bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒07‒24
thirteen papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. Front Integr Neurosci. 2022 ;16 881632
      Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) is an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycan side-chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS-GAG) from the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) core protein. Previous studies demonstrated that the administration of ChABC after spinal cord injury promotes nerve regeneration by removing CS-GAGs from the lesion site and promotes the plasticity of spinal neurons by removing CS-GAGs from the perineuronal nets (PNNs). These effects of ChABC might enhance the regeneration and sprouting of descending axons, leading to the recovery of motor function. Anatomical evidence, indicating that the regenerated axons innervate spinal motoneurons caudal to the lesion site, however, has been lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether descending axons pass through the lesion site and innervate the lumbar motoneurons after ChABC administration in rats with complete spinal cord transection (CST) at the thoracic level. At 3 weeks after CST, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) fibers were observed to enter the lesion in ChABC-treated rats, but not saline-treated rats. In addition, 92% of motoneurons in the ventral horn of the fifth lumbar segment (L5) in saline-treated rats, and 38% of those in ChABC-treated rats were surrounded by chondroitin sulfate-A (CS-A) positive structures. At 8 weeks after CST, many 5-HT fibers were observed in the ventral horn of the L5, where they terminated in the motoneurons in ChABC-treated rats, but not in saline-treated rats. In total, 54% of motoneurons in the L5 ventral horn in saline-treated rats and 39% of those in ChABC-treated rats were surrounded by CS-A-positive structures. ChABC-treated rats had a Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) motor score of 3.8 at 2 weeks, 7.1 at 3 weeks, and 10.3 at 8 weeks after CST. These observations suggest that ChABC administration to the lesion site immediately after CST may promote the regeneration of descending 5-HT axons through the lesion site and their termination on motoneurons at the level of caudal to the lesion site. ChABC administration might facilitate reinnervation by degrading CS-GAGs around motoneurons. Motor function of the lower limbs was significantly improved in ChABC-treated rats even before the 5-HT axons terminated on the motoneurons, suggesting that other mechanisms may also contribute to the motor function recovery.
    Keywords:  chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan; complete transection; perineuronal net; serotonin; spinal cord injury
  2. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2022 Jul 19.
      In a parallel placebo-controlled study, we examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on serum concentrations of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteron sulfate (DHEAS), and their relationships with clinical symptoms in men and women with Parkinson's disease. A 20-day course of real rTMS reduced the UPDRS and UPDRS III scores in patients with Parkinson's disease in comparison with the basal parameters (before rTMS), regardless of their sex. The level of cortisol did not change in men and women; at the same time, the content of DHEAS in men increased and before rTMS negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores. Sham rTMS had no effects on clinical parameters or hormonal levels. Possible mechanisms of sex-dependent differences in the effect of rTMS on the level of the neurosteroid hormone DHEAS are discussed.
    Keywords:  Parkinson’s disease; cortisol; dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); sex differences
  3. Exp Neurol. 2022 Jul 19. pii: S0014-4886(22)00202-3. [Epub ahead of print] 114177
      Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with limited treatments that can facilitate brain regeneration. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) hold promise for replacing tissue lost to stroke, and biomaterial approaches may improve their efficacy to overcome hurdles in clinical translation. The immune response and its role in stroke pathogenesis and regeneration may interplay with critical mechanisms of stem cell and biomaterial therapies. Cellular therapy can modulate the immune response to reduce toxic neuroinflammation early after ischemia. However, few studies have attempted to harness the regenerative effects of neuroinflammation to augment recovery. Our previous studies demonstrated that intracerebrally transplanted NPCs encapsulated in a chondroitin sulfate-A hydrogel (CS-A + NPCs) can improve vascular regeneration after stroke. In this paper, we found that CS-A + NPCs affect the microglia/macrophage response to promote a regenerative phenotype following stroke in mice. Following transplantation, PPARγ-expressing microglia/macrophages, and MCP-1 and IL-10 protein levels are enhanced. Secreted immunomodulatory factor expression of other factors was altered compared to NPC transplantation alone. Post-stroke depression-like behavior was reduced following cellular and material transplantation. Furthermore, we showed in cultures that microglia/macrophages encapsulated in CS-A had increased expression of angiogenic and arteriogenic mediators. Neutralization with anti-IL-10 antibody negated these effects in vitro. Cumulatively, this work provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which immunomodulatory biomaterials can enhance the regenerative effects of cellular therapy for ischemic stroke and other brain injuries.
