bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2022‒04‒24
forty-two papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2022 Apr 18. pii: S1471-4892(22)00040-6. [Epub ahead of print]64 102213
      Cellular senescence is associated with normal development and wound healing, but has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous aging-related diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). Treatment strategies for OA are being developed that target senescent cells and the paracrine and autocrine secretions of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The field of potential therapies continues to expand as new mechanistic targets of cell senescence and the SASP are identified. Ongoing pre-clinical and clinical studies of drugs targeting cellular senescence yield significant promise, but have yet to demonstrate long-term efficacy. Therapeutic targeting of senescence is challenged by the diverse phenotypes of senescent cells, which can vary depending on age, species, tissue source, and type of physiologic stressor. Accordingly, there remains considerable demand for more studies to further develop and assess senotherapeutics as disease-modifying treatments for OA.
  2. Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Apr 21.
      INTRODUCTION: There are many factors and conditions that lead to cellular senescence. Replicative senescence and Hayflick phenomenon are the most important causes of cellular senescence. Senescent cells also lead to wound healing conditions resulting from injury and toxic conditions.MATERIAL AND METHODS: When a cell becomes senescent, it stops replication and begins to leak inflammatory signals before growth. It also alters the extracellular matrix and behavior of neighbor cells and even motivates them. This review was conducted to determine the association between senescence and bone marrow cancer.
    RESULTS: The results showed that senescent cells have a short life span due to their self-destructive nature or natural removal from the body by the immune system. These signals are effective to a certain extent in regenerating the damaged cells when present in a transient state. Cellular senescence can decrease the risk of all cancers, including bone marrow cancer, ensuring that cells with significant DNA injury are prevented from replication.
    CONCLUSION: However, senescent cells increase in number as they age, which is very harmful over time. These cells extend into an older tissue for longer periods of time and form longer clusters in older tissues. Therefore, cellular senescence significantly contributes to aging.
    Keywords:  Bone marrow; Cancers; Cellular senescence; Immune system
  3. FEBS J. 2022 Apr 23.
      The human genome is capable of producing hundreds of thousands of different proteins and non-coding RNAs from less than 20,000 genes, in a co-ordinated and regulated fashion. This is achieved by a collection of phenomena known as mRNA processing and metabolism, and encompasses events in the life cycle of an RNA from synthesis to degradation. These factors are critical determinants of cellular adaptability and plasticity, which allows the cell to adjust its transcriptomic output in response to its internal and external environment. Evidence is building that dysfunctional RNA processing and metabolism may be a key contributor to the development of cellular senescence. Senescent cells by definition have exited cell division, but gained functional features such as the secretion of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), a known driver of chronic disease and perhaps even ageing itself. In this review, I will outline the impact of dysregulated mRNA processing and metabolism on senescence and ageing at the level of molecules, cells and systems, and describe the mechanisms by which progressive deterioration in these processes may impact senescence and organismal ageing. Finally, I will present the evidence implicating this important process as a new hallmark of ageing, which could be harnessed in the future to develop new senotherapeutic interventions for chronic disease.
    Keywords:  RNA processing; Senescence; ageing; senotherapies; splicing
  4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 869414
      Increased insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion are significant characteristics manifested by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The degree and extent of these two features in T2DM vary among races and individuals. Insulin resistance is accelerated by obesity and is accompanied by accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissues. In addition, dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells impairs insulin secretion. T2DM is significantly affected by aging, as the β-cell mass diminishes with age. Moreover, both obesity and hyperglycemia-related metabolic changes in developing diabetes are associated with accumulation of senescent cells in multiple organs, that is, organismal aging. Cellular senescence is defined as a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest with concomitant functional decline. It is caused by telomere shortening or senescence-inducing stress. Senescent cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which is designated as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and this has a negative impact on adipose tissues and pancreatic β-cells. Recent advances in aging research have suggested that senolysis, the removal of senescent cells, can be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent or improve aging-related diseases, including diabetes. The attenuation of a SASP may be beneficial, although the pathophysiological involvement of cellular senescence in diabetes is not fully understood. In the clinical application of senotherapy, tissue-context-dependent senescent cells are increasingly being recognized as an issue to be solved. Recent studies have observed highly heterogenic and complex senescent cell populations that serve distinct roles among tissues, various