bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2021‒06‒13
three papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Theranostics. 2021 ;11(14): 7029-7044
      Background: Increased IL-6 level, M2 macrophages and PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tumor microenvironments (TME) have been identified to correlate with resistance to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, yet the mechanism remains poorly understood. Rab small GTPase-mediated trafficking of cytokines is critical in immuno-modulation. We have previously reported dysregulation of Rab37 in lung cancer cells, whereas the roles of Rab37 in tumor-infiltrating immune cells and cancer immunotherapy are unclear. Methods: The tumor growth of the syngeneic mouse allograft in wild type or Rab37 knockout mice was analyzed. Imaging analyses and vesicle isolation were conducted to determine Rab37-mediated IL-6 secretion. STAT3 binding sites at PD-1 promoter in T cells were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the protein level of Rab37, IL-6 and PD-1 and localization of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in allografts from mice or tumor specimens from lung cancer patients. Results: We revealed that Rab37 regulates the secretion of IL-6 in a GTPase-dependent manner in macrophages to trigger M2 polarization. Macrophage-derived IL-6 promotes STAT3-dependent PD-1 mRNA expression in CD8+ T cells. Clinically, tumors with high stromal Rab37 and IL-6 expression coincide with tumor infiltrating M2-macrophages and PD1+CD8+ T cells that predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. In addition, lung cancer patients with an increase in plasma IL-6 level are found to be associated with immunotherapeutic resistance. Importantly, combined blockade of IL-6 and CTLA-4 improves survival of tumor-bearing mice by reducing infiltration of PD1+CD8+ T cells and M2 macrophages in TME. Conclusions: Rab37/IL-6 trafficking pathway links with IL-6/STAT3/PD-1 transcription regulation to foster an immunosuppressive TME and combined IL-6/CTLA-4 blockade therapy exerts potent anti-tumor efficacy.
    Keywords:  IL-6; PD-1; Rab37; transcription; tumor microenvironment
  2. Basic Res Cardiol. 2021 Jun 08. 116(1): 40
      Obtained from the right cell-type, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) promote stroke recovery. Within this process, microvascular remodeling plays a central role. Herein, we evaluated the effects of MSC-sEVs on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in vitro and on post-ischemic angiogenesis, brain remodeling and neurological recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. In vitro, sEVs obtained from hypoxic (1% O2), but not 'normoxic' (21% O2) MSCs dose-dependently promoted endothelial proliferation, migration, and tube formation and increased post-ischemic endothelial survival. sEVs from hypoxic MSCs regulated a distinct set of miRNAs in hCMEC/D3 cells previously linked to angiogenesis, three being upregulated (miR-126-3p, miR-140-5p, let-7c-5p) and three downregulated (miR-186-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-409-3p). LC/MS-MS revealed 52 proteins differentially abundant in sEVs from hypoxic and 'normoxic' MSCs. 19 proteins were enriched (among them proteins involved in extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, leukocyte transendothelial migration, protein digestion, and absorption), and 33 proteins reduced (among them proteins associated with metabolic pathways, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and actin cytoskeleton) in hypoxic MSC-sEVs. Post-MCAO, sEVs from hypoxic MSCs increased microvascular length and branching point density in previously ischemic tissue assessed by 3D light sheet microscopy over up to 56 days, reduced delayed neuronal degeneration and brain atrophy, and enhanced neurological recovery. sEV-induced angiogenesis in vivo depended on the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In neutrophil-depleted mice, MSC-sEVs did not influence microvascular remodeling. sEVs from hypoxic MSCs have distinct angiogenic properties. Hypoxic preconditioning enhances the restorative effects of MSC-sEVs.
    Keywords:  Endothelial migration; Microvascular network characteristics; Microvascular remodeling; Neuronal survival; Polymorphonuclear neutrophil; Tube formation
  3. iScience. 2021 May 21. 24(5): 102494
      Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is essential for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, and as such, its inhibitors have been long used to treat autoimmune diseases and are in clinical trials for cancer and viral infections. Interestingly, DHODH is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and contributes to provide ubiquinol to the respiratory chain. Thus, DHODH provides the link between nucleotide metabolism and mitochondrial function. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition of DHODH reduces mitochondrial respiration, promotes glycolysis, and enhances GLUT4 translocation to the cytoplasmic membrane and that by activating tumor suppressor p53, increases the expression of GDF15, a cytokine that reduces appetite and prolongs lifespan. In addition, similar to the antidiabetic drug metformin, we observed that in db/db mice, DHODH inhibitors elevate levels of circulating GDF15 and reduce food intake. Further analysis using this model for obesity-induced diabetes revealed that DHODH inhibitors delay pancreatic β cell death and improve metabolic balance.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cellular physiology; Diabetology; Endocrinology; Physiology