    Keywords:  Glycosaminoglycans; Hydrogel; Immunomodulation; Microglia; Neural progenitor cells; Regeneration; Stroke
  4. BMC Womens Health. 2022 Jul 17. 22(1): 297
      BACKGROUND: The source of excess androgen can be obscure in postmenopausal women with new-onset hyperandrogenism. If serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is raised, it is presumed to be of adrenal origin because DHEAS is exclusively produced from adrenal cortical cells. This reports an elderly female presenting with new-onset hyperandrogenism due to an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumour, associated with increased serum DHEAS levels.CASE DESCRIPTION: A 76-year-old female with long-standing diabetes and hypertension presented with hirsutism and male type alopecia for six months. She had menopause at 55 years of age. There was a pelvic mass on examination. Total testosterone was 6.106 ng/ml (0.124-0.357) and DHEAS was > 1000 µg/dL (35-430). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneously enhancing complex mass measuring 11 × 8 cm in the left adnexal region. Adrenal glands were normal. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. Both testosterone and DHEAS normalised following surgery. Histology revealed a sex cord-stromal tumour, likely a steroid cell tumour with malignant potential. Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron emission tomography did not show any additional lesions.
    CONCLUSIONS: Due to the lack of sulfotransferase in ovarian tissue, markedly elevated DHEAS originating from an ovarian neoplasm is unusual. This phenomenon has not been described except in a patient with a steroid cell tumour causing Cushing syndrome and hyperandrogenism. The mechanism of this rare occurrence remains elusive. Knowledge of this unusual presentation would enable the clinicians to be cautious in localising the androgen source in women with hyperandrogenism.
    Keywords:  DHEAS; Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate; Hyperandrogenism; Ovary; Sex cord-stromal tumour
  5. J Chromatogr A. 2022 Jul 09. pii: S0021-9673(22)00511-8. [Epub ahead of print]1677 463318
      Heparin is a linear sulfated polysaccharide with a complex structure. It is important to figure out the sequences at the terminals of the sugar chains, as it will help us understand the heparin structure deeper and control its quality properly. The tetrasaccharide linkage region (LR) could be a tag to help us find out heparin terminals after digestion by different combinations of heparinases. In this work, orthogonal chromatographic approaches including SAX, SEC-MS and 2D-LC-MS were applied to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the heparinase released LR-terminals. The disaccharides next to LR are those ones with low or non-sulfation, UA-GlcNAc and UA-GlcNAc6S, and then they are extended with the highly sulfated disaccharides, IdoA2S-GlcNS and IdoA2S-GlcNS6S. It is suggested that the sulfo transferases did not work at the sugar residues next to LR terminal, especially the 2-O-sulfo and N-sulfo transferases, which could be affected by steric hindrance from LR, when heparin is biosynthesized. This conclusion will be theoretical fundamental to help us understand heparin's structure deeper. The methods provided in this work could be potential ways to control heparin's quality and monitor the production processes of heparin properly.
