bims-skolko Biomed News
on Scholarly communication
Issue of 2022‒07‒10
fifteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Sci Eng Ethics. 2022 Jul 07. 28(4): 31
      In the last 20 years, there has been a sharp increase in the incidence of retractions of articles published in scientific journals, the majority of which are due to research misconduct. In some cases, researchers have revised and republished articles that were retracted due to misconduct, which raises some novel questions concerning authorship. Suppose that an article is retracted because one of the authors fabricated or falsified some data, but the researchers decide to salvage the useable data, make appropriate revisions, and resubmit the article for publication. If the person who committed misconduct has made a significant contribution to the research reported in the revised paper, should they be named as an author to recognize this contribution or should they be denied authorship because they committed misconduct? This is a challenging issue because it involves the confluence of two research ethics domains that are usually dealt with separately, i.e., resolution of authorship disputes and adjudication of misconduct findings, as well as potential conflicts among norms that underlie authorship practices and misconduct adjudication. In this paper, we (1) describe some actual cases involving articles that were retracted for misconduct and republished; (2) review policies from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, and top fifteen biomedical journals to determine whether they provide adequate guidance for cases like these; and (3) analyze the ethical and policy issues that may arise in these situations.
    Keywords:  Adjudication; Authorship; Ethical norms; Misconduct; Replacement; Republication; Research integrity; Retraction
  2. Res Integr Peer Rev. 2022 Jul 04. 7(1): 4
      There are growing bodies of evidence demonstrating the benefits of equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) on academic and organizational excellence. In turn, some editors have stated their desire to improve the EDI of their journals and of the wider scientific community. The Royal Society of Chemistry established a minimum set of requirements aimed at improving EDI in scholarly publishing. Additionally, several resources were reported to have the potential to improve EDI, but their effectiveness and feasibility are yet to be determined. In this commentary we suggest six approaches, based on the Royal Society of Chemistry set of requirements, that journals could implement to improve EDI. They are: (1) adopt a journal EDI statement with clear, actionable steps to achieve it; (2) promote the use of inclusive and bias-free language; (3) appoint a journal's EDI director or lead; (4) establish a EDI mentoring approach; (5) monitor adherence to EDI principles; and (6) publish reports on EDI actions and achievements. We also provide examples of journals that have implemented some of these strategies, and discuss the roles of peer reviewers, authors, researchers, academic institutes, and funders in improving EDI.
    Keywords:  Diversity; Editorial bias; Equity; Inclusion; Journal policies; Research Integrity
  3. J Prof Nurs. 2022 Jul-Aug;41:pii: S8755-7223(22)00044-8. [Epub ahead of print]41 19-25
      Open access repositories have become more widely used for the dissemination of Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) scholarly projects nationally and internationally. This article shares lessons learned from five years of experience with using an institutional repository, archiving and showcasing over 100 full-text DNP projects in the collection. The aims of this article are to examine the advantages of disseminating DNP scholarly projects through an Open Access (OA) repository and to explore how items archived in OA repositories complement traditional publishing models as supplementary parts of the research ecosystem. Items from the collection have been downloaded over 72,000 times at over 3700 institutions in 182 countries around the globe. Archiving DNP projects in an OA collection can improve health care practices by augmenting the dissemination of practice outcomes in traditional peer-reviewed literature. This article provides guidance for those looking to establish and evaluate similar collections, highlighting lessons learned.
    Keywords:  Dissemination of practice scholarship; Doctor of nursing practice; Institutional repositories; Open access; Practice scholarship
  4. Virologie (Montrouge). 2022 05 01. 26(3): 222-227
  5. FEBS J. 2022 Jul;289(13): 3592-3602
      Literature reviews are valuable resources for the scientific community. With research accelerating at an unprecedented speed in recent years and more and more original papers being published, review articles have become increasingly important as a means to keep up to date with developments in a particular area of research. A good review article provides readers with an in-depth understanding of a field and highlights key gaps and challenges to address with future research. Writing a review article also helps to expand the writer's knowledge of their specialist area and to develop their analytical and communication skills, amongst other benefits. Thus, the importance of building review-writing into a scientific career cannot be overstated. In this instalment of The FEBS Journal's Words of Advice series, I provide detailed guidance on planning and writing an informative and engaging literature review.
  6. Front Res Metr Anal. 2022 ;7 911070
    Keywords:  academic search; citation content analysis; computational linguistics; natural language processing; scientific papers; scientometrics; text mining
  7. Ann Surg. 2022 Jul 08.
      OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the quality and accuracy of visual abstracts published in academic surgical journals.BACKGROUND: Visual abstracts are commonly used to disseminate medical research findings. They distill the key messages of a research article, presenting them graphically in an engaging manner so that potential readers can decide whether to read the complete manuscript.
    METHODS: We developed the Visual Abstract Assessment Tool based upon published guidelines. Seven reviewers underwent iterative training to apply the tool. We collected visual abstracts published by 25 surgical journals from January 2017 to April 2021; those corresponding to systematic reviews without meta-analysis, conference abstracts, narrative reviews, video abstracts, or nonclinical research were excluded. Included visual abstracts were scored on accuracy (as compared with written abstracts) and design, and were given a "first impression" score.