stages of disease, and different ages. For example, in high-fat-diet induced diabetes with obesity, mouse adipose tissues display accumulation of p21 Cip1-highly-expressing (p21 high) cells in the early stage, followed by increases in both p21 high and p16 INK4a-highly-expressing (p16 high) cells in the late stage. Interestingly, elimination of p21 high cells in visceral adipose tissue can prevent or improve insulin resistance in mice with obesity, while p16 high cell clearance is less effective in alleviating insulin resistance. Importantly, in immune-deficient mice transplanted with fat from obese patients, dasatinib plus quercetin, a senolytic cocktail that reduces the number of both p21 high and p16 high cells, improves both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. On the other hand, in pancreatic β cells, p16 high cells become increasingly predominant with age and development of diabetes. Consistently, elimination of p16 high cells in mice improves both glucose tolerance and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Moreover, a senolytic compound, the anti-Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT263 reduces p16 INK4a expression in islets and restores glucose tolerance in mice when combined with insulin receptor antagonist S961 treatment. In addition, efficacy of senotherapy in targeting mouse pancreatic β cells has been validated not only in T2DM, but also in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Indeed, in non-obese diabetic mice, treatment with anti-Bcl-2 inhibitors, such as ABT199, eliminates senescent pancreatic β cells, resulting in prevention of diabetes mellitus. These findings clearly indicate that features of diabetes are partly determined by which or where senescent cells reside in vivo, as adipose tissues and pancreatic β cells are responsible for insulin resistance and insulin secretion, respectively. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding cellular senescence in adipose tissues and pancreatic β cells in diabetes. We review the different potential molecular targets and distinctive senotherapeutic strategies in adipose tissues and pancreatic β cells. We propose the novel concept of a dual-target tailored approach in senotherapy against diabetes.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; aging; cellular senescence; diabetes mellitus; obesity; pancreatic β cell; senolysis; tailored senotherapy
  5. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2022 Apr 23.
      Cellular senescence is an irreversible cell arrest process, which is determined by a variety of complicated mechanisms, including telomere attrition, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disorders, loss of protein homeostasis, epigenetic changes, etc. Cellular senescence is causally related to the occurrence and development of age-related disease. The elderly is liable to suffer from disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative to explore specific countermeasures for the treatment of age-related diseases. Numerous studies on humans and mice emphasize the significance of metabolic imbalance caused by short telomeres and mitochondrial damages in the onset of age-related diseases. Although the experimental data are relatively independent, more and more evidences have shown that there is mutual crosstalk between telomeres and mitochondrial metabolism in the process of cellular senescence. This review systematically discusses the relationship between telomere length, mitochondrial metabolic disorder, as well as their underlying mechanisms for cellular senescence and age-related diseases. Future studies on telomere and mitochondrial metabolism may shed light on potential therapeutic strategies for age-related diseases. Graphical Abstract The characteristics of cellular senescence mainly include mitochondrial dysfunction and telomere attrition. Mitochondrial dysfunction will cause mitochondrial metabolic disorders, including decreased ATP production, increased ROS production, as well as enhanced cellular apoptosis. While oxidative stress reaction to produce ROS, leads to DNA damage, and eventually influences telomere length. Under the stimulation of oxidative stress, telomerase catalytic subunit TERT mainly plays an inhibitory role on oxidative stress, reduces the production of ROS and protects telomere function. Concurrently, mitochondrial dysfunction and telomere attrition eventually induce a range of age-related diseases, such as T2DM, osteoporosis, AD, etc. :increase; :reduce;⟝:inhibition.
    Keywords:  Aging; Cellular senescence; Mitochondrial metabolism; Telomeres
  6. Geroscience. 2022 Apr 23.
      Senescent cells are in a cell cycle arrest state and accumulate with aging and obesity, contributing to a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment with senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin (D + Q) can reduce senescent cell burden in several tissues, increasing lifespan. Despite this, there are few reports about senescent cells accumulating in female reproductive tissues. Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the ovarian reserve and its relationship with cellular senescence in genetically obese mice (ob/ob). In experiment 1, ob/ob (n = 5) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 5) at 12 months of age were evaluated. In experiment 2, 2-month-old female ob/ob mice were treated with senolytics (D + Q, n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) during the 4 months. Obese mice had more senescent cells in ovaries, indicated by increased p21 and p16 and lipofuscin staining and macrophage infiltration. Treatment with D + Q significantly reduced senescent cell burden in ovaries of obese mice. Neither obesity nor treatment with D + Q affected the number of ovarian follicles. In conclusion, our data indicate that obesity due to leptin deficiency increases the load of senescent cells in the ovary, which is reduced by treatment by senolytics. However, neither obesity nor D + Q treatment affected the ovarian reserve.