    Keywords:  Chromatography; Heparin; Heparinase; Linkage region; Terminal sequences
  6. J Exp Biol. 2022 Jul 21. pii: jeb.244211. [Epub ahead of print]
      Variation in developmental conditions can affect a variety of embryonic processes and shape a number of phenotypic characteristics that can affect offspring throughout their lives. This is particularly true of oviparous species where development typically occurs outside of the female, and studies have shown that traits such as survival and behavior can be altered by both temperature and exposure to steroid hormones during development. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the fate of gonadal development can be affected by temperature and by maternal estrogens present in the egg at oviposition and there is evidence that these factors can affect gene expression patterns. Here, we explore how thermal fluctuations and exposure to an estrogen metabolite, estrone sulfate, affect the expression of several genes known to be involved in sexual differentiation; Kdm6b, Dmrt1, Sox9, FoxL2, and Cyp19A1. We found that most of the genes responded to both temperature and estrone sulfate exposure, but that the responses to these factors was not identical in that estrone sulfate effects occur downstream of temperature effects. Our findings demonstrate that conjugated hormones such as estrone sulfate are capable of influencing temperature dependent pathways to potentially alter how embryos respond to temperature and highlight the importance of studying the interaction of maternal hormone and temperature effects.
    Keywords:  Estrone sulfate; Fluctuating temperature; Gene expression; Intron retention; Maternal effects
  7. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;9(7): ofac245
      Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Antibiotic options for prophylaxis or curative treatment in case of recurrent UTIs, especially due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), are scarce. We present the case of a 72-year-old man with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and history of frequent recurrent UTIs due to multiple MDROs who was successfully treated with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) bladder instillations. We also provide a literature review on the efficacy of HA-CS intravesical instillations for prevention of UTI among this population.
    Keywords:  MDRO; antibiotics; hyaluronic acid; neurogenic bladder; urinary tract infection
  8. Carbohydr Polym. 2022 Oct 15. pii: S0144-8617(22)00698-1. [Epub ahead of print]294 119793
      Heparin, a sulfate-containing linear polysaccharide, has proven preclinical and clinical efficacy for a variety of disorders. Heparin, including unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH), is administered systematically, in the form of a solution in the clinic. However, it is eliminated quickly, due to its short half-life, especially in the case of UFH and LMWH. Frequent administration is required to ensure its therapeutic efficacy, leading to poor patient compliance. Moreover, heparin is used to coat blood-contacting medical devices to avoid thrombosis through physical interaction. However, the short-term durability of heparin on the surface of the stent limits its further application. Various advanced sustained-release strategies have been used to prolong its half-life in vivo as preparation technologies have improved. Herein, we briefly introduce the pharmacological activity and mechanisms of action of heparin. In addition, the strategies for sustained release of heparin are comprehensively summarized.
    Keywords:  Heparin; Pharmacological activity; Sustained-release strategies
  9. Hum Mutat. 2022 Jul 16.
      Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by dermatan sulfate epimerase deficiency (mcEDS-DSE) is a rare connective tissue disorder. This is the first report describing the detailed and comprehensive clinical and pathophysiological features of mcEDS-DSE. The patient, with a novel homozygous nonsense variant (NM_013352.4:c.2601C>A:p.(Tyr867*)), exhibited mild skin hyperextensibility without fragility and small joint hypermobility, but developed recurrent large subcutaneous hematomas. Dermatan sulfate moieties on chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans were significantly decreased, but remained present, in skin fibroblasts. Electron microscopy examination of skin specimens, including cupromeronic blue-staining to visualize glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, revealed co-existence of normally assembled collagen fibrils with attached curved GAG chains and dispersed collagen fibrils with linear GAG chainsfrom attached collagen fibrils across interfibrillar spaces to adjacent fibrils. Residual activity of DS-epi1, encoded by DSE, and/or compensation by DS-epi2, a minor homologue of DS-epi1, may contribute to the mild skin involvement through this "mosaic" pattern of collagen fibril assembly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  cupromeronic blue-staining; dermatan sulfate; dermatan sulfate epimerase; musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; skin ultrastructure
  10. Commun Biol. 2022 Jul 19. 5(1): 694
      Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes various diseases in humans, ranging from common mucocutaneous lesions to severe life-threatening encephalitis. However, our understanding of the interaction between HSV-1 and human host factors remains incomplete. Here, to identify the host factors for HSV-1 infection, we performed a human genome-wide CRISPR screen using near-haploid HAP1 cells, in which gene knockout (KO) could be efficiently achieved. Along with several already known host factors, we identified 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1) as a host factor for HSV-1 infection. The KO of PAPSS1 in HAP1 cells reduced heparan sulfate (HepS) expression, consequently diminishing the binding of HSV-1 and several other HepS-dependent viruses (such as HSV-2, hepatitis B virus, and a human seasonal coronavirus). Hence, our findings provide further insights into the host factor requirements for HSV-1 infection and HepS biosynthesis.
