bims-traimu Biomed News
on Trained immunity
Issue of 2022‒05‒29
twelve papers selected by
Yantong Wan
Southern Medical University

  1. Curr Opin Immunol. 2022 May 18. pii: S0952-7915(22)00037-1. [Epub ahead of print]77 102190
      The concept that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has been challenged in the past decade. Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor cells and functional changes of tissue immune cell populations result in augmented immune responses against a secondary challenge. This process has been termed trained immunity. This review describes the mechanisms leading to trained immunity and summarizes the most important developments from the past few years.
  2. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 884648
      Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with a key role in the defense against viral infections and tumor cells. Although NK cells are classified as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), under certain circumstances they exhibit adaptive and memory-like features. The latter may be achieved, among others, by a brief stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15 and IL-18. These cytokine-induced memory-like (CIML) NK cells resemble the trained immunity observed in myeloid cells. CIML NK cells undergo transcriptional, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming that, along with changes in the expression of cell surface receptors and components of cytotoxic granules, are responsible for their enhanced effector functions after a resting period. In addition, these memory-like NK cells persist for a long time, which make them a good candidate for cancer immunotherapy. Currently, several clinical trials are testing CIML NK cells infusions to treat tumors, mostly hematological malignancies. In relapse/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the adoptive transfer of CIML NK cells is safe and complete clinical remissions have been observed. In our review, we sought to summarize the current knowledge about the generation and molecular basis of NK cell memory-like responses and the up-to-date results from clinical trials with CIML NK cells.
    Keywords:  AML - acute myeloid leukemia; NK cells; adaptive NK cells; adoptive cell therapy (ACT); cancer immunotherapy; cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells; memory-like; trained immunity
  3. Vaccines (Basel). 2022 May 04. pii: 721. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Background:Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine mainly administered to newborns and used for over 100 years to prevent the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). This vaccine can induce immune response polarization towards a Th1 profile, which is desired for counteracting M. tb, other mycobacteria, and unrelated intracellular pathogens. The vaccine BCG has been used as a vector to express recombinant proteins and has been shown to protect against several diseases, particularly respiratory viruses. Methods: BCG was used to develop recombinant vaccines expressing either the Nucleoprotein from SARS-CoV-2 or Andes orthohantavirus. Mice were immunized with these vaccines with the aim of evaluating the safety and immunogenicity parameters. Results: Immunization with two doses of 1 × 108 CFU or one dose of 1 × 105 CFU of these BCGs was safe in mice. A statistically significant cellular immune response was induced by both formulations, characterized as the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Stimulation with unrelated antigens resulted in increased expression of activation markers by T cells and secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ, while increased secretion of IL-6 was found for both recombinant vaccines; all of these parameters related to a trained immunity profile. The humoral immune response elicited by both vaccines was modest, but further exposure to antigens could increase this response. Conclusions: The BCG vaccine is a promising platform for developing vaccines against different pathogens, inducing a marked antigen-specific immune response.
    Keywords:  Andes orthohantavirus; SARS-CoV-2; immune response; recombinant BCG; trained immunity
  4. J Leukoc Biol. 2022 May 23.
      Type 2 immune responses are mediated by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 and associated cell types, including T helper (Th)2 cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), basophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages. It can suppress type 1-driven autoimmune diseases, promote antihelminth immunity, maintain cellular metabolic homeostasis, and modulate tissue repair pathways following injury. However, when type 2 immune responses become dysregulated, they can be a significant pathogenesis of many allergic and fibrotic diseases. As such, there is an intense interest in studying the pathways that modulate type 2 immune response so as to identify strategies of targeting and controlling these responses for tissue healing. Herein, we review recent literature on the metabolic regulation of immune cells initiating type 2 immunity and immune cells involved in the effector phase, and talk about how metabolic regulation of immune cell subsets contribute to tissue repair. At last, we discuss whether these findings can provide a novel prospect for regenerative medicine.
    Keywords:  immune cell; immunomodulation; metabolic regulation; tissue repair; type 2 immunity
  5. Cent Eur J Immunol. 2022 ;47(1): 95-101
      In the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, the questions about specific activity of this virus in induction and/or inhibition of the innate and adaptive immune response are still open. Clinical observations of the severe and critical course of infection showed the hyperinflammation and cytokine storm. In organs and tissues that are a target for viral entry the lymphocytes and monocytes are dominant cells in tissue infiltration. There are different ways and different mechanisms leading to immune response disorders. In peripheral blood in the severe and fatal course of disease lymphopenia is frequent as a poor prognosis factor. Reduced numbers of lymphocytes, mainly T cells and NK cells, are noted in the majority of these patients. The NK cells belonging to the innate immunity system are dedicated to the antiviral response due to production of interferon (IFN) and direct lysis of virus infected cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infection NK cells' activity against this pathogen is impaired based on inhibition of IFN production and functional exhaustion. The restoration of NK cell number and function might support elimination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, increasing chances of recovery. The use of activated NK cells in SARS-CoV-2 therapy is under clinical trials.
