bims-traimu Biomed News
on Trained immunity
Issue of 2022‒07‒31
twelve papers selected by
Yantong Wan
Southern Medical University

  1. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 903884
      Findings that certain infections induce immunity not only against the causing agent, but also against an unrelated pathogen have intrigued investigators for many years. Recently, underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon have started to come to light. It was found that the key cells responsible for heterologous protection are innate immune cells such as natural killer cells (NKs), dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages. These cells are 'primed' by initial infection, allowing them to provide enhanced response to subsequent infection by the same or unrelated agent. This phenomenon of innate immune memory was termed 'trained immunity'. The proposed mechanism for trained immunity involves activation by the first stimulus of metabolic pathways that lead to epigenetic changes, which maintain the cell in a "trained" state, allowing enhanced responses to a subsequent stimulus. Innate immune memory can lead either to enhanced responses or to suppression of subsequent responses ('tolerance'), depending on the strength and length of the initial stimulation of the immune cells. In the context of HIV infection, innate memory induced by infection is not well understood. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we discuss evidence for HIV-induced trained immunity in human monocytes, its possible mechanisms, and implications for HIV-associated co-morbidities.
    Keywords:  HIV-1; Nef; co-morbidities; exosomes; inflammation; lipid rafts; trained immunity
  2. Cells. 2022 Jul 13. pii: 2187. [Epub ahead of print]11(14):
      The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has contributed to research into various biological processes. These novel NGS technologies have revealed the involvement of epigenetic memories in trained immunity, which are responses to transient stimulation and result in better responses to secondary challenges. Not only innate system cells, such as macrophages, monocytes, and natural killer cells, but also bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been found to gain memories upon transient stimulation, leading to the enhancement of responses to secondary challenges. Various stimuli, including microbial infection, can induce the epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and HSCs, which can result in an augmented response to secondary stimulation. In this review, we introduce novel NGS technologies and their application to unraveling epigenetic memories that are key in trained immunity and summarize the recent findings in trained immunity. We also discuss our most recent finding regarding epigenetic memory in aged HSCs, which may be associated with the exposure of HSCs to aging-related stresses.
    Keywords:  chromatin accessibility; epigenetic memory; epigenome; hematopoietic progenitor cells; hematopoietic stem cells; innate immune cells; next-generation sequencing
  3. Vaccines (Basel). 2022 Jun 23. pii: 1006. [Epub ahead of print]10(7):
      The Bacille Calmette-Guérin or BCG vaccine, the only vaccine available against Mycobacterium tuberculosis can induce a marked Th1 polarization of T-cells, characterized by the antigen-specific secretion of IFN-γ and enhanced antiviral response. A number of studies have supported the concept of protection by non-specific boosting of immunity by BCG and other microbes. BCG is a well-known example of a trained immunity inducer since it imparts 'non-specific heterologous' immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the recent pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 continues to inflict an unabated surge in morbidity and mortality around the world. There is an urgent need to devise and develop alternate strategies to bolster host immunity against the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and its continuously emerging variants. Several vaccines have been developed recently against COVID-19, but the data on their protective efficacy remains doubtful. Therefore, urgent strategies are required to enhance system immunity to adequately defend against newly emerging infections. The concept of trained immunity may play a cardinal role in protection against COVID-19. The ability of trained immunity-based vaccines is to promote heterologous immune responses beyond their specific antigens, which may notably help in defending against an emergency situation such as COVID-19 when the protective ability of vaccines is suspicious. A growing body of evidence points towards the beneficial non-specific boosting of immune responses by BCG or other microbes, which may protect against COVID-19. Clinical trials are underway to consider the efficacy of BCG vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 on healthcare workers and the elderly population. In this review, we will discuss the role of BCG in eliciting trained immunity and the possible limitations and challenges in controlling COVID-19 and future pandemics.