    Keywords:  Cell senescence; Dasatinib; Obesity; Ovarian reserve; Quercetin
  7. Mech Ageing Dev. 2022 Apr 14. pii: S0047-6374(22)00057-4. [Epub ahead of print] 111675
      Aging is inevitable. Along with reduced ability to maintain the homeostasis of various biological processes, aging gradually deteriorates overall health. Extensive research on the aging brain has identified cellular senescence as a critical risk factor of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Associations of cellular senescence with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis are evident in an extensive body of literature generated over decades of research on aging. Cellular senescence triggers neurodegeneration via a complex interplay of mechanisms including neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress burden, deranged protein homeostasis, and compromised nuclear and blood-brain-barrier integrity. Thus, cellular senescence can serve as a primary therapeutic target for various neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes the concept of cellular senescence, its role in the aging brain, and how it mediates neurodegeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we have also highlighted senolytic therapeutics discovered and employed to ameliorate cellular senescence-associated degenerative diseases. This review can aid in providing directions for repurposing senolytic compounds and finding more therapeutic strategies targeting cellular senescence for the management and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Cellular senescence; Parkinson’s disease; Senolytics; aging; neurodegeneration
  8. Genes (Basel). 2022 Apr 18. pii: 711. [Epub ahead of print]13(4):
      Cardiac aging is a critical determinant of cardiac dysfunction, which contributes to cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 6 (PCSK6) is a proteolytic enzyme important for the maintenance of cardiac function and vascular homeostasis. To date, the involvement of PCSK6 in cardiac aging remains unknown. Here we report that PCSK6 expression decreased in the hearts of aged mice, where high levels cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21) (senescence markers) were observed. Moreover, PCSK6 protein expression was significantly reduced in senescent rat embryonic cardiomyocytes (H9c2) induced by D-galactose. Pcsk6 knockdown in H9c2 cells increased P16 and P21 expression levels and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. Pcsk6 knockdown also impaired cardiomyocyte function, as indicated by increased advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species level, and apoptosis. Overexpression of PCSK6 blunted the senescence phenotype and cellular dysfunction. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis in Pcsk6-knockdown H9c2 cells identified the up-regulated DNA-damage inducible transcript 3 (Ddit3) gene involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing. Additionally, DDIT3 protein levels were remarkably increased in aged mouse hearts. In the presence of tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, DDIT3 expression increased in Pcsk6-deficient H9c2 cells but reduced in PCSK6-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that PCSK6 modulates cardiomyocyte senescence possibly via DDIT3-mediated ER stress.
    Keywords:  DDIT3; ER stress; PCSK6; cardiomyocytes; senescence
  9. Cell Biosci. 2022 Apr 21. 12(1): 45
      BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence is a phenotype of aging. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as potential key regulators of senescence. However, the role of lncRNAs in MSC senescence remains largely unknown.RESULTS: We performed transcriptome analysis in senescent human adipose-derived MSCs (hADSCs) and identified that the lncRNA LYPLAL1 antisense RNA1 (LYPLAL1-AS1) was significantly downregulated in senescent hADSCs. LYPLAL1-AS1 expression in peripheral blood was lower in middle-aged healthy donors than in young adult donors, and correlated negatively with age. Knockdown of LYPLAL1-AS1 accelerated hADSC senescence, while LYPLAL1-AS1 overexpression attenuated it. Chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP) sequencing indicated that LYPLAL1-AS1 bound to the MIRLET7B promoter region and suppressed its transcription activity, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase assay. miR-let-7b, the transcript of MIRLET7B, was upregulated during hADSC senescence and was regulated by LYPLAL1-AS1. Furthermore, miR-let-7b mimics promoted hADSC senescence, while the inhibitors repressed it. Finally, LYPLAL1-AS1 overexpression reversed miR-let-7b-induced hADSC senescence.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that LYPLAL1-AS1 rejuvenates hADSCs through the transcriptional inhibition of MIRLET7B. Our work provides new insights into the mechanism of MSC senescence and indicates lncRNA LYPLAL1-AS1 and miR-let-7b as potential therapeutic targets in aging.
