bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2021‒01‒24
four papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. J Biol Chem. 2020 Aug 21. pii: S0021-9258(17)50070-8. [Epub ahead of print]295(34): 12086-12098
      Disorganized vessels in the tumor vasculature lead to impaired perfusion, resulting in reduced accessibility to immune cells and chemotherapeutic drugs. In the breast tumor-stroma interplay, paracrine factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) often facilitate disordered angiogenesis. We show here that epigenetic mechanisms regulate the crosstalk between IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathways in myoepithelial (CD10+) and endothelial (CD31+, CD105+, CD146+, and CD133-) cells isolated from malignant and nonmalignant tissues of clinically characterized human breast tumors. Tumor endothelial (Endo-T) cells in 3D cultures exhibited higher VEGFR2 expression levels, accelerated migration, invasion, and disorganized sprout formation in response to elevated IL-6 levels secreted by tumor myoepithelial (Epi-T) cells. Constitutively, compared with normal endothelial (Endo-N) cells, Endo-T cells differentially expressed DNA methyltransferase isoforms and had increased levels of IL-6 signaling intermediates such as IL-6R and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Upon IL-6 treatment, Endo-N and Endo-T cells displayed altered expression of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) isoform. Mechanistic studies revealed that IL-6 induced proteasomal degradation of DNMT1, but not of DNMT3A and DNMT3B and subsequently led to promoter hypomethylation and expression/activation of VEGFR2. IL-6-induced VEGFR2 up-regulation was inhibited by overexpression of DNMT1. Transfection of a dominant-negative STAT3 mutant, but not of STAT1, abrogated VEGFR2 expression. Our results indicate that in the breast tumor microenvironment, IL-6 secreted from myoepithelial cells influences DNMT1 stability, induces the expression of VEGFR2 in endothelial cells via a promoter methylation-dependent mechanism, and leads to disordered angiogenesis.
    Keywords:  DNA methyltransferase; DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1); IL-6; VEGFR2; angiogenesis; breast cancer; epigenetics; gene regulation interleukin 6 (IL-6); myoepithelial cells; signal transduction; tumor microenvironment; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2
  2. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jan 15. pii: E843. [Epub ahead of print]22(2):
      Hypoxia is an integral component of the tumor microenvironment. Either as chronic or cycling hypoxia, it exerts a similar effect on cancer processes by activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor (NF-κB), with cycling hypoxia showing a stronger proinflammatory influence. One of the systems affected by hypoxia is the CXC chemokine system. This paper reviews all available information on hypoxia-induced changes in the expression of all CXC chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL4, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL7, CXCL8 (IL-8), CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12 (SDF-1), CXCL13, CXCL14, CXCL15, CXCL16, CXCL17) as well as CXC chemokine receptors-CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCR6, CXCR7 and CXCR8. First, we present basic information on the effect of these chemoattractant cytokines on cancer processes. We then discuss the effect of hypoxia-induced changes on CXC chemokine expression on the angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of various cells to the tumor niche, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), regulatory T cells (Tregs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Finally, the review summarizes data on the use of drugs targeting the CXC chemokine system in cancer therapies.
    Keywords:  CXC chemokine; HIF-1α; IL-8; NF-κB; SDF-1; cancer; cycling hypoxia; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor; tumor
  3. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Jan 14. pii: E109. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      Although the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, there is growing evidence that neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play important roles in disease development and progression. A major risk factor for the development of AD is diabetes, which is also characterized by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction along with chronic, low-grade inflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that in immune cells, the induction of a pro-inflammatory phenotype is associated with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis. However, whether hyperglycemia also contributes to this shift is not clear. Several different approaches including culturing BV2 microglial cells in different carbon sources, using enzyme inhibitors and knocking down key pathway elements were used in conjunction with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation to address this question. The results indicate that while high glucose favors NO production, pro-inflammatory cytokine production is highest in the presence of carbon sources that drive OXPHOS. In addition, among the carbon sources that drive OXPHOS, glutamine is a very potent inducer of IL6 production. This effect is dampened in the presence of glucose. Together, these results may provide new prospects for the therapeutic manipulation of neuroinflammation in the context of diabetes and AD.
    Keywords:  cytokines; diabetes; glycolysis; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; reactive oxygen species
  4. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2021 Jan 22. e2000777
      SCOPE: Pro-inflammatory stimuli such as hyperglycemia and cytokines have been shown to negatively affect endothelial cell functions. The aim of this study is to assess the potential of quercetin and its human metabolites to overcome the deleterious effects of hyperglycemic or inflammatory conditions on the vascular endothelium by modulating endothelial cell metabolism.METHODS AND RESULTS: A metabolomics approach enabled identification and quantification of 27 human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) metabolites. Treatment of HUVECs with high-glucose concentrations causes significant increases in lactate and glutamate concentrations. Quercetin inhibits glucose-induced increases in lactate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and also increased inosine concentrations. Tumor necrosis factor α-treatment (TNFα) of HUVECs causes increases in asparagine and decreases in aspartate concentrations. Co-treatment with quercetin reduces pyruvate concentrations compared to TNFα-only treated controls. Subsequently, it was shown that quercetin and its HUVEC phase-2 conjugates inhibit adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase and 5'nucleotidase (CD73) but not ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) or purine nucleoside phosphorylase activities.
    CONCLUSION: Quercetin was shown to alter the balance of HUVEC metabolites towards a less inflamed phenotype, both alone and in the presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli. These changes are consistent with the inhibition of particular enzymes involved in purine metabolism by quercetin and its HUVEC metabolites.
    Keywords:  glycemia; inflammation; metabolome; polyphenols; purine metabolism