bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒07‒17
nine papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. Front Aging. 2021 ;2 741843
      Discovering compounds that promote health during aging ("geroprotectors") is key to the retardation of age-related pathologies and the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. In in-silico and model organisms' lifespan screens, chondroitin sulfate has emerged as a geroprotective compound. Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan attached to extracellular matrix proteins and is naturally produced by our body. Oral supplementation of chondroitin sulfate shows a high tolerance in humans, preferable pharmacokinetics, a positive correlation with healthy human longevity, and efficacy in deceleration of age-related diseases in randomized clinical trials. We have recently shown that chondroitin sulfate supplementation increases the lifespan of C. elegans. Thus, chondroitin sulfate holds the potential to become a geroprotective strategy to promote health during human aging. This review discusses the two major potential mechanisms of action, extracellular matrix homeostasis and inhibition of inflammation, that counteract age-related pathologies upon chondroitin sulfate supplementation.
    Keywords:  anti inflammatory; chondroitin sulfate; drug discovery; extracellar matrix; healthy aging; longevity; matreotype; supplement
  2. J Mol Med (Berl). 2022 Jul 11.
      Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a neurometabolic disorder, due to the deficit of the lysosomal hydrolase iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS). This leads to a severe clinical condition caused by a multi-organ accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs/GAG) heparan- and dermatan-sulfate, whose elevated levels can be detected in body fluids. Since 2006, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been clinically applied, showing efficacy in some peripheral districts. In addition to clinical monitoring, GAG dosage has been commonly used to evaluate ERT efficacy. However, a strict long-term monitoring of GAG content and composition in body fluids has been rarely performed. Here, we report the characterization of plasma and urine GAGs in Ids knock-out (Ids-ko) compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and their changes along a 24-week follow-up, with and without ERT. The concentration of heparan-sulfate (HS), chondroitin-sulfate (CS), and dermatan-sulfate (DS), and of the non-sulfated hyaluronic acid (HA), together with their differentially sulfated species, was quantified by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence. In untreated Ids-ko mice, HS and CS + DS were noticeably increased at all time points, while during ERT follow-up, a substantial decrease was evidenced for HS and, to a minor extent, for CS + DS. Moreover, several structural parameters were altered in untreated ko mice and reduced after ERT, however without reaching physiological values. Among these, disaccharide B and HS 2s disaccharide showed to be the most interesting candidates as biomarkers for MPS II. GAG chemical signature here defined provides potential biomarkers useful for an early diagnosis of MPS II, a more accurate follow-up of ERT, and efficacy evaluations of newly proposed therapies. KEY MESSAGES : Plasmatic and urinary GAGs are useful markers for MPS II early diagnosis and prognosis. CE-LIF allows GAG structural analysis and the quantification of 17 different disaccharides. Most GAG species increase and many structural features are altered in MPS II mouse model. GAG alterations tend to restore to wild-type levels following ERT administration. CS+DS/HS ratio, % 2,4dis CS+DS, and % HS 2s are potential markers for MPS II pathology and ERT efficacy.
    Keywords:  Dermatan-sulfate; Enzyme replacement therapy; Glycosaminoglycans; Heparan-sulfate; Iduronate 2-sulfatase; Mucopolysaccharidosis type II
  3. ChemSusChem. 2022 Jul 13.
      Regioselective sulfation of bioactive compounds is a vital and scarcely studied topic in enzyme-catalyzed transformations and metabolomics. The major bottleneck of enzymatic sulfation consists in finding suitable sulfate donors. In this regard, PAPS-independent aryl sulfotransferases using aromatic sulfate donors are a favored choice due to their cost-effectiveness. This work presents a unique study of five sulfate donors differing in their leaving group p K a s with a new His-tagged construct of aryl sulfotransferase from Desulfitobacterium hafniense ( Dh AST-tag). Dh AST-tag was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Two new donors (3-nitrophenyl sulfate and 2-nitrophenyl sulfate) were synthesized. The kinetic parameters of these and other commercial sulfates (4-nitrophenyl, 4-methylumbelliferyl, and phenyl) revealed large differences with respect to the structure of the leaving group. These donors were screened for the sulfation of selected flavonoids (myricetin, chrysin) and phenolic acids (gallate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate). The donor impact on the sulfation regioselectivity and yield was assessed. The obtained regioselectively sulfated compounds are authentic human metabolites required as standards in clinical trials.