    Keywords:  ARDS; NK cells; SARS-CoV-2; exhaustion; infection; lungs; lymphopenia; stimulation
  6. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 747799
      Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB) which primarily infects the macrophages. Nearly a quarter of the world's population is infected latently by Mtb. Only around 5%-10% of those infected develop active TB disease, particularly during suppressed host immune conditions or comorbidity such as HIV, hinting toward the heterogeneity of Mtb infection. The aerosolized Mtb first reaches the lungs, and the resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) are among the first cells to encounter the Mtb infection. Evidence suggests that early clearance of Mtb infection is associated with robust innate immune responses in resident macrophages. In addition to lung-resident macrophage subsets, the recruited monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) have been suggested to have a protective role during Mtb infection. Mtb, by virtue of its unique cell surface lipids and secreted protein effectors, can evade killing by the innate immune cells and preferentially establish a niche within the AMs. Continuous efforts to delineate the determinants of host defense mechanisms have brought to the center stage the crucial role of macrophage phenotypical variations for functional adaptations in TB. The morphological and functional heterogeneity and plasticity of the macrophages aid in confining the dissemination of Mtb. However, during a suppressed or hyperactivated immune state, the Mtb virulence factors can affect macrophage homeostasis which may skew to favor pathogen growth, causing active TB. This mini-review is aimed at summarizing the interplay of Mtb pathomechanisms in the macrophages and the implications of macrophage heterogeneity and plasticity during Mtb infection.
    Keywords:  Mycobacterium tuberculosis; innate immunity; macrophage heterogeneity; metabolic reprogramming; phenotype switching; trained immunity
  7. Cells. 2022 May 17. pii: 1663. [Epub ahead of print]11(10):
      Immune cells undergo different metabolic pathways or immunometabolisms to interact with various antigens. Immunometabolism links immunological and metabolic processes and is critical for innate and adaptive immunity. Although metabolic reprogramming is necessary for cell differentiation and proliferation, it may mediate the imbalance of immune homeostasis, leading to the pathogenesis and development of some diseases, such as autoimmune diseases. Here, we discuss the effects of metabolic changes in autoimmune diseases, exerted by the leading actors of innate immunity, and their role in autoimmunity pathogenesis, suggesting many immunotherapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  HIF-1α; autoimmunity; chronic inflammatory disease; glycolysis; immune response; innate immunity; metabolic pathways; oxidative phosphorylation; therapy
  8. Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 May 17. pii: S1567-5769(22)00354-X. [Epub ahead of print]108 108870
      The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its variants have brought unprecedented impacts to the global public health system, politics, economy, and other fields. Although more than ten COVID-19 specific vaccines have been approved for emergency use, COVID-19 prevention and control still face many challenges. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only authorized vaccine used to fight against tuberculosis (TB), it has been hypothesized that BCG may prevent and control COVID-19 based on BCG-induced nonspecific immune responses. Herein, we summarized: 1) The nonspecific protection effects of BCG, such as prophylactic protection effects of BCG on nonmycobacterial infections, immunotherapy effects of BCG vaccine, and enhancement effect of BCG vaccine on unrelated vaccines; 2) Recent evidence of BCG's efficacy against SARS-COV-2 infection from ecological studies, analytical analyses, clinical trials, and animal studies; 3) Three possible mechanisms of BCG vaccine and their effects on COVID-19 control including heterologous immunity, trained immunity, and anti-inflammatory effect. We hope that this review will encourage more scientists to investigate further BCG induced non-specific immune responses and explore their mechanisms, which could be a potential tool for addressing the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19-like "Black Swan" events to reduce the impacts of infectious disease outbreaks on public health, politics, and economy.
