bims-skolko Biomed News
on Scholarly communication
Issue of 2023‒03‒26
28 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. J Orthop. 2023 Apr;38 30-31
      Graphical abstract (GA) is the pictorial presentation of key findings of the manuscript which make the readers and viewers understand the highlights of the manuscript. The adoption of GA in the journal improves manuscript's visibility and journal's citations in the subsequent years. There are various challenges faced by the author and editorial team to incorporate GA in the journal. Infographics play a major role as a resource for creating an effective GA. The GA helps in promoting and propagating scientific research among scholarly peers in the community for inter-country collaborations through various social media.
    Keywords:  Graphical abstract; Infographics; Research
  2. Am J Epidemiol. 2023 Mar 23. pii: kwad052. [Epub ahead of print]
      Peer-reviewed journals provide an invaluable but inadequate vehicle for scientific communication. Preprints are now an essential complement to peer-reviewed publications. Eschewing preprints will slow scientific progress and reduce the public health impact of epidemiologic research. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted long-standing limitations of the peer-review process. Preprint servers, such as bioRxiv and medRxiv, served as crucial venues to rapidly disseminate research and provide detailed backup to sound-bite science that is often communicated through the popular press or social media. The major criticisms of preprints arise from an unjustified optimism about peer-review. Peer-review provides highly imperfect sorting and curation of research and only modest improvements in research conduct or presentation for most individual papers. The advantages of peer-review come at the expense of months to years of delay in sharing research methods or results. For time-sensitive evidence, these delays can lead to important missteps and ill-advised policies. Even with research that is not intrinsically urgent, preprints expedite debate, expand engagement, and accelerate progress. The risk that poor quality papers will have undue influence because they are posted on a preprint server is low. If epidemiology aims to deliver evidence relevant for public health, we need to embrace strategic uses of preprint servers.
    Keywords:  Peer-review; Preprints; Public health; Scientific communication
  3. Nat Hum Behav. 2023 Mar 20.
      High-profile political endorsements by scientific publications have become common in recent years, raising concerns about backlash against the endorsing organizations and scientific expertise. In a preregistered large-sample controlled experiment, I randomly assigned participants to receive information about the endorsement of Joe Biden by the scientific journal Nature during the COVID-19 pandemic. The endorsement message caused large reductions in stated trust in Nature among Trump supporters. This distrust lowered the demand for COVID-related information provided by Nature, as evidenced by substantially reduced requests for Nature articles on vaccine efficacy when offered. The endorsement also reduced Trump supporters' trust in scientists in general. The estimated effects on Biden supporters' trust in Nature and scientists were positive, small and mostly statistically insignificant. I found little evidence that the endorsement changed views about Biden and Trump. These results suggest that political endorsement by scientific journals can undermine and polarize public confidence in the endorsing journals and the scientific community.
  4. Nature. 2023 Mar 22.
    Keywords:  Authorship; Publishing; Research data
  5. Respirology. 2023 Mar 23.
    Keywords:  peer review; publishing; science
  6. Autism. 2023 Mar 25. 13623613231163083
      LAY ABSTRACT: Research papers are sometimes hard to follow. Lay abstracts give a short account of research papers. However, it is unclear whether lay abstracts are readable to the lay people. This study examined the readability of 570 abstracts and lay abstracts published between 2020 and 2022 in the journal Autism. We found that that lay abstracts are easier to read than abstracts but are harder to read than news reports. The findings suggest that lay abstracts, on average, are hard to read for the lay people. We propose that the journal and its authors may invite reviewers from outside the research community to test whether a lay abstract is readable.
    Keywords:  academic writing; lay abstract; plain language; readability; science communication
  7. Prog Orthod. 2023 Mar 21. 24(1): 11
      BACKGROUND: Surgical-assisted accelerated orthodontics (SAAO) has become very popular recently. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which researchers adhere to Item 19 (harms) of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) in the published studies in the field of SAAO. In addition, the study evaluated the possible association between harm reporting and the human development index (HDI) of the recruited research sample country, CiteScore-based quartile (CSBQ) of the publishing journal, invasiveness of the surgical intervention (ISI), and the type of orthodontic tooth movement (TOTM). Moreover, it aimed to summarize the different possible harms and complications that maybe encountered in the course of SAAO.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic searching of six databases was conducted for SAAO-related English RCTs published between January 2000 and April 2022. For the RCTs that did not report harms, information was sought by contacting the corresponding authors. Descriptive statistics of the evaluated variables were performed. The association between 'harm reporting' and the HDI of the research team, the BDRQ of the publication journal, the ISI, and the TOTM were investigated. Binary logistic regression was used, and the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) of the evaluated variables were obtained. Moreover, the risk of bias of the included RCTs was assessed using the RoB2 tool.
