bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒06‒05
eleven papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. Pol J Microbiol. 2022 Mar 14. 71(1): 55-62
      The most common causal agents of fungal keratitis are yeasts of the Candida genus. Adhesion constitutes the first stage of pathogenesis. Previous studies have shown that glycosaminoglycans from the corneal cell surface play an essential role in bacterial keratitis, although little is known about their role in fungal infections. The objective of this work is to analyze the role that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play in the adhesion of fungi of the Candida genus to corneal epithelial cells. The participation of GAGs in the adhesion of fungi was studied through the specific inhibition of the synthesis of these molecules by enzymatic digestion using specific lyases and the silencing of various genes involved in heparan sulfate sulfation. The results seem to indicate that glycosaminoglycans act to some extent as receptors for this fungus, although there are differences between fungal species. Treatment with inhibitors partially reduced the adherence of fungal species. Digestion of cell surface heparan sulfate further reduced the adherence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata compared to chondroitin sulfate, indicating that the binding is preferentially mediated by heparan sulfate. Degradation of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate produced similar effects on the adherence of Candida parapsilosis. However, adhesion of C. albicans hyphae is not dependent on GAGs, suggesting the expression of other adhesins and the recognition of other receptors present in corneal cells. Our results open the door to new strategies for stopping the adhesion of pathogenic fungi, and their subsequent invasion of the cornea; thus, reducing the probability of the keratitis development.
    Keywords:  chondroitin sulfate; cornea; fungal keratitis; glycosaminoglycan; heparan sulfate
  2. J Food Drug Anal. 2021 Dec 15. 29(4): 533-543
      Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a non-natural sulfated glycosaminoglycan, recognizes as a significant containment in the pharmaceutical heparin, and it could trigger adverse reactions. Chromatography-, electrophoresis-, electrochemistry-, and spectroscopy-related techniques are currently available for accurate and precise analysis of a trace amount of OSCS in heparin. Recently, emerging studies focus on developing colorimetric and fluorescent probes to monitor OSCS containments in heparin. Therefore, this current review aims to describe the sensing principle and procedure of the reported probes that are sensitive and selective toward OSCS in heparin without the interferences of other sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The reported OSCS-specific probes are comprehensively discussed according to the recognition elements of OSCS, including coralyne, AG73 peptides, positively charged tetraphenylethene derivatives, polythiophene polymer, and poly-L-lysine, protamine, superpositively charged green fluorescent proteins, and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride). The sensing of OSCS in heparin is generally achieved using, (i) the specific affinity of the recognition element with OSCS and heparin, (ii) heparinase-mediated hydrolysis of heparin, and (iii) OSCS-induced inhibition of heparinase activity. Additionally, coralyne-based DNA probes can detect OSCS in heparin in the presence of Ca2+ ions without the assistance of heparinase. This review will pave the way to design another sensing probe towards other sulfated contaminants, like dermatan sulfate.
  3. Talanta. 2022 May 18. pii: S0039-9140(22)00347-2. [Epub ahead of print]247 123551
      Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin that accumulates in the plasma after a decline in renal function that might progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD). This accumulation is associated with the onset of dialysis and exacerbation of CKD and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate intestinal secretion as an excretion pathway of indoxyl sulfate in the severe stage of CKD using electrochemical sensing. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole on gold beads was successfully used for the separate sensing of indoxyl sulfate, uric acid (UA), and ascorbic acid. This electrode could detect indoxyl sulfate at concentrations as low as 50 nM in the presence of UA. No indoxyl sulfate secretion was observed in the intestinal loop of healthy rats or those intravenously administered saline. However, indoxyl sulfate secretion was detected in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats that showed high serum indoxyl sulfate levels, which also occurs in patients with CKD stage 4 or 5 and the healthy rats intravenously injected with indoxyl sulfate. These results suggest that indoxyl sulfate is excreted through the intestine when serum indoxyl sulfate level is high. The results of the present study showed that the SAM-modified gold bead electrode can be used as an easy and sensitive method for evaluating indoxyl sulfate secreted in the intestine over time.
