bims-supasi Biomed News
on Sulfation pathways and signalling
Issue of 2022‒03‒06
eleven papers selected by
Jonathan Wolf Mueller
University of Birmingham

  1. ACS Catal. 2021 Dec 17. 11(24): 14956-14966
      Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST) transfers a sulfo group to the 3-OH position of a glucosamine saccharide unit to form 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. 3-O-sulfation is known to be critically important for bestowing anticoagulant activity and other biological functions of heparan sulfate. Here, we report two ternary crystal structures of 3-OST-5 with PAP (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate) and two octasaccharide substrates. We also used 3-OST-5 to synthesize six 3-O-sulfated 8-mers. Results from the structural analysis of the six 3-O-sulfated 8-mers revealed the substrate specificity of 3-OST-5. The enzyme prefers to sulfate a 6-O-sulfo glucosamine saccharide that is surrounded by glucuronic acid over a 6-O-sulfo glucosamine saccharide that is surrounded by 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid. 3-OST-5 modified 8-mers display a broad range of anti-factor Xa activity, depending on the structure of the 8-mer. We also discovered that the substrate specificity of 3-OST-5 is not governed solely by the side chains from amino acid residues in the active site. The conformational flexibility of the 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid in the saccharide substrates also contributes to the substrate specificity. These findings advance our understanding for how to control the biosynthesis of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate with desired biological activities.
    Keywords:  Sulfotransferase; chemoenzymatic synthesis; heparan sulfate biosynthesis; oligosaccharide; protein/substrate complex
  2. BMC Microbiol. 2022 Feb 26. 22(1): 65
      BACKGROUND: Cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in many physiological and pathological processes, including infections and inflammatory response. Acne is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects the pilosebaceous unit and has a multifactorial etiology, including bacterial colonization of the hair follicle. This study aimed to investigate the participation of GAG in the adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to keratinocytes and fibroblasts of the skin by competition experiments and cell surface removal using specific liases. The alteration in the transcription of the genes responsible for the synthesis of GAG induced by the adhesion of these bacteria was also analyzed by qRT-PCR.RESULTS: GAGs are involved in bacterial adherence to skin cells, especially fibroblasts, where chondroitin sulfate displayed the higher effect. Bacterial adherence produced different alterations in the transcription of the genes responsible for GAG structures. P. acnes induced mostly changes in keratinocytes, while S. epidermidis was the main cause of alterations in fibroblasts. These variations in gene expression affected all the stages in the biosynthesis of the main species of GAGs, heparan and chondroitin sulphate.
    CONCLUSIONS: GAGs species are involved in the adhesion of acne-related bacteria to skin cells in a differential manner depending on each microorganism and cellular type, although other receptors seem to exist. Bacterial adherence led to variations on gene expression in skin cells affecting GAG chains structure what, consequently, should alter their interactions with different ligands, affecting the development of acne disease.
    Keywords:  Acne; Bacterial infection; Chondroitin sulfate; Glycosaminoglycan; Heparan sulfate
  3. Front Neuroanat. 2022 ;16 813841
      Keratan sulfate (KS) glycan is covalently attached to a core protein of proteoglycans. KS is abundant in neuropils and presents densely in close proximity to the perineuronal region of the perineuronal net-positive neurons in the adult brain under physiological conditions. We previously showed that the synthesis of KS positive for the R-10G antibody in the adult brain is mediated by GlcNAc-6-sulfotransferase 3 (GlcNAc6ST3; encoded by Chst5). Deficiency in both GlcNAc6ST3 and GlcNAc6ST1, encoded by Chst2, completely abolished KS. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type z1 (Ptprz1)/phosphacan was identified as a KS scaffold. KS requires the extension of GlcNAc by β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (Beta3Gn-T). Members of the Beta3Gn-T family involved in the synthesis of adult brain KS have not been identified. In this study, we show by a method of gene targeting that Beta3Gn-T7, encoded by B3gnt7, is a major Beta3Gn-T for the synthesis of KS in neuropils and the perineuronal region in the adult brain. Intriguingly, the B3gnt7 gene is selectively expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes similar to that of GlcNAc6ST3. These results indicate that Beta3Gn-T7 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells may play a role in the formation of neuropils and perineuronal nets in the adult brain through the synthesis of R-10G-positive KS-modified proteoglycan.