    Keywords:  BCG; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; innate immunity; vaccines
  4. Innate Immun. 2022 Jul 25. 17534259221114219
      Innate immune training is defined as a property of innate immune cells to react stronger to a secondary contact with pathogens. Induction of innate immune training has been reported for a variety of pathogens and selected pattern recognition receptor-ligands, such as β-glucans (βG). We examined whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall component βG induces training in bovine monocytes in vitro based on a heightened TNF secretion after stimulation by trained monocyte-derived macrophages with Escherichia coli LPS. Sorted CD14-expressing monocytes (classical and intermediate monocytes), as well as single populations of sorted classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes could not be trained by βG, whereas macrophages derived from plastic-adherent mononuclear cell preparations displayed features of a trained function. The hypothesis, that non-classical monocytes need to be present in a mixed monocyte population in order to be trained by βG could be verified by a successful training of positively sorted whole monocyte populations (CD14CD16/M) containing all three monocyte subpopulations. The trainability depended on conditions favoring M1 polarization of macrophages. Altogether, innate immune training of bovine monocytes seems to depend on the presence of non-classical monocytes. This adds new information to the role of this monocyte subpopulation in the bovine immune system.
    Keywords:  bovine; immune training; macrophages; monocytes; β-glucan
  5. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 915081
      Inflammation plays a crucial role in the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Periodontitis is a common chronic disease linked to other chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The mechanistic pathways underlying this association are yet to be fully understood. This critical review aims at discuss the role of neutrophils in mediating the relationship between periodontitis and ASCVD. Systemic inflammation triggered by periodontitis could lead to adaptations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) resulting in trained granulopoiesis in the bone marrow, thereby increasing the production of neutrophils and driving the hyper-responsiveness of these abundant innate-immune cells. These alterations may contribute to the onset, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis. Despite the emerging evidence suggesting that the treatment of periodontitis improves surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, the resolution of periodontitis may not necessarily reverse neutrophil hyper-responsiveness since the hyper-inflammatory re-programming of granulopoiesis can persist long after the inflammatory inducers are removed. Novel and targeted approaches to manipulate neutrophil numbers and functions are warranted within the context of the treatment of periodontitis and also to mitigate its potential impact on ASCVD.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; innate immune memory; neutrophils; periodontal disease; periodontitis; systemic inflammation; trained immunity
  6. J Immunol. 2022 Jul 27. pii: ji2200225. [Epub ahead of print]
      Trained immunity defines long-term memory of innate immunity based on transcriptional, epigenetic, and metabolic modifications of myeloid cells, which are characterized by elevated proinflammatory responses toward homologous or heterologous secondary stimuli in mammals. However, the evidence of trained immunity-associated immune cells and its molecular mechanism in teleost fish remains largely unknown. In this study, we established a trained immunity activation model in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and found that administration with β-glucan induces protection against a bacterial infection. Through single-cell RNA sequencing to annotate 14 clusters of innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as two clusters of blood cells, from head kidney and spleen, respectively, we characterized that neutrophil displays cardinal features of trained immunity by analyzing the expression abundance of trained immunity database-related genes at the single-cell level. Subsequently, through establishing an in vivo training and in vitro neutrophil challenge model, we found that the trained neutrophils exhibit a significant elevation of the IL-1R signaling pathway after Edwardsiella piscicida infection. Furthermore, inhibition of neutrophil's IL-1R signaling pathway through anakinra treatment impaired the heightened production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, lactate, as well as the neutrophil extracellular traps formation and bacterial killing ability. Taken together, these findings characterized neutrophil as the orchestrator to express features of trained immunity, and revealed that the IL-1R signaling pathway plays a critical role in induction of trained immunity for bacterial clearance in teleost fish.
