bims-stacyt Biomed news
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2019‒01‒20
three papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Exp Ther Med. 2019 Jan;17(1): 17-26
    Zhang C, Dong H, Chen F, Wang Y, Ma J, Wang G.
      The hypoxia-reoxygenation process of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may cause oxidative stress injury of the kidney, but the molecular mechanisms are not clear. The present study aimed to investigate whether high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and its subsequent inflammatory pathway served a role in kidney injury. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used to establish hypoxia models: Continuous hypoxia, intermittent hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia with hypercapnia. Rat kidney tissues and peripheral blood samples were obtained. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes were observed by light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect the distribution of HMGB1. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycosylation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of active B cells (NF-κB) p65 subunit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) mRNA in renal tissues. An ELISA was used to detect the expression of soluble TLR2, TLR4, PPAR-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 in peripheral blood. Hematoxylin & eosin staining demonstrated that there was no serious injury to the kidneys due to hypoxia, with the exception of a certain degree of renal tubular epithelial cell vacuolation. By contrast, ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy were more significant in the hypoxia groups compared with the control, including foot process fusion in the glomerulus and degeneration of mitochondria in the proximal convoluted tubules. IHC also indicated increased expression of HMGB1 and nuclear translocation in the hypoxia groups. The results of the RT-qPCR demonstrated that hypoxia stimulation increased the expression of HMGB1, PPAR, RAGE and TNF-α mRNA, and decreased the expression of SIRT1 mRNA in kidney tissues (P<0.05). The results of the ELISA suggested that hypoxia stimulation increased the expression of soluble TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 in the peripheral blood, and decreased the expression of soluble TLR2 and PPAR-γ. In summary, hypoxia stimulation may cause early renal injury at the subcellular level and increase the expression and translocation of HMGB1. Hypoxia also upregulated the mRNA expression of the HMGB1-RAGE-TNF-α pathway in kidney tissue and increased the expression of soluble TLR4, TNF-α and IL-6 in the peripheral blood. This suggested that the HMGB1-RAGE/TLR-TNF-α pathway may contribute to the molecular mechanisms of early renal injury induced by hypoxia. The pathway may contain potential markers for OSA-associated early renal injury and drug intervention targets in the future.
    Keywords:  high mobility group box 1 protein; hypoxia; inflammation; renal injury; sleep apnea
  2. Autophagy. 2019 Jan 17.
    Niu C, Chen Z, Kim KT, Sun J, Xue M, Chen G, Li S, Shen Y, Zhu Z, Wang X, Liang J, Jiang C, Cong W, Jin L, Li X.
      Studies regarding macroautophagic/autophagic regulation in endothelial cells (ECs) under diabetic conditions are very limited. Clinical evidence establishes an endothelial protective effect of metformin, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether metformin exerts its protective role against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial impairment through the autophagy machinery. db/db mice were treated with intravitreal metformin injections. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured either in normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 33 mM) medium in the presence or absence of metformin for 72 h. We observed an obvious inhibition of hyperglycemia-triggered autophagosome synthesis in both the diabetic retinal vasculature and cultured HUVECs by metformin, along with restoration of hyperglycemia-impaired Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity. Specifically, deletion of ATG7 in retinal vascular ECs of db/db mice and cultured HUVECs indicated a detrimental role of autophagy in hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. Pretreatment with GANT61, a Hh pathway inhibitor, abolished the metformin-mediated downregulation of autophagy and endothelial protective action. Furthermore, GLI-family (transcription factors of the Hh pathway) knockdown in HUVECs and retinal vasculature revealed that downregulation of hyperglycemia-activated autophagy by the metformin-mediated Hh pathway activation was GLI1 dependent. Mechanistically, GLI1 knockdown-triggered autophagy was related to upregulation of BNIP3, which subsequently disrupted the association of BECN1/Beclin 1 and BCL2. The role of BNIP3 in BECN1 dissociation from BCL2 was further confirmed by BNIP3 overexpression or BNIP3 RNAi. Taken together, the endothelial protective effect of metformin under hyperglycemia conditions could be partly attributed to its role in downregulating autophagy via Hh pathway activation.
    Keywords:  BNIP3; GLI1; LC3; angiogenesis; diabetes mellitus; endothelial dysfunction
  3. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jan 09. pii: S1567-5769(18)30919-6. [Epub ahead of print]68 164-170
    Yaghooti H, Mohammadtaghvaei N, Mahboobnia K.
      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have broad immunomodulatory activities. These cells are a stable source of cytokine production such as interleukin-6 (IL6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Fatty acid elevation in chronic metabolic diseases alters the microenvironment of MSCs and thereby, might affect their survival and cytokine production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of palmitate, the most abundant saturated free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma, and astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, on cell viability and apoptosis in human bone marrow-driven mesenchymal stem cells. We also elucidated how palmitate and astaxanthin influence the inflammation in MSCs. Human mesenchymal stem cells were collected from an aspirate of the femurs and tibias marrow compartment. The effect of palmitate on cell viability, caspase activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and secretion were evaluated. In addition, activation of the MAP kinases and NF-kB signaling pathways were investigated. The results showed that astaxanthin protected MSCs from palmitate-induced cell death. We found that palmitate significantly enhanced IL-6, VEGF and MCP-1 expression, and secretion in MSC cells. Increased cytokine expression was parallel to the enhanced phosphorylation of P38, ERK and IKKα-IKKβ. In addition, pretreatment with JNK, ERK, P38, and NF-kB inhibitors could correspondingly attenuate palmitate-induced expression of VEGF, IL-6, and MCP-1. Our results demonstrated that fatty acid exposure causes inflammatory responses in MSCs that can be alleviated favorably by astaxanthin treatment.
    Keywords:  Astaxanthin; IL-6; Mesenchymal stem cell; Monocyte chemotactic Protein-1; Palmitate; Vascular endothelial growth factor