    Keywords:  LYPLAL1-AS1; MIRLET7B; Senescence; hADSCs; miR-let-7b
  10. Aging Cell. 2022 Apr 18. e13613
      Aging is accompanied by the progressive accumulation of permanent changes to the genomic sequence, termed somatic mutations. Small mutations, including single-base substitutions and insertions/deletions, are key determinants of the malignant transformations leading to cancer, but their role as initiators of other age-related phenotypes is controversial. Here, we present recent advances in the study of somatic mutagenesis in aging tissues and posit that the current uncertainty about its causal effects in the aging process is due to technological and methodological weaknesses. We highlight classical and novel experimental systems, including premature aging syndromes, that could be used to model the increase of somatic mutation burden and understand its functional role. It is important that studies are designed to take into account the biological context and peculiarities of each tissue and that the downstream impact of somatic mutation accumulation is measured by methods able to resolve subtle cellular changes.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; DNA repair; accelerated aging; ageing; aging; mutagenesis; premature aging; progeria; somatic mutations
  11. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 20. 12(1): 6522
      Accumulation of senescent cells in various tissues has been reported to have a pathological role in age-associated diseases. Elimination of senescent cells (senolysis) was recently reported to reversibly improve pathological aging phenotypes without increasing rates of cancer. We previously identified glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) as a seno-antigen specifically expressed by senescent human vascular endothelial cells and demonstrated that vaccination against Gpnmb eliminated Gpnmb-positive senescent cells, leading to an improvement of age-associated pathologies in mice. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether GPNMB plays a role in senescent cells. We examined the potential role of GPNMB in senescent cells by testing the effects of GPNMB depletion and overexpression in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of GPNMB from human vascular endothelial cells shortened their replicative lifespan and increased the expression of negative cell cycle regulators. Conversely, GPNMB overexpression protected these cells against stress-induced premature senescence. Depletion of Gpnmb led to impairment of vascular function and enhanced atherogenesis in mice, whereas overexpression attenuated dietary vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis. GPNMB was upregulated by lysosomal stress associated with cellular senescence and was a crucial protective factor in maintaining lysosomal integrity. GPNMB is a seno-antigen that acts as a survival factor in senescent cells, suggesting that targeting seno-antigens such as GPNMB may be a novel strategy for senolytic treatments.
  12. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2022 Apr 19.
      Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from older donors have limited potential for bone tissue formation compared to cells from younger donors, and cellular senescence has been postulated as an underlying cause. There is a critical need for methods to induce premature senescence to efficiently and reproducibly study this phenomenon. However, the field lacks consensus on the appropriate method to induce and characterize senescence. Moreover, we have a limited understanding of the effects of commonly used induction methods on senescent phenotype. To address this significant challenge, we assessed the effect of replicative, hydrogen peroxide, etoposide, and irradiation induced senescence on human MSCs using a battery of senescent cell characteristics. All methods arrested proliferation and resulted in increased cell spreading compared to low passage controls. Etoposide and irradiation increased expression of senescent-related genes in MSCs at early time points, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, DNA damage, and production of senescence associated β-galactosidase. We then evaluated the effect of fisetin, a flavonoid and candidate senolytic agent, to clear senescent cells and promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs entrapped in gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels in vitro. When studying a mixture of non-senescent and senescent MSCs, we did not observe decreases in senescent markers or increases in osteogenesis with fisetin treatment. However, the application of the same treatment towards a heterogeneous population of human bone marrow derived cells entrapped in GelMA decreased senescent markers and increased osteogenesis after 14 days in culture. These results identify best practices for inducing prematurely senescent MSCs and motivate the need for further study of fisetin as a senolytic agent.
  13. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Apr 11. pii: S0006-291X(22)00564-2. [Epub ahead of print]610 70-76
      Bone cells of various lineages become senescent in bone microenvironment. Senotherapies that clear the senescent bone cells improve bone microarchitecture of aged bones. However, the mechanisms underlie for the formation and maintenance of senescent bone cells are largely unknown. Here, we focus on the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress)-activated unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling and cellular senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α(eIF2α) signaling branch was specifically activated and tightly regulated in senescent BMSCs induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, blocking PERK-eIF2α signaling with AMG'44 could not reverse the cellular senescence phenotype of senescent BMSCs. Treated the senescent cells with salubrinal, an inhibitor for dephosphorylation of eIF2α, decreased SA-β-Gal positive cells and the expression of markers for cellular senescence. Moreover, salubrinal enhanced the apoptosis of senescent BMSCs and upregulated expression of Chop and BIM. Furthermore, salubrinal treatment significantly improved the osteogenesis capacity of senescent BMSCs as reflected by the increase of Alp, Runx2 and Osteocalcin, the formation of Alp-positive staining cells and matrix mineralization. Salubrinal administration results in significant recovery in the bone microarchitecture of senile SAMP6 mice. Taken together, our data reveal an undefined role of PERK-eIF2α signaling in the maintenance of cellular senescent phenotype in BMSCs. The activation of eIF2α signaling with salubrinal is helpful for the clearance of senescent BMSCs and the improvement of bone integrity of aged mice.