    Keywords:  Desulfitobacterium hafniense; aryl sulfotransferase; leaving group; sulfate donor; sulfation
  4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 890029
      Aims: Sex hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the associations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Materials and Methods: A total of 995 patients with T2DM were included in the study analysis. Serum levels of DHEA and DHEAS were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of DHEA and DHEAS with CHD and stroke. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal DHEA and DHEAS cutoff values for the detection of CHD in men with T2DM.
    Results: In men with T2DM, after adjustment for potential confounders in model 3, the risk of CHD decreased with an increasing serum DHEA level [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.90; p = 0.037 for trend). Consistently, when considered as a continuous variable, this association remained significant in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40-0.87, p < 0.05). When taken as a continuous variable in model 3, serum DHEAS level was also inversely related to the risk of CHD among men (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38-0.82, p < 0.05). Similarly, this relationship remained statistically significant when DHEAS was categorized into quartiles (OR = 0.27, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1; 95% CI = 0.11-0.67; p = 0.018 for trend). ROC curve analyses revealed that the optimal cutoff values to detect CHD in men with T2DM were 6.43 nmol/L for DHEA and 3.54 μmol/L for DHEAS. In contrast, no significant associations were found between DHEA and DHEAS on the one hand and stroke on the other in men and women with T2DM (all p > 0.05).
    Conclusions: Serum DHEA and DHEAS were significantly and negatively associated with CHD in middle-aged and elderly men with T2DM. This study suggests potential roles of DHEA and DHEAS in CHD pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  coronary heart disease; dehydroepiandrosterone; dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; stroke; type 2 diabetes mellitus
  5. Comput Biol Chem. 2022 Jun 23. pii: S1476-9271(22)00096-2. [Epub ahead of print]99 107716
      Glycosaminoglycans are linear periodic and anionic polysaccharides found in the extracellular matrix, involved in a range of key biochemical processes as a result of their interactions with a variety of protein partners. Due to the template-less synthesis, high flexibility and charge of GAGs, as well as the multipose binding of GAG ligands to receptors, the specificity of GAG-protein interactions can be difficult to elucidate. In this study we propose a set of MD-based descriptors of unbound Heparan Sulfate hexasaccharides that can be used to characterize GAGs and explain their binding affinity to a set of protein receptors. With the help of experimental data on GAG-protein binding affinity, we were able to further characterize the nature of this interaction in addition to providing a basis for predictor functions of GAG-protein binding specificity.
    Keywords:  Glycosaminoglycans; Molecular dynamics; Principal component analysis; Sugar binding specificity
  6. J Dermatol. 2022 Jul 10.
      Mammals express a wide variety of glycans that include N-glycans, O-glycans, proteoglycans, glycolipids, etc. Glycan expression can modulate the cellular functions, and hence is strongly involved in the onset and progression of numerous diseases. Here, we report the relevance of the ectopic expression of keratan sulfate (KS) glycan chains in human malignant melanomas. Using a human melanoma cell line, we found that the KS enhanced the invasiveness of the cells but caused no change in the growth rate of the cells. The phosphorylation of paxillin, a focal adhesion-associated adaptor protein, was strong at the region where KS was expressed in the melanoma tissues, indicating that KS stimulated the phosphorylation of paxillin. We also observed that KS enhanced the adhesion of melanoma cells and this was accompanied by a greatly increased level of phosphorylation of paxillin. These data suggest that the expression of KS contributes to the development of malignant phenotypes such as strong cell adhesion and the invasiveness of melanoma cells.
    Keywords:  cell adhesion; glycan; invasion; keratan sulfate; melanoma; paxillin
  7. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2022 Sep-Oct;95(5):95(5): 365-378
      AbstractBrown bears are obese when they enter the den, and after 6 mo of hibernation and physical inactivity, bears show none of the adverse consequences of a sedentary lifestyle in humans, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and kidney failure. The metabolic mechanisms that drive hibernation physiology in bears are poorly defined, but systemic endocrine regulators are likely involved. To investigate the potential role of steroid hormones, we quantified the total levels of 12 steroid hormones, the precursor cholesterol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in paired serum samples from subadult free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears during the active and hibernation states. During hibernation, androstenedione and testosterone were significantly decreased in subadult female bears (n=13), whereas they increased in all males but one (n=6) and therefore did not reach a significant difference. Despite this difference, SHBG increased more than 20-fold during hibernation for all bears. Compared with SHBG concentrations in humans, bear levels were very low in the active state, but during hibernation, levels equaled high levels in humans. The increased SHBG levels likely maintain a state of relative quiescence of the reproductive hormones in hibernating bears. Interestingly, the combination of SHBG and testosterone levels results in similar free bioavailable testosterone levels of 70-80 pM in both subadult and adult sexually active male bears, suggesting a role for SHBG in controlling androgen action during hibernation in males. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels were below the detection limit in all but one animal. The metabolically active glucocorticoids were significantly higher in both sexes during hibernation, whereas the inactive metabolite cortisone was reduced and CBG was low approaching the detection limit. A potential caveat is that the glucocorticoid levels might be affected by the ketamine applied in the anesthetic mixture for hibernating bears. However, increased hibernating cortisol levels have consistently been reported in both black bears and brown bears. Thus, we suggest that high glucocorticoid activity may support the hibernation state, likely serving to promote lipolysis and gluconeogenesis while limiting tissue glucose uptake to maintain a continuous glucose supply to the brain.