    Keywords:  B3gnt7; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; adult brain; keratan sulfate (KS); oligodendrocyte
  4. Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Feb 24. pii: S0141-8130(22)00367-1. [Epub ahead of print]206 29-39
      The research focused on tuberculosis as it is one of the world's most serious health problems. The extracted chitin from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana converted into Chitosan (CH). The purified and freeze-dried CH was refined as Sulfated Chitosan (SCH). The SCH was converted into low molecular weight of SCH with various doses of Gamma Irradiation (GIR). Fluorescence characteristics of GIR-SCH and elemental analysis were confirmed. The structure and molecular weights of GIR-SCH were determined with FT-IR, NMR and MALDI-TOF/Mass Spectroscopy. 100 Gy of GIR-SCH significantly showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The MIC against M. smegmatis was not affected by the varied sulfate levels in the identical molecular weight GIR-SCH. However, the lowest molecular weight GIR-SCH displayed a significantly MIC against M. smegmatis. In docking analysis, the 6ZT3 ligand had the lowest binding energy of -1.57 kcal/Mol indicating a superior binding interaction with GIR-SCH. The effect of molecular weight reduction by GIR on the anti-tuberculosis capacity of GIR SCH was investigated in this study which had antimicrobial implications.
    Keywords:  Chitosan; Gamma irradiation; M. smegmatis; MALDI; NMR
  5. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 02. 13(1): 1112
      Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) plays important roles in various cellular processes, facilitating membrane-less organelles construction, chromatin condensation, signal transduction on inner membrane and many other processes. Current perception is that LLPS relies on weak multivalent interactions and crowded environments intracellularly. In this study, we demonstrate that heparan sulfate can serve as a platform to induce the phase separation of basic fibroblast growth factor on cell surface. The phase separation model provides an alternative mechanism how bFGF is enriched to its receptors, therefore triggering the signaling transduction. The research provides insights on the mechanism how growth factors can be recruited to cell surface by heparan sulfate and execute their functions, extending people's view on phase separation from intracellular to extracellular proteins at cellular level.
  6. Front Mol Biosci. 2022 ;9 838148
      Sulfation is poorly understood in most invertebrates and a potential role of sulfation in the regulation of developmental and physiological processes of these organisms remains unclear. Also, animal model system approaches did not identify many sulfation-associated mechanisms, whereas phosphorylation and ubiquitination are regularly found in unbiased genetic and pharmacological studies. However, recent work in the two nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus found a role of sulfatases and sulfotransferases in the regulation of development and phenotypic plasticity. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the role of sulfation in nematodes and highlight future research opportunities made possible by the advanced experimental toolkit available in these organisms.
    Keywords:  Caenorhabditis elegans; Pristionchus pacificus; developmental plasticity; developmental switch; eud-1; nematodes; sulfatases; sulfotransferases
  7. J Agric Food Chem. 2022 Mar 01.
      Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 and OATP2B1 mediate the intestinal absorption of drugs. This study aimed to identify fruit juices or fruit juice components that inhibit OATPs and assess the risk of associated food-drug interactions. Inhibitory potency was assessed by examining the uptake of [3H]estrone 3-sulfate and [3H]fexofenadine into HEK293 cells expressing OATP1A2 or OATP2B1. In vivo experiments were conducted using mice to evaluate the effects of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered fexofenadine. Of eight examined fruit juices, cranberry juice inhibited the functions of both OATPs most potently. Avicularin, a component of cranberry juice, was identified as a novel OATP inhibitor. It exhibited IC50 values of 9.0 and 37 μM for the inhibition of estrone 3-sulfate uptake mediated by OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, respectively. A pharmacokinetic experiment revealed that fexofenadine exposure was significantly reduced (by 50%) by cranberry juice. Cranberry juice may cause drug interactions with OATP substrates.
    Keywords:  OATP; absorption; cranberry juice; fexofenadine; food−drug interaction
  8. Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Feb 25. pii: S0141-8130(22)00375-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      A water-soluble polysaccharide from the green alga Chaetomorpha linum, designated CHS2, was obtained by water extraction, preparative anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses showed that CHS2 was a sulfated rhamnogalactoarabinan, and its backbone was mainly constituted by 4-linked and 3,4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose with sulfate groups at C-2/C-3 of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose. The branching contained 4-linked, 6-linked β-d-galactopyranose and terminal rhamnose residues. Based on the inhibition of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation and morphology change of hIAPP aggregates in in vitro tests, it was proved that CHS2 effectively inhibited the hIAPP aggregation and possessed strong antidiabetic activity. CHS2 was nearly no toxicity in NIT-1 cells and could attenuate hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity. CHS2 may significantly reduce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and hIAPP aggregation-induced oxidative stress in NIT-1 cells. CHS2 was co-localized with mitochondria, and largely protected mitochondria function from hIAPP aggregation-induced damage through stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential and enhancing the mitochondrial complex I, II or III activity and ATP level. The data demonstrated that CHS2 could have potential prospect to become an antidiabetic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment.
