bims-traimu Biomed News
on Trained immunity
Issue of 2022‒07‒24
eleven papers selected by
Yantong Wan
Southern Medical University

  1. Adv Healthc Mater. 2022 Jul 19. e2200819
      Emerging diseases require generating new vaccines, which can often be time-consuming. An alternate method to boost host defense is by inducing nonspecific innate immune memory, called trained immunity, to develop novel prophylactics. Many molecules, most notably β-glucan, induce trained immunity, but their effects are often short-lived and uncontrolled. This lack of temporal control limits both the therapeutic ability of training and provides fundamental questions about its nature. To achieve temporal control of trained immunity, we engineered controlled release nanoparticles encapsulating only 3.5% the standard dose of β-glucan to attain sustained release over a month. Nanoparticle trained mice exhibited prolonged training effects and improved resistance to a B16F10 tumor challenge compared to mice that received an equivalent amount of free β-glucan. We further fine-tuned the duration of trained immunity by synthesizing nanoparticles composed of different molecular weights of to modulate the release kinetics. These results demonstrate that dosing and temporal control can substantially alter the trained response to unanticipated levels. As such, this approach using sustained release platforms might lead to a novel prophylactic strategy for improved disease resistance against a wide variety of diseases.  This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  innate immunity; nanoparticle; poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid),prophylactic; sustained release
  2. Mucosal Immunol. 2022 Jul 18.
      Environmental microbial triggers shape the development and functionality of the immune system. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), tissue-resident macrophages of the lungs, are in constant and direct contact with inhaled particles and microbes. Such exposures likely impact AM reactivity to subsequent challenges by immunological imprinting mechanisms referred to as trained immunity. Here, we investigated whether a ubiquitous microbial compound has the potential to induce AM training in vivo. We discovered that intranasal exposure to ambient amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a pronounced AM memory response, characterized by enhanced reactivity upon pneumococcal challenge. Exploring the mechanistic basis of AM training, we identified a critical role of type 1 interferon signaling and found that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and glutaminolysis significantly attenuated the training effect. Notably, adoptive transfer of trained AMs resulted in increased bacterial loads and tissue damage upon subsequent pneumococcal infection. In contrast, intranasal pre-exposure to LPS promoted bacterial clearance, highlighting the complexity of stimulus-induced immune responses, which likely involve multiple cell types and may depend on the local immunological and metabolic environment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the profound impact of ambient microbial exposure on pulmonary immune memory and reveal tissue-specific features of trained immunity.
  3. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 840751
      Background: Trained immunity - or innate immune memory - can be described as the long-term reprogramming of innate immune cells towards a hyperresponsive state which involves intracellular metabolic changes. Trained immunity has been linked to atherosclerosis. A subgroup of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) exhibits systemic type I interferon (IFN) pathway activation, indicating innate immune hyperactivation. Here, we studied the link between type I IFNs and trained immunity in an in vitro monocytic cell model and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from pSS patients.Methods: The training stimuli heat killed Candida albicans, muramyl dipeptide, IFNβ, and patient serum were added to THP-1 cells for 24 hours, after which the cells were washed, rested for 48 hours and subsequently re-stimulated with LPS, Pam3Cys, poly I:C, IFNβ or oxLDL for 4-24 hours. PBMCs from pSS patients and healthy controls were stimulated with LPS, Pam3Cys, poly I:C or IFNβ for 0.5-24 hours.
    Results: Training with IFNβ induced elevated production of pro-atherogenic cytokines IL-6, TNFα and CCL2, differential cholesterol- and glycolysis-related gene expression, and increased glucose consumption and oxLDL uptake upon re-stimulation. Type I IFN production was increased in Candida albicans- and IFNβ-trained cells after LPS re-stimulation, but was reduced after poly I:C re-stimulation. Training with muramyl dipeptide and IFNβ, but not Candida albicans, affected the IFN-stimulated gene expression response to IFNβ re-stimulation. PBMCs from pSS patients consumed more glucose compared with healthy control PBMCs and tended to produce more TNFα and type I IFNs upon LPS stimulation, but less type I IFNs upon poly I:C stimulation.
    Conclusions: Type I IFN is a trainer inducing a trained immunity phenotype with pro-atherogenic properties in monocytes. Conversely, trained immunity also affects the production of type I IFNs and transcriptional response to type I IFN receptor re-stimulation. The phenotype of pSS PBMCs is consistent with trained immunity. This connection between type I IFN, trained immunity and cholesterol metabolism may have important implications for pSS and the pathogenesis of (subclinical) atherosclerosis in these patients.