  7. Curr Microbiol. 2022 Jul 30. 79(9): 275
      It was reported that tuberculosis and BCG vaccination are potential tools for reducing the burden of COVID-19, mainly through the non-specific trained immunity. We have investigated whether BCG vaccination is able to induce cross-reacting antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2. We have tested the induced humoral immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike in the mouse model, after either BCG or rabies DNA-based vaccination alone or in Prime/Boost approach to COVID-19 DNA-based vaccination. We have demonstrated that BCG vaccination alone was able to induce cross-reacting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike. It can also boost the antibody response induced by a COVID-19 DNA-based vaccination. Hence, both BCG and latent tuberculosis infection can explain the lower burden of COVID-19 in developing countries, not only through the trained immunity but also by inducing cross-reacting antibodies. Furthermore, with the emergence of different COVID-19 variants, or eventually other Betacoronaviruses, the use of BCG vaccination can help against immune escapes of the current vaccines.
  8. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 ;12 934460
      Lung macrophages are substantially distinct from other tissue-resident macrophages. They act as frontier sentinels of the alveolar-blood interface and are constantly exposed to various pathogens. Additionally, they precisely regulate immune responses under homeostatic and pathological conditions to curtail tissue damage while containing respiratory infections. As a highly heterogeneous population, the phenotypes and functions of lung macrophages with differing developmental ontogenies are linked to both intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic processes. Importantly, targeting these metabolic pathways greatly impacts macrophage functions, which in turn leads to different disease outcomes in the lung. In this review, we will discuss underlying metabolic regulation of lung macrophage subsets and how metabolic circuits, together with epigenetic modifications, dictate lung macrophage function during bacterial infection.
    Keywords:  bacterial infection; immunometabolism; inflammation; lung macrophages; trained immunity
  9. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jul 26. pii: 1453. [Epub ahead of print]11(8):
      The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Because recurrent epidemics based on reinfection occur in children and adults, hRSV has gained interest as a potential primary pathogen favoring secondary opportunistic infections. Several infection models have shown different mechanisms by which hRSV promotes immunopathology to prevent the development of adaptive protective immunity. However, little is known about the long-lasting effects of viral infection on pulmonary immune surveillance mechanisms. As a first approach, here we evaluated whether a primary infection by hRSV, once resolved, dampens the host immune response to a secondary infection with an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis (M. Bovis) strain referred as to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). We analyzed leukocyte dynamics and immunomodulatory molecules in the lungs after eleven- and twenty-one-days post-infection with Mycobacterium, using previous hRSV infected mice, by flow cytometry and the expression of critical genes involved in the immune response by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Among the latter, we analyzed the expression of Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 in an immunization scheme in mice. Our data suggest that a pre-infection with hRSV has a conditioning effect promoting lung pathology during a subsequent mycobacterial challenge, characterized by increased infiltration of innate immune cells, including interstitial and alveolar macrophages. Our data also suggest that hRSV impairs pulmonary immune responses, promoting secondary mycobacterial colonization and lung survival, which could be associated with an increase in the expression of HO-1. Additionally, BCG is a commonly used vaccine that can be used as a platform for the generation of new recombinant vaccines, such as a recombinant BCG strain expressing the nucleoprotein of hRSV (rBCG-N-hRSV). Therefore, we evaluated if the immunization with rBCG-N-hRSV could modulate the expression of HO-1. We found a differential expression pattern for HO-1, where a higher induction of HO-1 was detected on epithelial cells compared to dendritic cells during late infection times. This is the first study to demonstrate that infection with hRSV produces damage in the lung epithelium, promoting subsequent mycobacterial colonization, characterized by an increase in the neutrophils and alveolar macrophages recruitment. Moreover, we determined that immunization with rBCG-N-hRSV modulates differentially the expression of HO-1 on immune and epithelial cells, which could be involved in the repair of pulmonary tissue.
    Keywords:  HO-1; RSV; mycobacteria; susceptibility; tuberculosis
  10. Cells. 2022 Jul 19. pii: 2241. [Epub ahead of print]11(14):
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the world. The prevalence is steadily increasing due to an aging population and the lack of effective treatments. However, modulation of innate immune cells is a new therapeutic avenue, which is quite effective at delaying disease onset and improving cognitive decline.METHODS: We studied the effect of the NOD2 receptor ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) on the modulation of the innate immune cells, namely patrolling monocytes and microglia. We administrated MDP once a week for 3 months in an APPswe/PS1 mouse model in both sexes. We started the treatment at 3 months before plaque formation and evaluated its effects at 6 months.