    Keywords:  Chronic kidney disease; Indoxyl sulfate secretion; Intestinal secretion; Uremic toxin
  4. Chemosphere. 2022 May 27. pii: S0045-6535(22)01626-5. [Epub ahead of print] 135133
      Bisphenols are endocrine-disrupting chemicals ubiquitously present in the environment, with the consequent exposure to humans. In humans, bisphenols are metabolized to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Recent studies indicate that sulfation represents an important bisphenol metabolic pathway for the most vulnerable humans, such as the growing fetus. Our aim was to evaluate sulfation kinetics of commonly detected bisphenols in biological samples: bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF). Furthermore, we evaluated estrogenic agonist potencies and long-term stability of these bisphenol sulfates. BPS and BPF sulfates were prepared by chemical synthesis. Sulfation kinetics of the selected bisphenols were tested in pooled human liver cytosol, as a source for soluble phase II enzymes, including liver sulfotransferases, with quantification by LC-MS/MS. A validated transactivation assay using the hERα-Hela 9903 cell line was used to determine estrogenic agonist potencies. Moreover, BPA, BPS, and BPF sulfate stabilities were examined under various conditions and during storage. In vitro sulfation of BPA and BPS followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics; BPF sulfation followed a substrate inhibition model. Sulfation rates were comparable for these bisphenols, although their KM values indicated some large differences in affinities. BPA and BPS sulfates are not hERα agonists. The bisphenol sulfates can be considered stable for at least 2 days under these tested media conditions. These data indicate that bisphenol sulfation is an important route in their biotransformation. Compared to glucuronidation, these bisphenols show slower sulfation rates but similar KM values. BPA and BPS metabolic biotransformation by sulfation provides their detoxification as they are without estrogenic activities.
    Keywords:  Bisphenol sulfates; Sulfate estrogenic activity; Sulfate stability; Sulfation kinetics
  5. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 912700
    Keywords:  PAPS synthase; conjugate analytics/mass spectrometry; protein folding/stability/aggregation; sulfation pathways; sulfo-metabolite synthesis/analytics
  6. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2022 ;10 837172
      Bone regeneration in large segmental defects depends on the action of osteoblasts and the ingrowth of new blood vessels. Therefore, it is important to promote the release of osteogenic/angiogenic growth factors. Since the discovery of heparin, its anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer functions have been extensively studied for over a century. Although the application of heparin is widely used in the orthopedic field, its auxiliary effect on bone regeneration is yet to be unveiled. Specifically, approximately one-third of the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily is bound to heparin and heparan sulfate, among which TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) are the most common growth factors used. In addition, heparin can also improve the delivery and retention of BMP-2 in vivo promoting the healing of large bone defects at hyper physiological doses. In blood vessel formation, heparin still plays an integral part of fracture healing by cooperating with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Importantly, since heparin binds to growth factors and release components in nanomaterials, it can significantly facilitate the controlled release and retention of growth factors [such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), BMP, and PDGF] in vivo. Consequently, the knowledge of scaffolds or delivery systems composed of heparin and different biomaterials (including organic, inorganic, metal, and natural polymers) is vital for material-guided bone regeneration research. This study systematically reviews the structural properties and auxiliary functions of heparin, with an emphasis on bone regeneration and its application in biomaterials under physiological conditions.
    Keywords:  bone morphogenic protein-2; bone morphogenic protein-4; bone regeneration; heparan sulfate; heparin; nanomaterial; osteogenic
  7. Chemosphere. 2022 May 26. pii: S0045-6535(22)01552-1. [Epub ahead of print]303(Pt 2): 135059
      Pesticide exposure has been associated with hormonal disruption in both animals and humans. However, there is limited knowledge of the combined effects of complex mixtures of pesticides on endogenous hormone levels. Here, we used hair analysis to assess the impact of a pesticide mixture comprising 19 components from multiple chemical classes at eight doses of 0-400 μg/kg body weight (bw) three times per week per component on concentrations of 36 steroid and thyroid hormones in female rats over a 90-day exposure period. We detected 13 hormones in rat hair, namely estradiol (E2), androstenedione (AD), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 11-deoxycorticosterone (11-DOC), corticosterone (CORT), 3,3'-l-diiodothyronine (T2), 3,5,3'-l-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-l-triiodothyronine (rT3), and 3,5,3',5'-l-tetraiodothyronine (T4). In comparison to the control group, hair E2 concentration was significantly lower in the two highest (200 and 400 μg/kg bw) exposure groups, whereas hair DHEAS and CORT concentrations were significantly higher in the 40 μg/kg bw and the highest exposure groups, respectively. Results from generalized additive models suggest that pesticide exposure resulted in monotonic dose responses in hair E2 concentration, CORT concentration and DHEA/CORT molar ratio but nonmonotonic dose responses in hair T concentration, DHEAS concentration, P4/P5 and DHEA/DHEAS molar ratios. The associations of E2, CORT and DHEA/CORT ratio with exposure intensity were confirmed by their significant linear relationships with hair concentrations of at least 23 of the 25 exposure biomarkers analyzed. Our results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of the pesticide mixture evaluated here can alter hair reproductive and adrenal hormones levels.