    Keywords:  Action mechanism; Antidiabetic activity; Chaetomorpha linum; Human islet amyloid polypeptide; Sulfated polysaccharide
  9. Biomaterials. 2022 Feb 21. pii: S0142-9612(22)00062-X. [Epub ahead of print]283 121423
      Growth factors (GF) regulate normal development to cancer progression. GFs interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules, such as heparin sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG), to enhance their stability and angiogenic signaling. Biomaterials that modulate GF activity by mimicking interactions observed in the native ECM could be designed as an effective treatment strategy. However, these materials failed to attenuate angiogenic signaling site-specifically without sparing normal tissues. In this work, we investigated the effect of a GAG-based biomaterial, which binds to the tumor endothelial cells (TEC), on the interaction among vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors-VEGFR2 and HS-and angiogenesis. Heparin-bile acid based conjugates, as ECM-mimicking component, were synthesized to selectively target the TEC marker doppel and doppel/VEGFR2 axis. The most effective compound LHbisD4 (low molecular weight heparin conjugated with 4 molecules of dimeric dexocholic acid) reduced tumor volume concentrated over doppel-expressing EC, and decreased tumor-interstitial VEGF without affecting its plasma concentration. Doppel-destined LHbisD4 captured VEGF, formed an intermediate complex with doppel, VEGFR2, and VEGF but did not induce active VEGFR2 dimerization, and competitively inhibited HS for VEGF binding. We thus show that GAG-based materials can be designed to imitate and leverage to control tumor microenvironment via bio-inspired interactions.
  10. Exp Mol Med. 2022 Mar 04.
      Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-bound uremic toxins, such as p-cresyl and indoxyl sulfate (IS), are poorly removed during hemodialysis, leading to vascular endothelial dysfunction and leukocyte extravasation. These processes can be related to dynamic adhesion structures called podosomes. Several studies have indicated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the accumulation of integrin-associated proteins in podosomes. Here, we investigated the involvement of ILK and podosome formation in the adhesion and extravasation of monocytes under p-cresol (pc) and IS exposure. Incubation of THP-1 human monocyte cells with these toxins upregulated ILK kinase activity. Together, both toxins increased cell adhesion, podosome formation, extracellular matrix degradation, and migration of THP-1 cells, whereas ILK depletion with specific small interfering RNAs suppressed these processes. Interestingly, F-actin colocalized with cortactin in podosome cores, while ILK was colocalized in podosome rings under toxin stimulation. Podosome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP) and AKT protein depletion demonstrated that monocyte adhesion depends on podosome formation and that the ILK/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these processes. Ex vivo experiments showed that both toxins induced adhesion and podosome formation in leukocytes from wild-type mice, whereas these effects were not observed in leukocytes of conditional ILK-knockdown animals. In summary, under pc and IS stimulation, monocytes increase podosome formation and transmigratory capacity through an ILK/AKT signaling pathway-dependent mechanism, which could lead to vascular injury. Therefore, ILK could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular damage associated with CKD.
  11. Addict Biol. 2022 03;27(2): e13135
      Previous studies have established a role of sex hormones in alcohol use disorder (AUD).Only few clinical investigations with low numbers of patients with AUD have focused on the sulphated form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S), despite its function as a neuromodulating sex steroid on receptors in the central nervous system (γ-aminobutyric acid type A, N-methyl-D-aspartate, sigma-1 receptors). DHEA-S serum levels were compared between 200 inpatients with AUD (44% women) admitted for withdrawal treatment and 240 healthy controls (45% women) and analysed longitudinally in patients from early abstinence (baseline) to a median of 5 days later. We also correlated DHEA-S levels with craving, liver enzyme activities, and prospective alcohol-related readmissions during a 24-month follow-up. DHEA-S concentrations were lower in female patients than in female healthy controls during baseline (70%) and decreased from baseline to follow-up in the female and male patients groups (down to: women, 92%; men, 76%). Baseline DHEA-S concentrations correlated with the total and obsessive subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale and with maximum visual analogue scale craving scores in female patients (Rho ≤ -0.240) and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in female (Rho = -0.292) and male (Rho = -0.391) patients. DHEA-S did not significantly predict outcome. We found interactions with smoking behaviour and age. This is the first study based on large cohorts of inpatients with AUD undergoing a qualified detoxification treatment to provide sex-separated evidence for associations of DHEA-S serum concentrations with AUD and related phenotypes. The results stimulate further investigations whether DHEA-S directly influences alcohol craving building a basis to develop sex-sensitive prevention and treatment strategies.
    Keywords:  AUD; DHEA -S; craving; relapse; sex hormones