections, inflammation, and cancer. Yet, further studies are required to determine the exact mechanism underpinning the interactions between Nrf2 and innate immune players in order to allow a better understanding of these diseases and leverage new therapeutic strategies.
  4. J Immunol. 2022 Oct 01. 209(7): 1348-1358
      Endotoxin tolerance is a state of hyporesponsiveness to LPS, triggered by previous exposure to endotoxin. Such an immunosuppressive state enhances the risks of secondary infection and has been associated with the pathophysiology of sepsis. Although this phenomenon has been extensively studied, its molecular mechanism is not fully explained. Among candidates that play a crucial role in this process are negative regulators of TLR signaling, but the contribution of MCP-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1; Regnase-1) has not been studied yet. To examine whether macrophage expression of MCPIP1 participates in endotoxin tolerance, we used both murine and human primary macrophages devoid of MCPIP1 expression. In our study, we demonstrated that MCPIP1 contributes to LPS hyporesponsiveness induced by subsequent LPS stimulation and macrophage reprogramming. We proved that this mechanism revolves around the deubiquitinase activity of MCPIP1, which inhibits the phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB activation. Moreover, we showed that MCPIP1 controlled the level of proinflammatory transcripts in LPS-tolerized cells independently of its RNase activity. Finally, we confirmed these findings applying an in vivo endotoxin tolerance model in wild-type and myeloid MCPIP1-deficient mice. Taken together, this study describes for the first time, to our knowledge, that myeloid MCPIP1 participates in endotoxin tolerance and broadens the scope of known negative regulators of the TLR4 pathway crucial in this phenomenon.