    Keywords:  Bone marrow stromal cells; Cellular senescence; ER stress; Salubrinal; Senolytics
  14. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 10. pii: 4168. [Epub ahead of print]23(8):
      Cellular senescence is defined as irreversible cell cycle arrest caused by various processes that render viable cells non-functional, hampering normal tissue homeostasis. It has many endogenous and exogenous inducers, and is closely connected with age, age-related pathologies, DNA damage, degenerative disorders, tumor suppression and activation, wound healing, and tissue repair. However, the literature is replete with contradictory findings concerning its triggering mechanisms, specific biomarkers, and detection protocols. This may be partly due to the wide range of cellular and in vivo animal or human models of accelerated aging that have been used to study senescence and test senolytic drugs. This review summarizes recent findings concerning senescence, presents some widely used cellular and animal senescence models, and briefly describes the best-known senolytic agents.
    Keywords:  aging; cellular model; mouse model; senescence; senolytics
  15. Biochem Pharmacol. 2022 Apr 16. pii: S0006-2952(22)00139-3. [Epub ahead of print] 115045
      Compounds with senolysis activity are discovered in recent years, featuring by their capacity to specifically eliminate senescent cells in vitro or in vivo. These compounds, referring to as Senolytics, provide a new method for aging counteraction and probably for geriatric disease amelioration. However, their clinical application is unpractical still, mainly because of the safety issue. In fact, the effective dose range even of the most potent senolytic cannot guarantee the safety requirements application for human being. Here, we report a study which investigated the combinational application of one potential senolytic molecule navitoclax, a Bcl-2 inhibitor with several mTOR inhibitors, to assess the influence of this combination on the senolytic outcome. Our results reveal that pan-mTOR inhibitors can reduce the dosage or timespan of navitoclax necessary for reaching IC50 and LT50 in senescent cells, also extend the lifespan of premature-aged Drosophila and mitigate the aging-related phenotype. Our results also confirmed that mTOR inhibitor sensitized senolytic cell death is apoptotic and pan-mTOR inhibitors PP242 and AZD8055 works more effectively than mTORC1 inhibitor Rapamycin. Mechanically, we verified the crucial role of mTORC2 inhibition contributes sensitization by increasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim. In summary, this study firstly exposes the sensitization effect of pan-mTOR inhibitors on navitoclax-induced senolytic apoptosis, therefore providing novel evidence to show the advantage of drug combination on setting senotherapy. It also provides an intriguing clue to demonstrate the value of mTORC2 inhibition for apoptotic death of senescent cells.
    Keywords:  apoptosis; mTORC2; navitoclax; senolytic
  16. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 19. 13(1): 2025
      Preserving skeletal muscle function is essential to maintain life quality at high age. Calorie restriction (CR) potently extends health and lifespan, but is largely unachievable in humans, making "CR mimetics" of great interest. CR targets nutrient-sensing pathways centering on mTORC1. The mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, is considered a potential CR mimetic and is proven to counteract age-related muscle loss. Therefore, we tested whether rapamycin acts via similar mechanisms as CR to slow muscle aging. Here we show that long-term CR and rapamycin unexpectedly display distinct gene expression profiles in geriatric mouse skeletal muscle, despite both benefiting aging muscles. Furthermore, CR improves muscle integrity in mice with nutrient-insensitive, sustained muscle mTORC1 activity and rapamycin provides additive benefits to CR in naturally aging mouse muscles. We conclude that rapamycin and CR exert distinct, compounding effects in aging skeletal muscle, thus opening the possibility of parallel interventions to counteract muscle aging.
  17. Cytokine. 2022 Apr 18. pii: S1043-4666(22)00084-9. [Epub ahead of print]154 155875
      The interleukin-1 proteins are a hub of innate inflammatory signaling that activates diverse aspects of adaptive immunity. Until recently, the IL-1α isoform was relatively incompletely understood compared with IL-1β. This review briefly summarizes novel and surprising aspects of IL-1α biology. IL-1α localizes to the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, cell membrane or extracellular space in various contexts, with corresponding distinct functions. In particular, we focus on multiple pathways by which IL-1α promotes the senescent cell phenotype, unexpectedly involving signaling molecules including mTOR, GATA4, mitochondrial cardiolipin and caspases-4/5. Finally, I review a novel pathway by which IL-1α promotes antiviral immunity.
