bims-stacyt Biomed News
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2019‒06‒02
four papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. J Neuroinflammation. 2019 May 29. 16(1): 114
    Yang XL, Wang X, Shao L, Jiang GT, Min JW, Mei XY, He XH, Liu WH, Huang WX, Peng BW.
      BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication with high incidence in both advanced and developing countries. Children surviving from HIE often have severe long-term sequela including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. The severity of HIE in infants is tightly associated with increased IL-1β expression and astrocyte activation which was regulated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel in the TRP family.METHODS: Neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were used to simulate HIE in vivo and in vitro. Primarily cultured astrocytes were used for investigating the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), IL-1β, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and activation of the nucleotide-binding, oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome by using Western blot, q-PCR, and immunofluorescence. Brain atrophy, infarct size, and neurobehavioral disorders were evaluated by Nissl staining, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate (TTC) staining and neurobehavioral tests (geotaxis reflex, cliff aversion reaction, and grip test) individually.
    RESULTS: Astrocytes were overactivated after neonatal HI and OGD challenge. The number of activated astrocytes, the expression level of IL-1β, brain atrophy, and shrinking infarct size were all downregulated in TRPV1 KO mice. TRPV1 deficiency in astrocytes attenuated the expression of GFAP and IL-1β by reducing phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. Meanwhile, IL-1β release was significantly reduced in TRPV1 deficiency astrocytes by inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, neonatal HI-induced neurobehavioral disorders were significantly improved in the TRPV1 KO mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: TRPV1 promotes activation of astrocytes and release of astrocyte-derived IL-1β mainly via JAK2-STAT3 signaling and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into TRPV1-mediated brain damage and neurobehavioral disorders caused by neonatal HI and potentially identify astrocytic TRPV1 as a novel therapeutic target for treating HIE in the subacute stages (24 h).
    Keywords:  Astrocyte; HI; IL-1β; TRPV1
  2. Pharmacol Res. 2019 May 24. pii: S1043-6618(19)30052-0. [Epub ahead of print] 104285
    Mantuano NR, Nunes MC, Silva FA, Dias WB, Todeschini AR.
      Tumors are formed by several cell types interacting in a complex environment of soluble and matrix molecules. The crosstalk between the cells and extracellular components control tumor fate. Macrophages are highly plastic and diverse immune cells that are known to be key regulators of this complex network, which is mostly because they can adjust their metabolism and reprogram their phenotype and effector function. Here, we review the studies that disclose the central role of metabolism and tumor microenvironment in shaping the phenotype and function of macrophages, highlighting the importance of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. We further discuss growing evidence of nutrient-sensitive protein modifications such as O-GlcNAcylation and extracellular glycosylation in the function and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages.
  3. Sci Rep. 2019 May 27. 9(1): 7889
    Irshad Z, Xue M, Ashour A, Larkin JR, Thornalley PJ, Rabbani N.
      Metabolic dysfunction of endothelial cells in hyperglycemia contributes to the development of vascular complications of diabetes where increased reactive glycating agent, methylglyoxal (MG), is involved. We assessed if increased MG glycation induced proteotoxic stress, identifying related metabolic drivers and protein targets. Human aortal endothelial cells (HAECs) were incubated in high glucose concentration (20 mM versus 5 mM control) in vitro for 3-6 days. Flux of glucose metabolism, MG formation and glycation and changes in cytosolic protein abundances, MG modification and proteotoxic responses were assessed. Similar studies were performed with human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells where similar outcomes were observed. HAECs exposed to high glucose concentration showed increased cellular concentration of MG (2.27 ± 0.21 versus 1.28 ± 0.03 pmol/106 cells, P < 0.01) and formation of MG-modified proteins (24.0 ± 3.7 versus 14.1 ± 3.2 pmol/106 cells/day; P < 0.001). In proteomics analysis, high glucose concentration increased proteins of the heat shock response - indicating activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) with downstream inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses. Proteins susceptible to MG modification were enriched in protein folding, protein synthesis, serine/threonine kinase signalling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. MG was increased in high glucose by increased flux of MG formation linked to increased glucose metabolism mediated by proteolytic stabilisation and increase of hexokinase-2 (HK-2); later potentiated by proteolytic down regulation of glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) - the major enzyme of MG metabolism. Silencing of Glo1, selectively increasing MG, activated the UPR similarly. Silencing of HK-2 prevented increased glucose metabolism and MG formation. trans-Resveratrol and hesperetin combination (tRES-HESP) corrected increased MG and glucose metabolism by increasing expression of Glo1 and decreasing expression of HK-2. Increased MG glycation activates the UPR in endothelial cells and thereby may contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetic vascular disease where tRES-HESP may provide effective therapy.
  4. Cancer Lett. 2019 May 25. pii: S0304-3835(19)30316-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lequeux A, Noman MZ, Xiao M, Sauvage D, VAN Moer K, Viry E, Bocci I, Hasmim M, Bosseler M, Berchem G, Janji B.
      Compared to traditional therapies, such as surgery, radio-chemotherapy, or targeted approaches, immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. Although ICBs have yielded long-lasting results and have improved patient survival, this success has been seriously challenged by clinical observations showing that only a small fraction of patients benefit from this revolutionary therapy and no benefit has been found in patients with highly aggressive tumors. Efforts are currently ongoing to identify factors that predict the response to ICB. Among the different predictive markers established so far, the expression levels of immune checkpoint genes have proven to be important biomarkers for informing treatment choices. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of immune checkpoints is a key element that will facilitate novel combination approaches and optimize patient outcome. In this review, we discuss the impact of hypoxia and tumor cell plasticity on immune checkpoint gene expression and provide insight into the therapeutic value of the EMT signature and the rationale for novel combination approaches to improve ICB therapy and maximize the benefits for patients with cancer.
    Keywords:  Cancer immunotherapy; Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition; HIF; Immune checkpoint blockers; PD-L1 and CD47; immune suppression