    RESULTS: Across 25 surgical journals 1325 visual abstracts were scored. We found accuracy deficits in the reporting of study design (35.8%), appropriate icon use (49%), and sample size reporting (69.2%), and design deficits in element alignment (54.8%) and symmetry (36.1%). Overall scores ranged from 9 to 14 (out of 15), accuracy scores from 4 to 8 (out of 8), and design scores from 3 to 7 (out of 7). No predictors of visual abstract score were identified.
    CONCLUSION: Visual abstracts vary widely in quality. As visual abstracts become integrated with the traditional components of scientific publication, they must be held to similarly high standards. We propose a checklist to be used by authors and journals to standardize the quality of visual abstracts.
  8. Aust Educ Res. 2022 Jun 28. 1-22
      Publishing in the academy is a high-stakes activity often used to measure academic staff progress and inform promotion. Many universities have increased pressure on academics, even at the earliest stages of their careers, to publish in high-ranking journals resulting in increased stress and uncertainty. The authors of this paper are members of a writing group in an Australian regional university, established to support each other towards success in quality research and publishing. Over the 2020-2021 summer semester, six members of the group decided to reflect on their experiences, emotions and outcomes throughout the writing process by participating in four reflective arts-based activities. Theoretical frameworks of reflection and metaphor were used to share findings. Strong evidence of having to grapple with meeting university expectations in tension with personal goals and passions was ever-present. The importance of drawing on both personal resources and significant others to manage these tensions through self-care practices was also evident. Implications resulting from this research include recognising the pressures placed on academics to publish only in specifically ranked journals. Overall, the arts-based reflection was critical in uncovering deeper feelings about the pressures of publishing and supporting higher education employees' well-being and self-care during the writing process.
    Keywords:  Academia; Accountability; Arts-based research; Metaphor; Publish or perish; Reflection; Self-care
  9. Elife. 2022 Jul 07. pii: e72602. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Analysis of the content of medical journals enables us to frame the shifting scientific, material, ethical, and epistemic underpinnings of medicine over time, including today. Leveraging a dataset comprised of nearly half-a-million articles published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) over the past 200 years, we (a) highlight the evolution of medical language, and its manifestations in shifts of usage and meaning, (b) examine traces of the medical profession's changing self-identity over time, reflected in its shifting ethical and epistemic underpinnings, (c) analyze medicine's material underpinnings and how we describe where medicine is practiced, (d) demonstrate how the occurrence of specific disease terms within the journals reflects the changing burden of disease itself over time and the interests and perspectives of authors and editors, and (e) showcase how this dataset can allow us to explore the evolution of modern medical ideas and further our understanding of how modern disease concepts came to be, and of the retained legacies of prior embedded values.
    Keywords:  JAMA; NEJM; history of medicine; medical journal; medicine; none
  10. J Vasc Bras. 2022 ;21 e20220001
      Background: The quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific output increases decade by decade. However, there is a tendency to undervalue Brazilian journals, illustrated by the low number of citations compared with texts in international journals, with the tacit justification that foreign articles are of superior quality.Objectives: To investigate the differences in numbers of citations of Brazilian and international periodicals in three Brazilian journals from 2016 to 2020.
    Methods: All articles published in the Journal of the Brazilian College of Surgeons, in the Jornal Vascular Brasileiro, and in Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira from 2016 to 2020 were analyzed. The references of these studies were analyzed, summing the total number of citations and classifying them as published in Brazilian or foreign journals.
    Results: A total of 902 articles were analyzed, totaling 23,394 references, with a mean of 25.81 ± 8.59 references per article. Of these, 2,680 (11.45%) were Brazilian, equating to a mean of 2.95 ± 3.79 Brazilian references per article.
    Conclusions: It is necessary to improve appreciation of Brazilian periodicals, especially among Brazilian researchers and institutions responsible for science funding.
    Keywords:  bibliography; impact factor; journal article; journal impact factor
  11. Electron Mark. 2022 Jun 27. 1-15
      With the prevalence of online review websites, understanding online reviewer characteristics has become important, as such an understanding provides brand managers with opportunities to segment their markets, target influencers, and develop effective marketing strategies. Nonetheless, past studies have overlooked the role of network structural positions in the characteristics of online reviewers. Accordingly, using data from Yelp websites as samples, this study attempted to explore the differences in reviewer characteristics by network structural positions. The study used multiple data collection and analysis approaches, including web scraping, network analysis, and statistical analysis. The results of this study showed that compared to peripheral reviewers, core reviewers exhibited significantly more photos and brands reviewed and included a higher proportion of early reviewers. The study has significant theoretical and practical implications for researchers and brand managers who are interested in understanding online review markets.
    Keywords:  Network structural positions; Online reviews; Reviewer characteristics
  12. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2022 Jul 06. 33(7): 1086-1087