bims-stacyt Biomed news
on Paracrine crosstalk between cancer and the organism
Issue of 2018‒07‒29
two papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018 Jul 19. pii: S0022-2828(18)30682-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lefort C, Benoist L, Chadet S, Piollet M, Heraud A, Babuty D, Baron C, Ivanes F, Angoulvant D.
      Cardiac fibroblasts are important regulators of myocardial structure and function. Their implications in pathological processes such as Ischemia/Reperfusion are well characterized. Cardiac fibroblasts respond to stress by excessive proliferation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors, e.g. ATP, leading to purinergic receptors activation. P2Y11 receptor (P2Y11R) is an ATP-sensitive GPCR playing an immunomodulatory role in human dendritic cells (DC). We hypothesized that P2Y11R stimulation modulated the pro-inflammatory responses of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCF) to Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) mainly by acting on their secretome. P2Y11R stimulation in HCF at the onset of reoxygenation significantly limited H/R-induced proliferation (-19%) and pro-inflammatory cytokines and ATP secretion (-44% and -83% respectively). Exposure of DC to HCF secretome increased their expression of CD83, CD25 and CD86, suggesting a switch from immature to mature phenotype. Under LPS stimulation, DC had a pro-inflammatory profile (high IL-12/IL-10 ratio) that was decreased by HCF secretome (-3,8-fold), indicating induction of a tolerogenic profile. Moreover, P2Y11R inhibition in HCF led to high IL-12 secretion in DC, suggesting that the immunomodulatory effect of HCF secretome is P2Y11R-dependant. HCF secretome reduced H/R-induced cardiomyocytes death (-23%) through RISK pathway activation. P2Y11R inhibition in HCF induced a complete loss of HCF secretome protective effect, highlighting the cardioprotective role of P2Y11R. Our data demonstrated paracrine interactions between HCF, cardiomyocytes and DC following H/R, suggesting a key role of HCF in the cellular responses to reperfusion. These results also demonstrated a beneficial role of P2Y11R in HCF during H/R and strongly support the hypothesis that P2Y11R is a modulator of I/R injury.
    Keywords:  Cardiac fibroblast; Cardioprotection; Immunomodulation; Ischemia reperfusion injury; P2Y purinoceptor
  2. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jul 20. 48(2): 827-837
    Zhang Y, Li X, Zhang H, Zhao Z, Peng Z, Wang Z, Liu G, Li X.
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dairy cows with clinical ketosis display a negative energy balance and high blood concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), the latter of which is an important pathological factor of ketosis in cows. The aims of this study were to investigate the inflammatory status of ketotic cows and to determine whether and through what underlying mechanism high levels of NEFAs induce an inflammatory response.METHODS: Proinflammatory factors and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway were evaluated in neutrophils from clinical ketotic and control cows, using methods including western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, the effects of NEFAs on the NF-κB signaling pathway in cow neutrophils were also evaluated using the above experimental techniques.
    RESULTS: Ketotic cows displayed low blood concentrations of glucose and high blood NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Importantly, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 expression and IκBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation levels in neutrophils (PMNs) were significantly higher in ketotic cows than in control cows, indicating over-activation of the TLR2/4-induced NF-κB inflammatory pathway in PMNs in ketotic cows. The blood concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also significantly increased in ketotic cows. Interestingly, we found that NEFAs were positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, after pharmacological inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4 expression in cow neutrophils, TLR2 and TLR4 expression was significantly decreased, and the phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Cow neutrophils were treated with different concentrations of NEFAs and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; an NF-κB inhibitor). High concentrations of NEFAs (0.5 and 1 mM) significantly increased TLR2 and TLR4 expression, IκBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation levels, NF-κB p65 transcriptional activity, and IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α synthesis in cow neutrophils. The inhibition of NF-κB by PDTC suppressed the NEFA-induced synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines.
    CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of NEFAs can over-activate the TLR2/4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway to induce the over-production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby increasing inflammation in cows with clinical ketosis.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; NF-κB signaling pathway; Neutrophils; Non-esterified fatty acids