  11. Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 21. 12(1): 12496
      Glycosylation of proteins and lipids occurs in vertebrates, usually terminating with sialylation, which regulates the physicochemical and biological properties of these glycoconjugates. Although less commonly known, sialic acid residues also undergo various modifications, such as acetylation, methylation, and sulfation. However, except for acetylation, the enzymes or functions of the other modification processes are unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the ubiquitous occurrence of sulfated sialic acids and two genes encoding the sialate: O-sulfotransferases 1 and 2 in vertebrates. These two enzymes showed about 50% amino acid sequence identity, and appeared to be complementary to each other in acceptor substrate preferences. Gene targeting experiments showed that the deficiency of these genes was lethal for medaka fish during young fry development and accompanied by different phenotypes. Thus, the sulfation of sialic acids is essential for the vertebrate development.
  12. Bioact Mater. 2022 Nov;17 526-541
      Tissue (re)vascularization strategies face various challenges, as therapeutic cells do not survive long enough in situ, while the administration of pro-angiogenic factors is hampered by fast clearance and insufficient ability to emulate complex spatiotemporal signaling. Here, we propose to address these limitations by engineering a functional biomaterial capable of capturing and concentrating the pro-angiogenic activities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In particular, dextran sulfate, a high molecular weight sulfated glucose polymer, supplemented to MSC cultures, interacts with MSC-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) components and facilitates their co-assembly and accumulation in the pericellular space. Upon decellularization, the resulting dextran sulfate-ECM hybrid material can be processed into MIcroparticles of SOlidified Secretome (MIPSOS). The insoluble format of MIPSOS protects protein components from degradation, while facilitating their sustained release. Proteomic analysis demonstrates that MIPSOS are highly enriched in pro-angiogenic factors, resulting in an enhanced pro-angiogenic bioactivity when compared to naïve MSC-derived ECM (cECM). Consequently, intravital microscopy of full-thickness skin wounds treated with MIPSOS demonstrates accelerated revascularization and healing, far superior to the therapeutic potential of cECM. Hence, the microparticle-based solidified stem cell secretome provides a promising platform to address major limitations of current therapeutic angiogenesis approaches.
    Keywords:  Dextran sulfate; Extracellular matrix; Mesenchymal stem cells; Poly-electrolyte-driven co-assembly; Therapeutic angiogenesis; Wound healing
  13. Comput Biol Chem. 2022 Jul 09. pii: S1476-9271(22)00107-4. [Epub ahead of print]99 107727
      Heparin (HP) belongs to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), anionic linear polysaccharides composed of repetitive disaccharide units. They are key players in many biological processes occurring in the extracellular matrix and at the cell surface. GAGs are challenging molecules for computational research due to their high chemical heterogeneity, flexibility, periodicity, pseudosymmetry, predominantly electrostatics-driven nature of interactions with their protein partners and potential multipose binding. The molecular mechanisms underlying GAG interactions mediated by divalent ions, which are important for GAG binding to several proteins, are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize the binding of Ca2+ to two HP oligosaccharides of different lengths (dp10 and dp18, dp: degree of polymerization) and their impact on HP conformational space and their dynamic behavior with the use of molecular dynamics (MD)-based approaches with two Ca2+ parameter sets. MD data suggested that the flexibility of the monosaccharides, the glycosidic linkages and ring puckering were not affected by the presence of Ca2+, in contrast to H-bond propensities and the calculated Rg for a fraction of the oligosaccharide populations in both dp10 and dp18. Moreover, the essential differences in the data obtained by using two Ca2+ parameter sets were reported.
    Keywords:  Calcium ions; Conformational analysis; Glycosaminoglycans; Heparin; Molecular dynamics