    Keywords:  Sjögren’s syndrome; atherosclerosis; monocytes; trained immunity; type I interferon (IFN)
  4. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2022 Jul 21. pii: keac359. [Epub ahead of print]
      Synovial macrophages are key mediators of OA pathology, and skewing of macrophage phenotype in favour of an M1-like phenotype is thought to underlie the chronicity of synovial inflammation in OA. Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as dyslipidaemia, can affect macrophage phenotype and function, which could explain the link between MetS and OA development. Recently published studies have provided novel insights into the different origins and heterogeneity of synovial macrophages. Considering these findings, we propose an important role for monocyte-derived macrophages in particular, as opposed to yolk-sac derived residential macrophages, in causing a pro-inflammatory phenotype shift, and explain how this can start even prior to synovial infiltration. In the circulation, monocytes can be trained by metabolic factors such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to become extra responsive to chemokines and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The concept of innate immune training has been widely studied and implicated in atherosclerosis pathology, but its involvement in OA remains uncharted territory. Finally, we evaluate the implications of all this for targeted therapy directed to macrophages and metabolic factors.
    Keywords:  Innate immune training; LDL-cholesterol; Macrophages; Metabolic syndrome; Monocytes; Osteoarthritis; Synovitis
  5. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 911951
      Drinking alcohol, even in moderation, can affect the immune system. Studies have shown disproportionate effects of alcohol on circulating and tissue-resident myeloid cells (granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells). These cells orchestrate the body's first line of defense against microbial challenges as well as maintain tissue homeostasis and repair. Alcohol's effects on these cells are dependent on exposure pattern, with acute drinking dampening but chronic drinking enhancing production of inflammatory mediators. Although chronic drinking is associated with heightened systemic inflammation, studies on tissue resident macrophage populations in several organs including the spleen, liver, brain, and lung have also shown compromised functional and metabolic capacities of these cells. Many of these effects are thought to be mediated by oxidative stress caused by alcohol and its metabolites which can directly impact the cellular epigenetic landscapes. In addition, since myeloid cells are relatively short-lived in circulation and are under constant repopulation from the bone marrow compartment, alcohol's effects on bone marrow progenitors and hematopoiesis are important for understanding the impact of alcohol systemically on these myeloid populations. Alcohol-induced disruption of progenitor, circulating, and tissue resident myeloid populations contribute to the increased susceptibility of patients with alcohol use disorders to viral and bacterial infections. In this review, we provide an overview of the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on the function of monocytes and macrophages in host defense, tissue repair and inflammation. We then summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced disruption and examine changes in transcriptome and epigenome of monocytes and mcrophages. Overall, chronic alcohol consumption leads to hyper-inflammation concomitant with decreased microbial and wound healing responses by monocytes/macrophages due to a rewiring of the epigentic and transcriptional landscape. However, in advanced alcoholic liver disease, myeloid cells become immunosuppressed as a response to the surrounding hyper-inflammatory milieu. Therefore, the effect of chronic alcohol on the inflammatory response depends on disease state and the immune cell population.
    Keywords:  alcohol; epigenetics; inflammation; monocytes/macrophages; transcriptome (RNA-seq)
  6. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 920029
      Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) refer to connective tissue inflammation caused by aberrant autoantibodies resulting from dysfunctional immune surveillance. Most of the current treatments for AIDs use non-selective immunosuppressive agents. Although these therapies successfully control the disease process, patients experience significant side effects, particularly an increased risk of infection. There is a great need to study the pathogenesis of AIDs to facilitate the development of selective inhibitors for inflammatory signaling to overcome the limitations of traditional therapies. Immune cells alter their predominant metabolic profile from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis in AIDs. This metabolic reprogramming, known to occur in adaptive immune cells, i.e., B and T lymphocytes, is critical to the pathogenesis of connective tissue inflammation. At the cellular level, this metabolic switch involves multiple signaling molecules, including serine-threonine protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Although glycolysis is less efficient than mitochondrial respiration in terms of ATP production, immune cells can promote disease progression by enhancing glycolysis to satisfy cellular functions. Recent studies have shown that active glycolytic metabolism may also account for the cellular physiology of innate immune cells in AIDs. However, the mechanism by which glycolysis affects innate immunity and participates in the pathogenesis of AIDs remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we reviewed the molecular mechanisms, including key enzymes, signaling pathways, and inflammatory factors, that could explain the relationship between glycolysis and the pro-inflammatory phenotype of innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Additionally, we summarize the impact of glycolysis on the pathophysiological processes of AIDs, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis, and discuss potential therapeutic targets. The discovery that immune cell metabolism characterized by glycolysis may regulate inflammation broadens the avenues for treating AIDs by modulating immune cell metabolism.
    Keywords:  autoimmune diseases; glycolysis; immunometabolism; innate immune cells; therapeutic target
  7. Sci Prog. 2022 Apr-Jun;105(2):105(2): 368504221105172
      Despite the development and deployment of effective COVID-19 vaccines, many regions remain poorly covered. Seeking alternative tools for achieving immunity against COVID-19 remains to be of high importance. "Trained immunity" is the nonspecific immune response usually established through administering live attenuated vaccines and is a potential preventive tool against unrelated infections. Evidence regarding a possible protective role for certain live attenuated vaccines against COVID-19 has emerged mainly for those administered as part of childhood vaccination protocols. This review summarizes the relevant literature about the potential impact of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines on COVID-19. Existing available data suggest a potential role for BCG and MMR in reducing COVID-19 casualties and burden. However, more investigation and comparative studies are required for a better understanding of their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.
