bims-stacyt Biomed news on
Starvation pathways leading to cytokine regulation
Issue of 2018‒03‒18
two papers selected by
Cristina Muñoz Pinedo
L’Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge

  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Mar 07. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.03.004
    Abstract:  Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of oxygen metabolism best known for their damaging potential, but recent evidence has exposed their role as secondary messengers, which regulate cell function through redox-activatable signaling systems. In immune cells, specifically in T cells, redox-sensitive signaling pathways have been implicated in controlling several functional domains; including cell cycle progression, T effector cell differentiation, tissue invasion and inflammatory behavior. T cells from patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have emerged as a valuable model system to examine the functional impact of ROS on T cell function. Notably, RA T cells are distinguished from healthy T cells based on reduced ROS production and undergo "reductive stress". Upstream defects leading to the ROSlow status of RA T cells are connected to metabolic reorganization. RA T cells shunt glucose away from pyruvate and ATP production towards the pentose phosphate pathway, where they generate NADPH and consume cellular ROS. Downstream consequences of the ROSlow conditions in RA T cells include insufficient activation of the DNA repair kinase ATM, bypassing of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and biased differentiation of T cells into IFN-γ and IL-17-producing inflammatory cells. Also, ROSlow T cells rapidly invade into peripheral tissue due to dysregulated lipogenesis, excessive membrane ruffling, and overexpression of a motility module dominated by the scaffolding protein Tks5. These data place ROS into a pinnacle position in connecting cellular metabolism and protective versus auto-aggressive T cell immunity. Therapeutic interventions for targeted ROS enhancement instead of ROS depletion should be developed as a novel strategy to treat autoimmune tissue inflammation.
    Keywords:  ATM; NADPH; Reactive oxygen species; TKS5; glycolysis; podosomes; reductive stress; rheumatoid arthritis; tissue invasion
  2. J Proteomics. 2018 Mar 07. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.02.031
    Abstract:  Hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis in most solid tumors due to its multiple effects on therapy resistance, angiogenesis, apoptotic resistance, and tumor invasion/metastasis. Here we used a comprehensive omics profiling to investigate hypoxia-regulated gene expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Quantitative analyses of proteome and secretome were performed in HCT116 cells cultured under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. A total of 5700 proteins were quantified in proteome analysis and 722 proteins were quantified in secretome analysis. Both datasets were combined with the transcriptome and translatome datasets for further analysis. Verification of candidate proteins/genes in this integrated omics analysis was performed using immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses. We also performed polysome profiling to assess changes in translational efficiency of hypoxia-induced genes. Notably, several genes were differently regulated at the transcriptional and translational levels in HCT116 cells during hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that hypoxia regulates translation of genes involved in extracellular matrix organization, extracellular exosomes, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Aberrations in these metabolic pathways appear to be correlated with an increased risk of tumor invasion/metastasis. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study integrates transcriptome/translatome and proteome/secretome to analyze gene expression changes in human colon cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. Candidate proteins/genes in this integrated omics analysis were further validated by immunoblotting, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and polysome profiling. The datasets would be useful to uncover the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced gene regulation in colorectal cancer.
    Keywords:  Colorectal cancer; Hypoxia; Proteome; Secretome; Transcriptome; Translatome