    RESULTS: We showed that the MDP injections delay cognitive decline in both sexes via different mechanisms and protect the blood brain barrier (BBB). In males, MDP triggers the sink effect from the BBB, leading to a diminution in the amyloid load in the brain. This phenomenon is underlined by the increased expression of phagocytosis markers such as TREM2, CD68, and LAMP2 and a higher expression of ABCB1 and LRP1 at the BBB level. The beneficial effect seems more restricted to the brain in females treated with MDP, where microglia surround amyloid plaques and prevent the spreading of amyloid peptides. This phenomenon is also associated with an increase in TREM2 expression. Interestingly, both treated groups showed an increase in Arg-1 expression compared to controls, suggesting that MDP modulates the inflammatory response.
    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that stimulation of the NOD2 receptor in innate immune cells is a promising therapeutic avenue with potential different mechanisms between males and females.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s; MDP; NOD2; amyloid; cognitive decline; immunomodulation; innate immunity; microglia; monocytes; phagocytosis
  11. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Jul 29. 79(8): 456
      During sepsis, the importance of alterations in cell metabolism is underappreciated. The cellular metabolism, which has a variable metabolic profile in different cells and disease stages, is largely responsible for the immune imbalance and organ failure associated with sepsis. Metabolic reprogramming, in which glycolysis replaces OXPHOS as the main energy-producing pathway, is both a requirement for immune cell activation and a cause of immunosuppression. Meanwhile, the metabolites produced by OXPHOS and glycolysis can act as signaling molecules to control the immune response during sepsis. Sepsis-induced "energy shortage" leads to stagnated cell function and even organ dysfunction. Metabolic reprogramming can alleviate the energy crisis to some extent, enhance host tolerance to maintain cell survival functions, and ultimately increase the adaptation of cells during sepsis. However, a switch from glycolysis to OXPHOS is essential for restoring cell function. This review summarized the crosstalk between metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activity as well as organ function during sepsis, discussed the benefits and drawbacks of metabolic reprogramming to show the contradictions of metabolic reprogramming during sepsis, and assessed the feasibility of treating sepsis through targeted metabolism. Using metabolic reprogramming to achieve metabolic homeostasis could be a viable therapy option for sepsis.
    Keywords:  Glycolysis; Immunosuppression; MODS; Metabolic reprogramming; OXPHOS; Sepsis; Tolerance
  12. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022 Jul 28. pii: dkac254. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections but also impact immunity. This is usually attributed to antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of the microbiota, but antibiotics may have a direct effect on immune cells and immunity-associated receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs).OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibiotics alter TLR2/1, TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in immune cells.
    METHODS: We evaluated the effects of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and erythromycin on TLR2/1-, TLR2/6- and TLR4-induced NF-κB activation in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells. Furthermore, we studied TNF-α and IL-6 levels in THP-1-derived macrophages after exposure to these antibiotics and TLR ligands.
    RESULTS: Amoxicillin had no effect on any of the TLRs studied. However, ciprofloxacin reduced TLR2/1, TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells and decreased TLR2/1-induced TNF-α and IL-6 in macrophages. Doxycycline reduced TLR2/6 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in response to TLR2/6 stimulation in macrophages. Erythromycin decreased TLR2/1 and TLR4 activity in THP1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 cells without changes in TNF-α and IL-6 levels in macrophages. In addition, ciprofloxacin decreased the expression of TLR2 mRNA.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that some antibiotics may attenuate TLR-dependent monocyte/macrophage responses and likely reduce bacterial clearance. The latter is particularly important in infections with AMR bacteria, where misprescribed antibiotics not only fail in control of AMR infections but might also weaken host defence mechanisms by limiting innate immune responses. Our data suggest that efforts should be made to prevent the deterioration of the immune response during and after antibiotic treatment.