    RESULTS: Among the 91 included RCTs, 54 RCTs (59.3%) did not adhere to reporting harm associated with the SAAO. The non-adherence was significantly associated with the ISI (OR 0.16; CI 0.03-0.73; p < 0.018) for invasive methods compared with minimally invasive ones). There was a significant positive correlation between harm reporting and both the CSBQ of the publishing journal and the HDI of the recruited research sample country (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively). On the contrary, a non-significant association was found between harm reporting and the type of OTM (p = 0.695). The incidence of harms associated with SAAO was approximately 17.5%.
    LIMITATIONS: Assessment was restricted to English RCTs related to SAAO.
    CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The adherence to reporting harms in the field of SAAO was deficient. Efforts should be made by authors, peer reviewers, and editors to improve compliance with the CONSORT guidelines regarding harms reporting. Additionally, there is a wide spectrum of harms that could be associated with SAAO that the practitioner should pay attention to and alert the patient to the possibility of their occurrence.
    Keywords:  Acceleration; CONSORT; Epidemiological studies; Harm; Minimally invasive procedures; Orthodontic tooth movement; Randomized controlled trials; Reporting; Risks and benefits
  8. Mater Sociomed. 2022 Dec;34(4): 248-253
      The decision of the citation database to include or not include a journal is not subject to the control of another entity, or the professional public, and there are no internationally established ethical standards that the citation database would have to apply. As a consequence of the absence of control, the already mentioned offensive reviews and arbitrary interpretation of the criteria for journal inclusion appear. Given that a journal's entry into the citation database is a condition for its long-term survival, people who make decisions in the citation databases gain the power to shut down or revive certain journals based on personal preferences. Any power that is not controlled is eventually abused. Therefore, our proposal is to urgently establish the principles of ethical behavior of citation databases at the global level and find ways to ensure compliance with such principles.
    Keywords:  Medical Journal Citation Databases; Science editing
  9. Gastro Hep Adv. 2023 Mar;2(3): 370-379
      Background & Aims: Results of randomized clinical trials are often first presented as conference abstracts, but these abstracts may be difficult to find, and trial results included in the abstract may not be followed by subsequent journal publications. In a review of abstracts submitted to eight major medical and surgical conferences in 2017, we identified 237 abstracts reporting primary results of randomized clinical trials accepted for presentation at three major gastroenterology and hepatology conferences. The aims of this new analysis were to determine the publication rate for these abstracts and the proportion of publications that included trial registration numbers in the publication abstract.Methods: Clinical trial registries, PubMed, Europe PMC, and Google Scholar were searched through November 1, 2021, for publications reporting trial results for the selected abstracts. Publications were reviewed to determine if they included a trial registration number and if the registration number was in the abstract.
    Results: Publications were found for 157 abstracts (66%) within four years of the conference. Publications were found more frequently for the 194 abstracts reporting results of registered trials (144, 74%) than for the 43 abstracts reporting unregistered trials (13, 30%), but only 67% of these 144 publications included the registration number in the publication abstract. Ten unpublished trials had summary results posted on
    Conclusions: Clinical trial results could be more accessible if all trials were registered, authors included registration numbers in both conference and journal abstracts, and journal editors required the inclusion of registration numbers in publication abstracts for registered clinical trials.
    Keywords:  CONSORT; Conference; Publication bias; Trial registration
  10. Trials. 2023 Mar 22. 24(1): 176
      Reporting of intervention research has been inadequate for many years. The development and promotion of freely available checklists aims to address this problem by providing researchers with a list of items that require reporting to enable study interpretation and replication. In this commentary, we present evidence from a recent systematic review of 51 randomised controlled trials published 2015-2020 that inadequate intervention reporting remains a widespread issue and that checklists are not being used to describe all intervention components. In 2022, we assessed the submission guidelines of 33 journals that published articles included in our review and found that just one at the time encouraged the use of reporting checklists for all intervention components. To drive progress, we contacted the editors of the other 32 journals and requested that they update their submission guidelines in response. We conclude by highlighting the waste associated with current practices and encourage journals from all fields to urgently review their submission guidelines. Only through collective action can we build an evidence base that is fit for purpose.