    Keywords:  Antiviral response; Cell senescence; IL-1α; Inflammation; Mitophagy; NF-kB
  18. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Apr 09. pii: 749. [Epub ahead of print]11(4):
      Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is a natural anthocyanin abundant in fruits and vegetables that interacts and possibly modulates energy metabolism and oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of C3G on gluconeogenesis and cancer cell senescence. C3G activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor involved in metabolism and the aging process. C3G suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the expression of gluconeogenic genes through the phosphorylation inactivation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 coactivators via AMPK. C3G did not directly interact with AMPK but, instead, activated AMPK through the adiponectin receptor signaling pathway, as demonstrated through adiponectin receptor gene knockdown experiments. In addition, C3G increased cellular AMP levels in cultured hepatocytes, and the oral administration of C3G in mice elevated their plasma adiponectin concentrations. These effects collectively contribute to the activation of AMPK. In addition, C3G showed potent antioxidant activity and induced cellular senescence, and apoptosis in oxidative-stress induced senescence in hepatocarcinoma cells. C3G increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase expression, while increasing the expression levels of P16, P21 and P53, key markers of cellular senescence. These findings demonstrate that anthocyanin C3G achieves hypoglycemic effects via AMPK activation and the subsequent suppression of gluconeogenesis and exhibits anti-cancer activity through the induction of apoptosis and cellular senescence.
    Keywords:  Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside; HepG2 cells; adiponectin signaling; anti-carcinogenic activity; antioxidants; hepatic autophagy; natural products; oxidative stress; phytochemicals
  19. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(4): e0266319
      Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, a major cause of kidney allograft dysfunction, has been linked to premature cellular senescence. The mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin protects from senescence in experimental models, but its antiproliferative properties have raised concern early after transplantation particularly at higher doses. Its effect on senescence has not been studied in kidney transplantation, yet. Rapamycin was applied to a rat kidney transplantation model (3 mg/kg bodyweight loading dose, 1.5 mg/kg bodyweight daily dose) for 7 days. Low Rapamycin trough levels (2.1-6.8 ng/mL) prevented the accumulation of p16INK4a positive cells in tubules, interstitium, and glomerula. Expression of the cytokines MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α, defining the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype, was abrogated. Infiltration with monocytes/macrophages and CD8+ T-lymphocytes was reduced and tubular function was preserved by Rapamycin. Inhibition of mTOR was not associated with impaired structural recovery, higher glucose levels, or weight loss. mTOR inhibition with low-dose Rapamycin in the immediate posttransplant period protected from premature cellular senescence without negative effects on structural and functional recovery from preservation/reperfusion damage, glucose homeostasis, and growth in a rat kidney transplantation model. Reduced senescence might maintain the renal regenerative capacity rendering resilience to future injuries resulting in protection from interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.
  20. Mol Biol Rep. 2022 Apr 20.
      Biosynthesis and regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has recently gained a lot of attention. A systemic decline in NAD+ across many tissues is associated with all the hallmarks of aging. NAD+ can affect a variety of cellular processes, including metabolic pathways, DNA repair, and immune cell activity, both directly and indirectly. These cellular processes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis, but as people get older, their tissue and cellular NAD+ levels decrease, and this drop in NAD+ levels has been connected to a number of age-related disorders. By restoring NAD+ levels, several of these age-related disorders can be delayed or even reversed. Some of the new studies conducted in mice and humans have targeted the NAD+ metabolism with NAD+ intermediates. Of these, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) has been shown to offer great therapeutic potential with promising results in age-related chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular issues, cognitive impairment, and many others. Further, human interventions are required to study the long-term effects of supplementing NMN with varying doses. The paper focuses on reviewing the importance of NAD+ on human aging and survival, biosynthesis of NAD+ from its precursors, key clinical trial findings, and the role of NMN on various health conditions.
