bims-stacyt Biomed news
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2019‒02‒24
nine papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Cell Metab. 2019 Feb 11. pii: S1550-4131(19)30015-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Schwörer S, Vardhana SA, Thompson CB.
      The metabolic reprogramming associated with malignant transformation has led to a growing appreciation of the nutrients required to support anabolic cell growth. Less well studied is how cancer cells satisfy those demands in vivo, where they are dispersed within a complex microenvironment. Tumor-associated stromal components can support tumor growth by providing nutrients that supplement those provided by the local vasculature. These non-malignant stromal cells are phenotypically similar to those that accumulate during wound healing. Owing to their immediate proximity, stromal cells are inevitably affected by the metabolic activity of their cancerous neighbors. Until recently, a role for tumor cell metabolism in influencing the cell fate decisions of neighboring stromal cells has been underappreciated. Here, we propose that metabolites consumed and released by tumor cells act as paracrine factors that regulate the non-malignant cellular composition of a developing tumor by driving stromal cells toward a regenerative response that supports tumor growth.
    Keywords:  cancer metabolism; cancer-associated fibroblasts; effector T cells; metabolism; regeneration; regulatory T cells; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages; wound healing
  2. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019 Feb 21.
    Yi Q, Tan FH, Tan JA, Chen XH, Xiao Q, Liu YH, Zhang GP, Luo JD.
      Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic and has been shown to play a protective role in cerebral and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we investigated whether monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein-1 (MCPIP1), a negative regulator of inflammation, was involved in the minocycline-induced cardioprotection in myocardial I/R in vivo and in vitro models. Myocardial ischemia was induced in rats by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 1 h and followed by 48 h reperfusion. Minocycline was administered prior to ischemia (45 mg/kg, ip, BID, for 1 d) and over the course of reperfusion (22.5 mg/kg, ip, BID, for 2 d). Cardiac function and infarct sizes were assessed. Administration of minocycline significantly decreased the infarct size, alleviated myocardial cell damage, elevated left ventricle ejection fraction, and left ventricle fractional shortening following I/R injury along with significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in heart tissue. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). Pretreatment with minocycline (1-50 μmol/L) dose-dependently increased the cell viability and inhibited OGD/R-induced expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. Furthermore, minocycline dose-dependently inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in H9c2 cells subjected to OGD/R. In both the in vivo and in vitro models, minocycline significantly increased MCPIP1 protein expression; knockdown of MCPIP1 with siRNA in H9c2 cells abolished all the protective effects of minocycline against OGD/R-induced injury. Our results demonstrate that minocycline alleviates myocardial I/R injury via upregulating MCPIP1, then subsequently inhibiting NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion.
    Keywords:  H9c2 cardiomyocytes; NF-κB; cytokine; minocycline; monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein-1; myocardial ischemia and reperfusion; oxygen glucose deprivation
  3. Neurochem Int. 2019 Feb 19. pii: S0197-0186(18)30688-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    He S, Liu R, Li B, Huang L, Fan W, Tembachako CR, Zheng X, Xiong X, Miyata M, Xu B, Li Y, Fang W.
      CCR2 could recruit immune cells migrating into brain after ischemic stroke. It is unclear whether and why Propagermanium (PG, a CCR2 inhibitor) is able to protect against ischemic injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion injury in C57BL/6 J male mice were performed in vivo to mimic ischemic stroke. Cultured BV2 microglia exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation injury, LPS or IL-4 incubation were served in vitro. TTC staining, neurological score, brain water content, and MRI scan were performed to evaluate stroke outcome. Real time PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence were used to estimate inflammatory cytokines expression and releasing. Western blot was utilized to detect pSTAT1/STAT1 expression. Compared with MCAO mice, PG treatment significantly reduced infarction size and brain edema, improved neurological behavior at 72 h after MCAO. For inflammatory response, PG treatment inhibited inflammatory cytokines releasing, such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-23. Further studies indicated that PG treatment downregulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS and CD86, and inhibited CD16 expressed in microglia. In vitro, PG incubation inhibited BV2 polarized to pro-inflammatory phenotype through STAT1 downregulation, while had no obvious effect on anti-inflammatory phenotype. Our observations suggest that CCR2 inhibitor PG downregulated pro-inflammatory microglia polarization for decreasing pro-inflammatory microglia phenotype marker, and thereafter inhibited inflammatory responses after MCAO in a STAT1-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Ischemic stroke; Microglia; Polarization; Propagermanium
  4. Int Immunol. 2019 Feb 19. pii: dxz002. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhou Z, Pan C, Wang N, Zhou L, Shan H, Gao Y, Yu X.