    Keywords:  Complex interventions; Journal editors; Reporting checklists; Reproducibility; Research integrity; Submission guidelines
  11. PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022 ;2(6): e0000541
      In light of global environmental crises and the need for sustainable development, the fields of public health and environmental sciences have become increasingly interrelated. Both fields require interdisciplinary thinking and global solutions, which is largely directed by scientific progress documented in peer-reviewed journals. Journal editors play a critical role in coordinating and shaping what is accepted as scientific knowledge. Previous research has demonstrated a lack of diversity in the gender and geographic representation of editors across scientific disciplines. This study aimed to explore the diversity of journal editorial boards publishing in environmental science and public health. The Clarivate Journal Citation Reports database was used to identify journals classified as Public, Environmental, and Occupational (PEO) Health, Environmental Studies, or Environmental Sciences. Current EB members were identified from each journal's publicly available website between 1 March and 31 May 2021. Individuals' names, editorial board roles, institutional affiliations, geographic locations (city, country), and inferred gender were collected. Binomial 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the proportions of interest. Pearson correlations with false discovery rate adjustment were used to assess the correlation between journal-based indicators and editorial board characteristics. Linear regression and logistic regression models were fitted to further assess the relationship between gender presence, low- and middle-income country (LMIC) presence and several journal and editor-based indicators. After identifying 628 unique journals and excluding discontinued or unavailable journals, 615 journal editorial boards were included. In-depth analysis was conducted on 591 journals with complete gender and geographic data for their 27,772 editors. Overall, the majority of editors were men (65.9%), followed by women (32.9%) and non-binary/other gender minorities (0.05%). 75.5% journal editorial boards (n = 446) were composed of a majority of men (>55% men), whilst only 13.2% (n = 78) demonstrated gender parity (between 45-55% women/gender minorities). Journals categorized as PEO Health had the most gender diversity. Furthermore, 84% of editors (n = 23,280) were based in high-income countries and only 2.5% of journals (n = 15) demonstrated economic parity in their editorial boards (between 45-55% editors from LMICs). Geographically, the majority of editors' institutions were based in the United Nations (UN) Western Europe and Other region (76.9%), with 35.2% of editors (n = 9,761) coming solely from the United States and 8.6% (n = 2,373) solely from the United Kingdom. None of the editors-in-chief and only 27 editors in total were women based in low-income countries. Through the examination of journal editorial boards, this study exposes the glaring lack of diversity in editorial boards in environmental science and public health, explores the power dynamics affecting the creation and dissemination of knowledge, and proposes concrete actions to remedy these structural inequities in order to inform more equitable, just and impactful knowledge creation.
  12. Eur Online J Nat Soc Sci. 2022 ;11(2): 309-315
      Authorship has important implications and carries considerable responsibilities. The present study explored faculty members knowledge and perceptions of authorship at Jordanian universities. For this research a survey was distributed to faculty members at three major universities in Jordan. The study found that only 33% of the participants were aware about International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). In addition, the knowledge of the participants about basic principles of authorship was rated as medium. The number of research and level of ICMJE knowledge was found to exert a significant effect on commitment to authorship principle subscale score. Finally, the majority expressed good authorship believes that graduate students should be the lead authors on the publications that are derived from their thesis. Knowledge about authorship principles among faculty members in Jordan needs improvements.
    Keywords:  Authorship; ICMJE; Jordan; Research ethics; Survey
  13. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2023 Mar 04. pii: S0266-4356(23)00066-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Predatory publishers, also known as counterfeit, deceptive, or fraudulent, are organisations that exploit the open-access scholarly model by charging hefty article processing charges (APCs), often without the scientific rigour and ethical processes offered by legitimate journals. Their rising prevalence is of concern to the scientific community, as the consequences of falling victim to them can negatively impact academic integrity and reputation, and render an author's work worthless and untrustworthy. Common characteristics include inappropriate marketing and misrepresentation of services by targeting individuals with solicitation emails, inadequate peer-review processes, lack of editorial services and transparency about APCs, and false claims about citation metrics and indexing that cannot be verified. Given the infiltration of predatory publishers, authors are advised to proceed with caution when receiving solicitation emails and if in doubt, to follow the Think, Check, Submit checklist.