    Keywords:  Age-related disorders; Anti-aging; NAD+; NMN; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; Nicotinamide mononucleotide; Therapeutic potential
  21. Biomedicines. 2022 Mar 27. pii: 782. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      It is known that the development of foci of chronic inflammation usually accompanies body aging. In these foci, senescent cells appear with a pro-inflammatory phenotype that helps maintain inflammation. Their removal with the help of senolytics significantly improves the general condition of the body and, according to many indicators, contributes to rejuvenation. The cells of the immune system participate in the initiation, development, and resolution of inflammation. With age, the human body accumulates mutations, including the cells of the bone marrow, giving rise to the cells of the immune system. We assume that a number of such mutations formed with age can lead to the appearance of "naive" cells with an initially pro-inflammatory phenotype, the migration of which to preexisting foci of inflammation contributes not to the resolution of inflammation but its chronicity. One of such cell variants are monocytes carrying mitochondrial mutations, which may be responsible for comorbidity and deterioration in the prognosis of the course of pathologies associated with aging, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  CHIP; aging; bone marrow; chronification of inflammation; inflammation; mitochondria; monocytes; somatic mutations
  22. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2022 Apr 18. pii: S0091-3057(22)00067-3. [Epub ahead of print] 173388
      Age-related cognitive decline and disruptions in circadian rhythms are growing problems as the average human life span increases. Multiple strains of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) show reduced life span, and the SAMP8 strain in particular has been well documented to show cognitive deficits in behavior as well as a bimodal pattern of circadian locomotor activity. However, little is known about circadian regulation within the hippocampus of these strains of mice. Here we test the hypothesis that in this early senescence model, disruption of the molecular circadian clock in SAMP8 animals drives disrupted behavior and physiology. We found normal rhythms in PER2 protein expression in the SCN of SAMP8 animals at 4 months, despite the presence of disrupted wheel-running activity rhythms at this age. Interestingly, a significant rhythm in PER2 expression was not observed in the hippocampus of SAMP8 animals, despite a significant 24-h rhythm in SAMR1 controls. We also examined time-restricted feeding as a potential strategy to rescue disrupted hippocampal plasticity. Time-restricted feeding increased long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in SAMP8 mice (compared to SAMR1 controls). Overall, we confirm disrupted circadian locomotor rhythms in this early senescence model (as early as 4 months) and discovered that this disruption is not due to arrhythmic PER2 levels in the SCN; however, other extra-SCN circadian oscillators (i.e., hippocampus) are likely impaired with accelerated aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; Circadian rhythms; SAMP8; Time-restricted feeding; hippocampus
  23. Front Cell Neurosci. 2022 ;16 882417
    Keywords:  aging; cellular senescence; development; fibrosis; neurodegeneration; pathology; senotherapy
  24. Life (Basel). 2022 Apr 06. pii: 546. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      The accumulation process of proinflammatory components in the body due to aging influences intercellular communication and is known as inflammaging. This biological mechanism relates the development of inflammation to the aging process. Recently, it has been reported that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are mediators in the transmission of paracrine senescence involved in inflammatory aging. For this reason, their components, as well as mechanisms of action of sEVs, are relevant to develop a new therapy called senodrugs (senolytics and senomorphic) that regulates the intercellular communication of inflammaging. In this review, we include the most recent and relevant studies on the role of sEVs in the inflammatory aging process and in age-related diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords:  cellular senescence; inflammaging; sEVs; senomorphics
  25. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2022 Apr 22.
      An accumulation of Senescent cells (SnCs) in the various tissue types has been connected with an occurrence of different age-related diseases that are indicated by its own tissue-specific hallmarks. Discovery of novel senolytic compounds that target major cellular mechanisms to inhibit the level of SnCs within the specific tissues or organs has been an emerging field in the age-related disease research. Although the positive effect of senolytics in global suppression of SnCs has been well studied in the past, an effective tissue-specific delivery strategy of senotherapeutics prior to clinical application needs to be further investigated. In this review, we discuss the latest biological insights to currently available senotherapeutic options and explore the impactful in vitro tissue-engineered models possibly as a testbed for replicable testing of tissue-specific potency of senolytics.
  26. J Control Release. 2022 Apr 19. pii: S0168-3659(22)00206-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Therapy-induced senescence (TIS), a common outcome of current cancer therapy, is a known cause of late recurrence and metastasis and thus its eradication is crucial for therapy success. In this study, we introduced a conceptually novel strategy combining radiation-induced apoptosis-targeted chemotherapy (RIATC) with an effective glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) to target TIS. RIATC releases cytotoxic payload by amplification, continually increasing TIS, and this can be targeted by 2DG that stimulates an intrinsic apoptotic pathway in senescent cells, the senolysis; the senolytic 2DG also sensitizes cancer cells to chemo/radiation treatment. Anti-tumor efficacy of RIATC was investigated in numerous tumor models, and various cancer types were screened for TIS. Furthermore, in vitro evaluations of molecular markers of senescence, such as senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, were performed to confirm that TIS was induced by RIATC therapy in MCF-7 cells. The combination therapy with 2DG proved to be effective in MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice that demonstrated feedback amplification of senolysis and successful inhibition of tumor growth. Our findings suggest that RIATC, when given together with 2DG, can overcome therapy-induced senescence and this combination is a promising strategy that enhances the therapeutic benefit of anti-cancer cytotoxic therapy.