      Inflammation plays an important role in osteonecrosis. Obesity, a risk factor for osteonecrosis, leads to a chronic inflammatory status. We hypothesized that inflammation mediated the effects of obesity on osteonecrosis and tested our hypothesis in a mouse model of osteonecrosis. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks before osteonecrosis induction by methylprednisolone and examined bone structure and IL-6 expression. Then we investigated the effects of IL-6 deletion in mice with osteonecrosis on the HFD. Next, we isolated bone marrow cells and determined the cell types responsible for HFD-induced IL-6 secretion. Finally, we investigated the roles of macrophages and macrophage-driven IL-6 in HFD-mediated effects on osteonecrosis and osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The HFD lead to exacerbated destruction of the femoral head in mice with osteonecrosis and increased IL-6 expression in macrophages. Il-6 knockout or macrophage depletion suppressed the effects of the HFD on bone damage. When co-cultured with macrophages isolated from HFD-fed mice with osteonecrosis, BMSCs showed reduced viability and suppressed osteogenic differentiation. Our results suggest that macrophage-driven IL-6 bridges obesity and osteonecrosis and inhibition of IL-6 or depletion of macrophage may represent a therapeutic strategy for obesity-associated osteonecrosis.
    Keywords:  IL-6; high-fat diet; inflammation; macrophage; osteonecrosis
  5. Oncotarget. 2019 Jan 25. 10(8): 883-896
    Paardekooper LM, Vos W, van den Bogaart G.
      Solid tumors grow at a high speed leading to insufficient blood supply to tumor cells. This makes the tumor hypoxic, resulting in the Warburg effect and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hypoxia and ROS affect immune cells in the tumor micro-environment, thereby affecting their immune function. Here, we review the known effects of hypoxia and ROS on the function and physiology of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs can (cross-)present tumor antigen to activate naive T cells, which play a pivotal role in anti-tumor immunity. ROS might enter DCs via aquaporins in the plasma membrane, diffusion across the plasma membrane or via extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by tumor cells. Hypoxia and ROS exert complex effects on DCs, and can both inhibit and activate maturation of immature DCs. Furthermore, ROS transferred by EVs and/or produced by the DC can both promote antigen (cross-)presentation through phagosomal alkalinization, which preserves antigens by inhibiting proteases, and by direct oxidative modification of proteases. Hypoxia leads to a more migratory and inflammatory DC phenotype. Lastly, hypoxia alters DCs to shift the T- cell response towards a tumor suppressive Th17 phenotype. From numerous studies, the concept is emerging that hypoxia and ROS are mutually dependent effectors on DC function in the tumor micro-environment. Understanding their precise roles and interplay is important given that an adaptive immune response is required to clear tumor cells.
    Keywords:  dendritic cells; extracellular vesicles; hypoxia; reactive oxygen species; tumor microenvironment
  6. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 15. pii: E840. [Epub ahead of print]20(4):
    Roma-Rodrigues C, Mendes R, Baptista PV, Fernandes AR.
      Cancer development is highly associated to the physiological state of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Despite the existing heterogeneity of tumors from the same or from different anatomical locations, common features can be found in the TME maturation of epithelial-derived tumors. Genetic alterations in tumor cells result in hyperplasia, uncontrolled growth, resistance to apoptosis, and metabolic shift towards anaerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). These events create hypoxia, oxidative stress and acidosis within the TME triggering an adjustment of the extracellular matrix (ECM), a response from neighbor stromal cells (e.g., fibroblasts) and immune cells (lymphocytes and macrophages), inducing angiogenesis and, ultimately, resulting in metastasis. Exosomes secreted by TME cells are central players in all these events. The TME profile is preponderant on prognosis and impacts efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Hence, a big effort has been made to develop new therapeutic strategies towards a more efficient targeting of TME. These efforts focus on: (i) therapeutic strategies targeting TME components, extending from conventional therapeutics, to combined therapies and nanomedicines; and (ii) the development of models that accurately resemble the TME for bench investigations, including tumor-tissue explants, "tumor on a chip" or multicellular tumor-spheroids.