    Keywords:  Exposure; Hair analysis; Pesticide mixture; Rats; Steroid hormones; Thyroid hormones
  8. Cell Host Microbe. 2022 May 26. pii: S1931-3128(22)00263-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary compounds generates a vast array of microbiome-dependent metabolites (MDMs), which are highly variable between individuals. The uremic MDMs (uMDMs) phenylacetylglutamine (PAG), p-cresol sulfate (PCS), and indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulate during renal failure and are associated with poor outcomes. Targeted dietary interventions may reduce toxic MDM generation; however, it is unclear if inter-individual differences in diet or gut microbiome dominantly contribute to MDM variance. Here, we use a 7-day homogeneous average American diet to standardize dietary precursor availability in 21 healthy individuals. During dietary homogeneity, the coefficient of variation in PAG, PCS, and IS (primary outcome) did not decrease, nor did inter-individual variation in most identified metabolites; other microbiome metrics showed no or modest responses to the intervention. Host identity and age are dominant contributors to variability in MDMs. These results highlight the potential need to pair dietary modification with microbial therapies to control MDM profiles.
    Keywords:  dietary intervention; microbiome; microbiome-dependent metabolites; precision medicine; uremic solutes
  9. ACS Cent Sci. 2022 May 25. 8(5): 527-545
      Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cell surface polysaccharide recently identified as a coreceptor with the ACE2 protein for the S1 spike protein on SARS-CoV-2 virus, providing a tractable new therapeutic target. Clinically used heparins demonstrate an inhibitory activity but have an anticoagulant activity and are supply-limited, necessitating alternative solutions. Here, we show that synthetic HS mimetic pixatimod (PG545), a cancer drug candidate, binds and destabilizes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain and directly inhibits its binding to ACE2, consistent with molecular modeling identification of multiple molecular contacts and overlapping pixatimod and ACE2 binding sites. Assays with multiple clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 virus show that pixatimod potently inhibits the infection of monkey Vero E6 cells and physiologically relevant human bronchial epithelial cells at safe therapeutic concentrations. Pixatimod also retained broad potency against variants of concern (VOC) including B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Furthermore, in a K18-hACE2 mouse model, pixatimod significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral titers in the upper respiratory tract and virus-induced weight loss. This demonstration of potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity tolerant to emerging mutations establishes proof-of-concept for targeting the HS-Spike protein-ACE2 axis with synthetic HS mimetics and provides a strong rationale for clinical investigation of pixatimod as a potential multimodal therapeutic for COVID-19.
  10. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 ;9 897087
      The physiological, anti-inflammatory, and anti-coagulant properties of endothelial cells (ECs) rely on a complex carbohydrate-rich layer covering the luminal surface of ECs, called the glycocalyx. In a range of cardiovascular disorders, glycocalyx shedding causes endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, underscoring the importance of glycocalyx preservation to avoid disease initiation and progression. In this review we discuss the physiological functions of the glycocalyx with particular focus on how loss of endothelial glycocalyx integrity is linked to cardiovascular risk factors, like hypertension, aging, diabetes and obesity, and contributes to the development of thrombo-inflammatory conditions. Finally, we consider the role of glycocalyx components in regulating inflammatory responses and discuss possible therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving or restoring the endothelial glycocalyx and therefore protecting against cardiovascular disease.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; cardiovascular risk factor; endothelial cell (EC); glycocalyx; heparan sulfate (HS); inflammation; ischemia/reperfusion injury; therapeutic target
  11. Pharm Biol. 2022 Dec;60(1): 879-888
      CONTEXT: Chondroitin 6 sulphate (C6S) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) whose accumulation is notable in mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA and VII. Flaxseed, Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae) (FS), is reported to have comparable properties to those of soybean, a source of genistein, a potential new treatment for MPSs.OBJECTIVE: We assess the effect of total ethanol flaxseed extract (EFSE) in an animal model of C6S accumulation.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in adult male Wistar rats (n = 24) for 15 successive days. The animals were divided into four groups: (1) control injected with physiological saline buffer, (2) intoxicated rats injected intraperitoneally with C6S, (3) intoxicated with C6S and treated with EFSE, and (4) treated with EFSE. All groups were subjected to histopathological and biochemical studies. The antioxidant and phytochemical properties of EFSE were examined.
    RESULTS: Dry EFSE contains total phenols (6.28 mg EAG/g), condensed tannins (2.98 mg ECAT/g) and flavonoids (0.44 mg ECAT/g) with high antioxidant potential [RPE (IC50 = 8.37 ± 0.176), DPPH (IC50 = 12.79 ± 0.273)]. The LD50 is higher than 5000 mg/kg. The histopathological examination showed an accumulation of C6S in the C6S intoxicated group, which disappeared in the C6S-EFSE treated group. GAGs assays showed an increased excretion in the C6S intoxicated group and increased excretion of 14% in the C6S-EFSE group compared to the C6S group.
    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: EFSE showed significant potential for chelation. Its use for the treatment of GAG accumulation could be suggested and generalized to a larger study population.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant activity; chelating effect; chondroitin 6-sulphate; genistein; lignans; quercetin