    Keywords:  Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG); Black Swan events; COVID-19; Immunity; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccines
  9. mBio. 2022 May 23. e0081522
      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes a number of strategies to modulate viral and host mRNA translation. Here, we used ribosome profiling in SARS-CoV-2-infected model cell lines and primary airway cells grown at an air-liquid interface to gain a deeper understanding of the translationally regulated events in response to virus replication. We found that SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs dominate the cellular mRNA pool but are not more efficiently translated than cellular mRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 utilized a highly efficient ribosomal frameshifting strategy despite notable accumulation of ribosomes within the slippery sequence on the frameshifting element. In a highly permissive cell line model, although SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the transcriptional upregulation of numerous chemokine, cytokine, and interferon-stimulated genes, many of these mRNAs were not translated efficiently. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host mRNA translation was more subtle in primary cells, with marked transcriptional and translational upregulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses and downregulation of processes involved in ciliated cell function. Together, these data reveal the key role of mRNA translation in SARS-CoV-2 replication and highlight unique mechanisms for therapeutic development. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 utilizes a number of strategies to modulate host responses to ensure efficient propagation. Here, we used ribosome profiling in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells to gain a deeper understanding of the translationally regulated events in infected cells. We found that although viral mRNAs are abundantly expressed, they are not more efficiently translated than cellular mRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 utilized a highly efficient ribosomal frameshifting strategy and alternative translation initiation sites that help increase the coding potential of its RNAs. In permissive cells, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the translational repression of numerous innate immune mediators. Though the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host mRNA translation was more subtle in primary airway cell cultures, we noted marked transcriptional and translational upregulation of inflammatory and innate immune responses and downregulation of processes involved in ciliated cell function. Together, these data provide new insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates innate host responses and highlight unique mechanisms for therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords:  SARS-CoV-2; immune response; mRNA translation; programmed frameshifting; ribo-seq; ribosomal frameshifting; ribosome profiling; translational repression; virus replication; virus-host interaction
  10. Vaccines (Basel). 2022 May 23. pii: 827. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis derivative that has been widely used as a live vaccine against tuberculosis for a century. In addition to its use as a tuberculosis vaccine, BCG has also been found to have utility in the prevention or treatment of unrelated diseases, including cancer. However, the protective and therapeutic efficacy of BCG against tuberculosis and other diseases is not perfect. For three decades, it has been possible to genetically modify BCG in an attempt to improve its efficacy. Various immune-modulatory molecules have been produced in recombinant BCG strains and tested for protection against tuberculosis or treatment of several cancers or inflammatory diseases. These molecules include cytokines, bacterial toxins or toxin fragments, as well as other protein and non-protein immune-modulatory molecules. The deletion of genes responsible for the immune-suppressive properties of BCG has also been explored for their effect on BCG-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Most studies limited their investigations to the description of T cell immune responses that were modified by the genetic modifications of BCG. Some studies also reported improved protection by recombinant BCG against tuberculosis or enhanced therapeutic efficacy against various cancer forms or allergies. However, so far, these investigations have been limited to mouse models, and the prophylactic or therapeutic potential of recombinant BCG strains has not yet been illustrated in other species, including humans, with the exception of a genetically modified BCG strain that is now in late-stage clinical development as a vaccine against tuberculosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the different molecular engineering strategies adopted over the last three decades in order to enhance the immune-modulatory potential of BCG.
    Keywords:  bacterial toxins; cytokines; non-tuberculosis diseases; rBCG; tuberculosis
  11. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 863449
      The resolution of inflammation is a temporally and spatially coordinated process that in its innate manifestations, primarily involves neutrophils and macrophages. The shutdown of infection or injury-induced acute inflammation requires termination of neutrophil accumulation within the affected sites, neutrophil demise, and clearance by phagocytes (efferocytosis), such as tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages. This must be followed by macrophage reprogramming from the inflammatory to reparative and consequently resolution-promoting phenotypes and the production of resolution-promoting lipid and protein mediators that limit responses in various cell types and promote tissue repair and return to homeostatic architecture and function. Recent studies suggest that these events, and macrophage reprogramming to pro-resolving phenotypes in particular, are not only important in the acute setting, but might be paramount in limiting chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and various uncontrolled cytokine-driven pathologies. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide health and economic crisis. Severe COVID-19 cases that lead to high morbidity are tightly associated with an exuberant cytokine storm that seems to trigger shock-like pathologies, leading to vascular and multiorgan failures. In other cases, the cytokine storm can lead to diffuse alveolar damage that results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and lung failure. Here, we address recent advances on effectors in the resolution of inflammation and discuss how pro-resolution mechanisms with particular emphasis on macrophage reprogramming, might be harnessed to limit the universal COVID-19 health threat.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; IFN-β; apoptosis; efferocytosis; macrophage reprogramming; resolution of inflammation
  12. Vaccines (Basel). 2022 May 10. pii: 751. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      Many bacterial infections are major health problems worldwide, and treatment of many of these infectious diseases is becoming increasingly difficult due to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat. Prophylactic vaccines against these bacterial pathogens are urgently needed. This is also true for bacterial infections that are still neglected, even though they affect a large part of the world's population, especially under poor hygienic conditions. One example is typhus, a life-threatening disease also known as "war plague" caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, which could potentially come back in a war situation such as the one in Ukraine. However, vaccination against bacterial infections is a challenge. In general, bacteria are much more complex organisms than viruses and as such are more difficult targets. Unlike comparatively simple viruses, bacteria possess a variety of antigens whose immunogenic potential is often unknown, and it is unclear which antigen can elicit a protective and long-lasting immune response. Several vaccines against extracellular bacteria have been developed in the past and are still used successfully today, e.g., vaccines against tetanus, pertussis, and diphtheria. However, while induction of antibody production is usually sufficient for protection against extracellular bacteria, vaccination against intracellular bacteria is much more difficult because effective defense against these pathogens requires T cell-mediated responses, particularly the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. These responses are usually not efficiently elicited by immunization with non-living whole cell antigens or subunit vaccines, so that other antigen delivery strategies are required. This review provides an overview of existing antibacterial vaccines and novel approaches to vaccination with a focus on immunization against intracellular bacteria.
    Keywords:  antigens; extracellular and intracellular bacteria; immunity; vaccine