    Keywords:  Open access; Peer review; Predatory journal; Publishing ethics; Scholarly communication; Transparency
  14. Pak J Med Sci. 2023 Mar-Apr;39(2):39(2): 317-322
      Systematic reviews rank at the top of the evidence hierarchy. Concise writing implies drafting the systematic review article succinctly, i.e. using as few words to express as full an extent of the research effort as possible. Precise writing means drafting the text with accuracy especially with respect to the methodological and statistical aspects. The Abstract ought to be succinct and structured to allow for editors, peer reviewers and readers to get the gist of the key aspects of the systematic review with a quick read. The readership needs to be able to critically appraisal systematic reviews for their internal and external validity rapidly. The Abstract also needs to be standalone, representing an independent summary that can be fully understood without the need for reading the full paper. The standard structure of the main text of a scientific article called IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) applies equally to systematic reviews in the same way as it does to any other kinds of research manuscripts whether related to laboratory experiments or clinical trials. Restricting the word count limits to those imposed by journals may at first seem difficult, even unfair, to systematic reviewers. However, with the availability of online appendices to transparently and fully report the details of the methods, results and other aspects of the work undertaken allows for a succinct print or PDF article. Writing a shorter manuscript is more effortful than writing a longer report. This commentary is aimed at novice systematic reviewers to help them learn the written and unwritten writing rules in order to assist them in producing impactful publications to support evidence-based medicine.
    Keywords:  Integrity; Reporting; Systematic Review
  15. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2023 Mar 17. pii: S1058-2746(23)00260-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Over the last few decades, several databases and clinical registries have been used to generate studies for orthopedic surgery research including shoulder arthroplasty. Observational database studies present data that is best used to provide information regarding associations between variables but is unable to prove causation. Yet, there remains a tendency for authors to use causal language and conclusive statements in published shoulder arthroplasty literature utilizing such databases.METHODS: We systematically identified administrative database and registry studies on shoulder arthroplasty in five orthopedic journals from January 2020 to December 2021. Papers were independently graded by two reviewers for the presence, absence, or inconsistent use of causal language throughout the publication. Chi-squared analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between causality language and article characteristics including the journal of publication.
    RESULTS: There were 65 eligible articles. 67.7% of titles and abstracts were considered either consistently causal or inconsistently causal in language and inference. When reviewing the full text, 69.2% contained some degree of causal language (38.5% consistently causal, 30.8% inconsistently causal). There were no statistically significant associations between the journal and title and abstract final grading (p = 0.863) or the journal and full text grading (p = 0.726).
    CONCLUSION: The use of causal language remains highly prevalent in observational database studies related to shoulder arthroplasty. Understanding the limitations of observational database studies is paramount for accurate interpretation of these publications.
    Keywords:  Association; Causality; Database Studies; Registry; Shoulder Arthroplasty
  16. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Jan;21(1): e131812
      Scientific publishing, with about 350-year historical background, has played a central role in advancing science by disseminating new findings, generalizing accepted theories, and sharing novel ideas. The number of scientific journals has exponentially grown from 10 at the end of the 17th century to 100,000 at the end of the 20th century. The publishing landscape has dramatically changed over time from printed journals to online publishing. Although scientific publishing was initially non-commercial, it has become a profitable industry with a significant global financial turnover, reaching $28 billion in annual revenue before the COVID-19 pandemic. However, scientific publishing has encountered several challenges and is suffering from unethical practices and some negative phenomena, like publish-or-perish, driven by the need to survive or get a promotion in academia. Developing a global landscape with collaborative non-commercial journals and platforms is a primary proposed model for the future of scientific publishing. Here, we provide a brief history of the foundation and development of scientific journals and their evolution over time. Furthermore, current challenges and future perspectives of scientific publishing are discussed.
    Keywords:  History; Journal; Scientific Paper; Scientific Publishing
  17. J Bacteriol. 2023 Mar 21. 205(3): e0006923
    Keywords:  accelerated submission; editorial board; review