    Keywords:  Tumor microenvironment; cancer therapy; models for tumor microenvironment study; nanomedicines; tumor development
  7. J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Feb 19.
    Wang C, Qu Y, Suo R, Zhu Y.
      Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as playing critical roles in multiple diseases. However, little is known regarding their roles and mechanisms in post-stroke angiogenesis. Our studies focused on deciphering the functional roles and the underlying mechanisms of the lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in the process of angiogenesis following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). We characterized the up-regulation of MALAT1 expression in the process of angiogenesis after hypoxic injury in vivo and in vitro. We further showed that compared with the empty vector, MALAT1 knockdown had significantly reduced the capacity for angiogenesis, which was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), scratching, cell cycle and immunofluorescent staining. Thus, our findings suggest that MALAT1 may mediate proangiogenic function in OGD/R. To further explore the potential mechanisms, we used lentiviruses expressing shMALAT1 and empty vector; the results revealed that shMALAT1 reduced the expression of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (pSTAT3). Taken together, our results are the first to propose that MALAT1 may regulate angiogenesis through the 15-LOX1/STAT3 signalling pathway, and they may provide a critical target for the treatment of hypoxic injury and an avenue for therapeutic angiogenesis.
    Keywords:  MALAT1; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; ischaemia/reperfusion; oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation
  8. Autoimmunity. 2019 Feb 18. 1-10
    Mzimela NC, Ngubane PS, Khathi A.
      Pre-diabetes is a long-lasting condition that precedes type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D has been shown to suppress the immune response. However, it remains unclear if immune activation occurs before the onset of T2D during the progression of the pre-diabetic state. This study sought to characterize the changes in general immunity occurring during the progression from pre-diabetes to T2D. Male rats were fed a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet for 20 weeks (pre-diabetes induction period) and kept on the same diet being monitored for a further 12 weeks (experimental period). Blood was collected for haemocytometer analysis on week 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the experimental period after which the animals were sacrificed. Plasma was collected from centrifuged blood for ELISA (TNF-α, CRP, P-selectin, CD40 L, fibrinogen, and IL-6). Blood neutrophils percentage significantly decreased at week 12 possibly due to recruited neutrophils migrating to an inflamed area such as visceral adipose tissue as further observed. Due to hyperglycaemia, there was significant increase in blood lymphocytes percentage at week 12. Blood monocytes percentage significantly increased at week 12. Monocytes recruited and circulated in blood due to hyperglycaemia for glucose uptake to decrease it from circulation. Blood eosinophils percentage significantly decreased at week 12. Eosinophils migrated to inflamed areas such as visceral adipose tissue as further observed. Blood basophils percentage significantly increased due to their recruitment and activation. TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6 increased significantly after 12 weeks. There was also upregulation of fibrinogen, P-selectin, and CD40L. The results of this study show that there are changes in immune cells concentration and that immune cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils migrate to inflamed areas such as adipose tissue. There is also upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, immune activation begins during the pre-diabetic state as there is upregulation of inflammatory markers.
    Keywords:  High-fat high-carbohydrate diet; Pre-diabetes; immunity; inflammation; type 2 diabetes
  9. Cancer Res. 2019 Feb 18. pii: canres.1984.2018. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lewis DM, Pruitt H, Jain N, Ciccaglione M, McCaffery JM, Xia Z, Weber K, Eisinger-Mathason TSK, Gerecht S.
      Upregulation of collagen matrix cross-linking directly increases its ability to relieve stress under the constant strain imposed by solid tumor, a matrix property termed stress relaxation. However, it is unknown how rapid stress relaxation in response to increased strain impacts disease progression in a hypoxic environment. In this study, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced expression of the cross-linker procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in sarcomas resulted in increased lung metastasis. Short stress relaxation times led to increased cell migration along a hypoxic gradient in 3D collagen matrices, and rapid stress relaxation upregulated PLOD2 expression via TGFβ-SMAD2- signaling, forming a feedback loop between hypoxia and the matrix. Inhibition of this pathway led to a decrease in migration along the hypoxic gradients. In vivo, sarcoma primed in a hypoxic matrix with short stress relaxation time enhanced collagen fiber size and tumor density and increased lung metastasis. High expression of PLOD2 correlated with decreased overall survival in sarcoma patients. Using a patient-derived sarcoma cell line, we developed a predictive platform for future personalized studies and therapeutics. Overall, these data show that the interplay between hypoxia and matrix stress relaxation amplifies PLOD2, which in turn accelerates sarcoma cell motility and metastasis.