bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2020‒12‒20
four papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Dec 16. pii: E3798. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Obesity is a modern health problem that has reached pandemic proportions. It is an established risk factor for carcinogenesis, however, evidence for the contribution of adipose tissue to the metastatic behavior of tumors is also mounting. Over 90% of cancer mortality is attributed to metastasis and metastatic tumor cells must communicate with their microenvironment for survival. Many of the characteristics observed in obese adipose tissue strongly mirror the tumor microenvironment. Thus in the case of prostate, pancreatic and breast cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma, which are all located in close anatomical proximity to an adipose tissue depot, the adjacent fat provides an ideal microenvironment to enhance tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Adipocytes provide adipokines, fatty acids and other soluble factors to tumor cells whilst immune cells infiltrate the tumor microenvironment. In addition, there are emerging studies on the role of the extracellular vesicles secreted from adipose tissue, and the extracellular matrix itself, as drivers of obesity-induced metastasis. In the present review, we discuss the major mechanisms responsible for the obesity-metastatic link. Furthermore, understanding these complex mechanisms will provide novel therapies to halt the tumor-adipose tissue crosstalk with the ultimate aim of inhibiting tumor progression and metastatic growth.
    Keywords:  adipokines; adipose tissue; cancer metabolism; cancer relapse; cytokines; extra cellular vesicles; extracellular matrix; metastasis; obesity; tumor progression
  2. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 580131
      To achieve the full therapeutic potential of implanted adipose stem cells (ASCs) in vivo, it is crucial to improve the viability and pro-angiogenic properties of the stem cells. Here, we first simulated the conditions of ischemia and hypoxia using the in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model and confirmed that hypoxic preconditioning of ASCs could provide improved protection against OGD and enhance ASC viability. Second, we assessed the effect of hypoxic preconditioning on pro-angiogenic potential of ASCs, with a particular focus on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and stromal derived factor-1a (SDF-1a) paracrine activity in mediating angiogenesis. We found that the conditioned medium of ASCs (ASCCM) with hypoxic preconditioning enhanced angiogenesis by a series of angiogenesis assay models in vivo and in vitro through the upregulation of and a synergistic effect between VEGF-A and SDF-1a. Finally, to investigate the possible downstream mechanisms of VEGF/VEGFR2 and SDF-1a/CXCR4 axes-driven angiogenesis, we evaluated relevant protein kinases involved the signal transduction pathway of angiogenesis and showed that VEGF/VEGFR2 and SDF-1a/CXCR4 axes may synergistically promote angiogenesis by activating Akt. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that hypoxic preconditioning may constitute a promising strategy to enhance cellular viability and angiogenesis of transplanted ASCs, therein improving the success rate of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering.
    Keywords:  adipose stem cells; cellular viability; hypoxic preconditioning; pro-angiogenesis; tissue engineering
  3. Intensive Care Med Exp. 2020 Dec 18. 8(Suppl 1): 28
      Immune cell activation leads to the acquisition of new functions, such as proliferation, chemotaxis, and cytokine production. These functional changes require continuous metabolic adaption in order to sustain ATP homeostasis for sufficient host defense. The bioenergetic demands are usually met by the interconnected metabolic pathways glycolysis, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from glucose, other sources, such as fatty acids and glutamine, are able to fuel the TCA cycle.Rising evidence has shown that cellular metabolism has a direct effect on the regulation of immune cell functions. Thus, quiescent immune cells maintain a basal metabolic state, which shifts to an accelerated metabolic level upon immune cell activation in order to promote key effector functions.This review article summarizes distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cell subsets from quiescence to activation and demonstrates a methodical concept of how to assess cellular metabolic pathways. It further discusses why metabolic functions are of rising interest for translational research and how they can be affected by the underlying pathophysiological condition and/or therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords:  Catecholamines; Glycolysis; Immunometabolism; Oxidative phosphorylation; Pentose phosphate pathway; Reactive oxygen species; Tricarboxylic acid cycle
  4. Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 15. pii: S2211-1247(20)31489-3. [Epub ahead of print]33(11): 108500
      Immune cell function is influenced by metabolic conditions. Low-glucose, high-lactate environments, such as the placenta, gastrointestinal tract, and the tumor microenvironment, are immunosuppressive, especially for glycolysis-dependent effector T cells. We report that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is reduced to NADH by lactate dehydrogenase in lactate-rich conditions, is a key point of metabolic control in T cells. Reduced NADH is not available for NAD+-dependent enzymatic reactions involving glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH). We show that increased lactate leads to a block at GAPDH and PGDH, leading to the depletion of post-GAPDH glycolytic intermediates, as well as the 3-phosphoglycerate derivative serine that is known to be important for T cell proliferation. Supplementing serine rescues the ability of T cells to proliferate in the presence of lactate-induced reductive stress. Directly targeting the redox state may be a useful approach for developing novel immunotherapies in cancer and therapeutic immunosuppression.
    Keywords:  3-phosphoglycerate; T cell metabolism; glycolysis; immunometabolism; lactate metabolism; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; redox metabolism; serine