    Keywords:  BCG; COVID-19; MMR; coronavirus; immunity
  8. Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 Jul 16. pii: S1567-5769(22)00549-5. [Epub ahead of print]110 109065
      Sepsis is a life-threatening disease characterized by a defensive response to damage. The immune response in patients with sepsis is overenhanced in the early stages and suppressed in the later stages, leading to poor prognosis. Metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic changes play a role in sepsis. Metabolic intermediates such as elevated succinic acid levels are significantly altered in patients with sepsis. Succinic acid, a metabolic intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, participates in energy supply and plays a role in metabolic reprogramming. Simultaneously, as an epigenetic regulator, it participates in gene transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. It also participates in the inflammatory response, hypoxia, and the production of reactive oxygen species via endocrine and paracrine pathways. In this review, we have discussed the effects of succinic acid on sepsis and its therapeutic potential.
    Keywords:  Epigenetic change; Metabolic reprogramming; Pathophysiology; SUCNR1; Sepsis; Succinic acid
  9. Infect Immun. 2022 Jul 21. 90(7): e0019822
      Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are important causative agents for foodborne diseases worldwide. Besides antibiotic treatment, vaccination has been deemed as the most effective strategy for preventing EPEC- and EHEC-caused foodborne illnesses. Despite substantial progress made in identifying promising antigens and efficacious vaccines, no vaccines against EPEC or EHEC have yet been licensed. Mice are inherently resistant to EPEC and EHEC infections; infection with Citrobacter rodentium (CR), the murine equivalent of EPEC and EHEC, in mice has been widely used as a model to study bacterial pathogenesis and develop novel vaccine strategies. Mirroring the severe outcomes of EPEC and EHEC infections in immunocompromised populations, immunocompromised mouse strains such as interleukin-22 knockout (Il22-/-) are susceptible to CR infection with severe clinical symptoms and mortality. Live attenuated bacterial vaccine strategies have been scarcely investigated for EPEC and EHEC infections, in particular in immunocompromised populations associated with severe outcomes. Here we examined whether live attenuated CR strain with rational genetic manipulation generates protective immunity against lethal CR infection in the susceptible Il22-/- mice. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of live ΔespFΔushA strain promotes efficient systemic and humoral immunity against a wide range of CR virulence determinants, thus protecting otherwise lethal CR infection, even in immunocompromised Il22-/- mice. This provides a proof of concept of live attenuated vaccination strategy for preventing CR infection in immunocompromised hosts associated with more severe symptoms and lethality.
    Keywords:  humoral immunity; immunocompromised hosts; live attenuated bacterium; oral administration
  10. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Jul 19. 79(8): 432
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia with limited treatment options affecting millions of people and the prevalence increasing with the aging population. The current knowledge on the role of the hypoxia/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the AD pathology is restricted and controversial. We hypothesized based on benefits of the genetic long-term inactivation of HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylase-2 (HIF-P4H-2) on metabolism, vasculature and inflammatory response that prolonged moderate activation of the hypoxia response could hinder AD pathology. We used an aging model to study potential spontaneous accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in HIF-P4H-2-deficient mice and a transgenic APP/PSEN1 mouse model subjected to prolonged sustained environmental hypoxia (15% O2 for 6 weeks) at two different time points of the disease; at age of 4 and 10 months. In both settings, activation of the hypoxia response reduced brain protein aggregate levels and this associated with higher vascularity. In the senescent HIF-P4H-2-deficient mice metabolic reprogramming also contributed to less protein aggregates while in APP/PSEN1 mice lesser Aβ associated additionally with hypoxia-mediated favorable responses to neuroinflammation and amyloid precursor protein processing. In conclusion, continuous, non-full-scale activation of the HIF pathway appears to mediate protection against neurodegeneration via several mechanisms and should be studied as a treatment option for AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; HIF; Hypoxia; Inflammation; Metabolism; Vascularity
  11. J Leukoc Biol. 2022 Jul 22.
      Balancing high energy-consuming danger resistance and low energy supply of disease tolerance is a universal survival principle that often fails during sepsis. Our research supports the concept that sepsis phosphorylates and deactivates mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex control over the tricarboxylic cycle and the electron transport chain. StimulatIng mitochondrial energetics in septic mice and human sepsis cell models can be achieved by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases with the pyruvate structural analog dichloroacetate. Stimulating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by dichloroacetate reverses a disruption in the tricarboxylic cycle that induces itaconate, a key mediator of the disease tolerance pathway. Dichloroacetate treatment increases mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, decreases oxidant stress, overcomes metabolic paralysis, regenerates tissue, organ, and innate and adaptive immune cells, and doubles the survival rate in a murine model of sepsis.
    Keywords:  dichloroacetate; energy shifts; evolution; immunometabolism; inflammation; itaconate; pyruvate; redox