bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2020‒04‒19
four papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020 ;7 80
    Madduma Hewage S, Prashar S, Debnath SC, O K, Siow YL.
      Chronic low-grade inflammation is a major stimulus for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals consuming high-fat diet. Currently, there are limited treatment options for CKD other than controlling the progression rate and its associated complications. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) is rich in anthocyanins with demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect. In the current study, we investigated the potential renal protective effect of lingonberry and its anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside) in high-fat diet fed obese mice and in human proximal tubular cells. Prolonged consumption of high-fat diets is strongly associated with obesity, abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism. Mice (C57BL/6J) fed a high-fat diet (62% kcal fat) for 12 weeks developed renal injury as indicated by an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level as well as an increase in renal kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and renin expression. Those mice displayed an activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines-monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the kidneys. Mice fed a high-fat diet also had a significant elevation of inflammatory cytokine levels in the plasma. Dietary supplementation of lingonberry for 12 weeks not only attenuated high-fat diet-induced renal inflammatory response but also reduced kidney injury. Such a treatment improved plasma lipid and glucose profiles, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokine levels but did not affect body weight gain induced by high-fat diet feeding. Lingonberry extract or its active component cyanidin-3-glucoside effectively inhibited palmitic acid-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in proximal tubular cells. These results suggest that lingonberry supplementation can reduce inflammatory response and prevent chronic kidney injury. Such a renal protective effect by lingonberry and its active component may be mediated, in part, through NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  NF-κB; chronic kidney disease; cytokines; high-fat diet; inflammation; lingonberry
  2. Immunity. 2020 Apr 14. pii: S1074-7613(20)30117-5. [Epub ahead of print]52(4): 668-682.e7
    Mohamed E, Sierra RA, Trillo-Tinoco J, Cao Y, Innamarato P, Payne KK, de Mingo Pulido A, Mandula J, Zhang S, Thevenot P, Biswas S, Abdalla SK, Costich TL, Hänggi K, Anadon CM, Flores ER, Haura EB, Mehrotra S, Pilon-Thomas S, Ruffell B, Munn DH, Cubillos-Ruiz JR, Conejo-Garcia JR, Rodriguez PC.
      The primary mechanisms supporting immunoregulatory polarization of myeloid cells upon infiltration into tumors remain largely unexplored. Elucidation of these signals could enable better strategies to restore protective anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the role of the intrinsic activation of the PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) in the immunoinhibitory actions of tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells (tumor-MDSCs). PERK signaling increased in tumor-MDSCs, and its deletion transformed MDSCs into myeloid cells that activated CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity against cancer. Tumor-MDSCs lacking PERK exhibited disrupted NRF2-driven antioxidant capacity and impaired mitochondrial respiratory homeostasis. Moreover, reduced NRF2 signaling in PERK-deficient MDSCs elicited cytosolic mitochondrial DNA elevation and, consequently, STING-dependent expression of anti-tumor type I interferon. Reactivation of NRF2 signaling, conditional deletion of STING, or blockade of type I interferon receptor I restored the immunoinhibitory potential of PERK-ablated MDSCs. Our findings demonstrate the pivotal role of PERK in tumor-MDSC functionality and unveil strategies to reprogram immunosuppressive myelopoiesis in tumors to boost cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  ER stress; MDSCs; NRF2; PERK; STING; tumor immunity; type I IFN; unfolded protein responses
  3. BMC Pulm Med. 2020 Apr 16. 20(1): 92
    Shi Z, Xu L, Xie H, Ouyang R, Ke Y, Zhou R, Yung WH.
      BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with pulmonary fibrosis and endothelial apoptosis in pulmonary tissues. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is considered to be the primary player in OSA, but the mechanisms underlying its effect on pulmonary tissues are unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by IH treatment plays an important role in accelerating the process of fibrosis and induction of apoptosis.METHODS: Mice were placed in IH chambers for 4 weeks with an oscillating oxygen (O2) concentration between 5 and 21%, cycling every 90s for 8 h daily. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group (normal oxygen), tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) group (normal oxygen intraperitoneally injected with TUDCA), IH group and IH + TUDCA group. After 4 weeks, the proteins in three branch signaling pathways of ER stress, including protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like/Pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1), were evaluated. The cleaved caspase-3, caspase-12 and TUNNEL staining was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and thrombospondin-1(TSP-1), two extracellular matrix proteins that play critical role in fibrosis, were examined. Finally, Masson's trichrome staining was performed to detect the expression of collagen.
    RESULTS: After 4 weeks of IH treatment, the expressions of two ER stress markers, glucose regulated protein-78 (Grp78) and transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were increased which was prevented by administration of the ER stress attenuator, TUDCA. The expressions of PERK, but not those of ATF-6 and IRE-1, were increased. The effects of IH were accompanied by an increased number of apoptotic cells and increased expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-12 in pulmonary tissues. In addition, histological examination suggested the presence of fibrosis after chronic IH treatment, indicated by increased expression of collagen, which was associated with the up-regulation of TGF-β1 and TSP-1 that are known to promote fibrosis. Similarly, TUDCA could reduce the extent of fibrotic area and the expression levels of these proteins.
    CONCLUSIONS: It reveals the roles of ER stress, especially the PERK pathway, in IH induced apoptosis and fibrosis in pulmonary tissues that might underlie the pulmonary complications observed in OSA.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Fibrosis; Intermittent hypoxia; Obstructive sleep apnea
  4. Int Immunol. 2020 Apr 17. pii: dxaa027. [Epub ahead of print]
    Nakamura A, Otani K, Shichita T.
      Stroke is one of the major causes of lethality and disability, yet few effective therapies have been established for ischemic stroke. Inflammation in the ischemic brain is induced by the infiltration and subsequent activation of immune cells. Loss of cerebral blood flow and ischemic brain-cell death trigger the activation of infiltrating immune cells and drastic changes in the lipid content of the ischemic brain. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites regulate cerebral post-ischemic inflammation and ischemic stroke pathologies. In this review, we discuss the relationships between the lipid mediators and cerebral post-ischemic inflammation and their relevance to possible future therapeutic strategies targeting lipid mediators for ischemic stroke.
    Keywords:  DAMPs; PUFAs; SPMs; brain injury