    Keywords:  Ursus arctos; corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG); corticosteroids; hibernation; progestogens; sex hormones; sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG); steroids
  8. Steroids. 2022 Jul 07. pii: S0039-128X(22)00125-8. [Epub ahead of print]186 109087
      Animal and human studies suggest that low concentrations of circulating sex steroid hormones play a critical role in the accelerated loss of muscle mass and strength after menopause. The skeletal muscle can produce sex steroid hormones locally, however, their presence and regulation remain mostly elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine sex steroid hormone concentrations in skeletal muscle biopsies from postmenopausal women before and after 12-weeks of resistance training with (n = 15) or without (n = 16) estrogen therapy, and after acute exercise. Furthermore, associations between circulating sex hormones, intramuscular sex steroid hormones and muscle parameters related to muscle strength, mass and quality were elucidated. Blood and muscle samples, body composition (DXA-scan), muscle size (MR), and muscle strength measures were determined before and after the intervention. An additional blood and muscle sample was collected after the last resistance exercise bout. The results demonstrated reduced intramuscular estradiol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations after resistance training irrespective of estrogen therapy. Acute exercise had no effect on intramuscular sex hormone levels. Low circulating levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) associated with high muscle mass at baseline, and a decline in circulating FSH after the intervention associated with a greater gain in muscle cross-sectional area in response to the resistance training. In conclusion, intramuscular estradiol, testosterone and DHEA were reduced by resistance training and unaffected by changes in circulating estrogen levels induced by estrogen therapy. Serum FSH and LH were superior predictors of muscle mass compared to other circulating and intramuscular sex steroid hormones.
    Keywords:  Estrogen replacement therapy; Exercise training; Females; Hormone replacement therapy; Menopause; Physical function; Physical tests; Sex hormones; Skeletal muscle; Strength training
  9. Toxicol Lett. 2022 Jul 12. pii: S0378-4274(22)00132-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Uremic cardiomyopathy (UCM) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an important risk factor for death. P-Cresyl sulfate (PCS) is a damaging factor in UCM, and Klotho is a protective factor. However, the molecular mechanisms of Klotho and PCS in UCM and the relationship between PCS and Klotho are unclear. In vitro, Klotho treatment inhibited PCS-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis by blocking mTOR phosphorylation and inhibiting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), respectively. Moreover, PCS increased SIRT6 protein ubiquitination and downregulated SIRT6 protein expression, while Klotho inhibited SIRT6 protein ubiquitination and upregulated SIRT6 protein expression. In a mouse model of 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx)-induced UCM, the expression of Klotho in the kidney and serum was decreased, and the expression of SIRT6 protein in myocardial tissues was lower. PCS further reduced Klotho and SIRT6 expression, aggravated heart structure and function abnormalities, and increased myocardial cell apoptosis in UCM mice. Administration of Klotho protein inhibited the downregulation of SIRT6 protein expression and improved cardiac structure and function. Furthermore, serum PCS level was associated with the left ventricular mass (LVM) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hemodialysis patients. In conclusion, the uremic toxin PCS injures cardiomyocytes via mTOR phosphorylation and DSBs, and Klotho antagonizes the damaging effects of PCS. Moreover, the SIRT6 protein plays an important role in UCM, and Klotho suppresses SIRT6 ubiquitination induced by PCS, further improves cardiac structure and function in UCM and exerts protective effects.
    Keywords:  Klotho; SIRT6; p-cresyl sulfate; uremic cardiomyopathy