bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2020‒10‒18
two papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. J Hematol Oncol. 2020 Oct 15. 13(1): 136
      Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a tumor subpopulation responsible for tumor metastasis and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, ultimately leading to tumor relapse. As a consequence, the detection and eradication of this cell subpopulation represent a current challenge in oncology medicine. CSC phenotype is dependent on the tumor microenvironment (TME), which involves stem and differentiated tumor cells, as well as different cell types, such as mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and cells of the immune system, in addition to the extracellular matrix (ECM), different in composition to the ECM in healthy tissues. CSCs regulate multiple cancer hallmarks through the interaction with cells and ECM in their environment by secreting extracellular vesicles including exosomes, and soluble factors such as interleukins, cytokines, growth factors and other metabolites to the TME. Through these factors, CSCs generate and activate their own tumor niche by recruiting stromal cells and modulate angiogenesis, metastasis, resistance to antitumor treatments and their own maintenance by the secretion of different factors such as IL-6, VEGF and TGF-ß. Due to the strong influence of the CSC secretome on disease development, the new antitumor therapies focus on targeting these communication networks to eradicate the tumor and prevent metastasis, tumor relapse and drug resistance. This review summarizes for the first time the main components of the CSC secretome and how they mediate different tumor processes. Lastly, the relevance of the CSC secretome in the development of more precise and personalized antitumor therapies is discussed.
    Keywords:  Cancer stem cells; Exosomes; Growth factors; Interleukins; Secretome; Tumor microenvironment; miRNAs
  2. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Oct 11. pii: E2917. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate critical intercellular communication within healthy tissues, but are also exploited by tumour cells to promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and host immunosuppression under hypoxic stress. We hypothesize that hypoxic tumours synthesize hypoxia-sensitive proteins for packing into EVs to modulate their microenvironment for cancer progression. In the current report, we employed a heavy isotope pulse/trace quantitative proteomic approach to study hypoxia sensitive proteins in tumour-derived EVs protein. The results revealed that hypoxia stimulated cells to synthesize EVs proteins involved in enhancing tumour cell proliferation (NRSN2, WISP2, SPRX1, LCK), metastasis (GOLM1, STC1, MGAT5B), stemness (STC1, TMEM59), angiogenesis (ANGPTL4), and suppressing host immunity (CD70). In addition, functional clustering analyses revealed that tumour hypoxia was strongly associated with rapid synthesis and EV loading of lysosome-related hydrolases and membrane-trafficking proteins to enhance EVs secretion. Moreover, lung cancer-derived EVs were also enriched in signalling molecules capable of inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in recipient cancer cells to promote their migration and invasion. Together, these data indicate that lung-cancer-derived EVs can act as paracrine/autocrine mediators of tumorigenesis and metastasis in hypoxic microenvironments. Tumour EVs may, therefore, offer novel opportunities for useful biomarkers discovery and therapeutic targeting of different cancer types and at different stages according to microenvironmental conditions.
    Keywords:  epithelial–mesenchymal transition; extracellular vesicles; hypoxia; pulsed-SILAC; quantitative proteomics; tumorigenesis; tumour microenvironment