    Keywords:  Feedback amplification; Glycolysis inhibitor; Radiation-induced apoptosis-targeted chemotherapy; Senolysis; Therapy-induced senescence
  27. Microorganisms. 2022 Apr 04. pii: 774. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      Aging results from a complex interplay between genetic endowment and environmental exposures during lifetime. As our understanding of the aging process progresses, so does the need for experimental animal models that allow a mechanistic understanding of the genetic and environmental factors involved. One such well-studied animal model is the freshwater polyp Hydra. Hydra are remarkable because they are non-senescent. Much of this non-senescence can be ascribed to a tissue consisting of stem cells with continuous self-renewal capacity. Another important fact is that Hydra's ectodermal epithelial surface is densely colonized by a stable multispecies bacterial community. The symbiotic partnership is driven by interactions among the microbiota and the host. Here, we review key advances over the last decade that are deepening our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors contributing to Hydra's non-senescent lifestyle. We conclude that the microbiome prevents pathobiont invasion (colonization resistance) and stabilizes the patterning mechanisms, and that microbiome malfunction negatively affects Hydra's continuous self-renewal capacity.
    Keywords:  Hydra; aging; cancer; lamin; metaorganism; microbiota; non-senescence; stem cells
  28. Genes (Basel). 2022 Apr 15. pii: 699. [Epub ahead of print]13(4):
      The fact that dietary restriction (DR) and long-term rapamycin treatment (RALL) can ameliorate the aging process has been reported by many researchers. As the interface between external and genetic factors, epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation may have latent effects on the aging rate at the molecular level. To understand the mechanism behind the impacts of dietary restriction and rapamycin on aging, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were measured in the hippocampi of different-aged mice. Examining the single-base resolution of DNA methylation, we discovered that both dietary restriction and rapamycin treatment can maintain DNA methylation in a younger state compared to normal-aged mice. Through functional enrichment analysis of genes in which DNA methylation or gene expression can be affected by DR/RALL, we found that DR/RALL may retard aging through a relationship in which DNA methylation and gene expression work together not only in the same gene but also in the same biological process. This study is instructive for understanding the maintenance of DNA methylation by DR/RALL in the aging process, as well as the role of DR and RALL in the amelioration of aging.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; aging; dietary restriction; hippocampus; rapamycin treatment
  29. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 21. 13(1): 2177
      Cells subjected to treatment with anti-cancer therapies can evade apoptosis through cellular senescence. Persistent senescent tumor cells remain metabolically active, possess a secretory phenotype, and can promote tumor proliferation and metastatic dissemination. Removal of senescent tumor cells (senolytic therapy) has therefore emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, using single-cell RNA-sequencing, we find that senescent tumor cells rely on the anti-apoptotic gene Mcl-1 for their survival. Mcl-1 is upregulated in senescent tumor cells, including cells expressing low levels of Bcl-2, an established target for senolytic therapy. While treatment with the Bcl-2 inhibitor Navitoclax results in the reduction of metastases in tumor bearing mice, treatment with the Mcl-1 inhibitor S63845 leads to complete elimination of senescent tumor cells and metastases. These findings provide insights on the mechanism by which senescent tumor cells survive and reveal a vulnerability that can be exploited for cancer therapy.
  30. Front Neurol. 2022 ;13 854390
      The advent of disease modifying therapies (DMT) in the past two decades has been the cornerstone of successful clinical management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite the great strides made in reducing the relapse frequency and occurrence of new signal changes on neuroimaging in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) by approved DMT, it has been challenging to demonstrate their effectiveness in non-active secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS) disease phenotypes. The dichotomy of DMT effectiveness between RRMS and progressive MS informs on distinct pathogeneses of the different MS phenotypes. Conversely, factors that render patients with progressive MS resistant to therapy are not understood. Thus far, age has emerged as the main correlate of the transition from RRMS to SPMS. Whether it is aging and age-related factors or the underlying immune senescence that qualitatively alter immune responses as the disease transitions to SPMS, that diminish DMT effectiveness, or both, is currently not known. Here, we will discuss the role of immune senescence on different arms of the immune system, and how it may explain relative DMT resistance.
    Keywords:  adaptive immunity; disease modifying therapies; immunosenescence; innate immunity; multiple sclerosis; progressive multiple sclerosis
  31. Mol Carcinog. 2022 Apr 22.
      Emerging evidence suggests an important role for SIRT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase in cancer development, progression and therapeutic resistance; making it a viable therapeutic target. Here, we examined the impact of resveratrol-mediated pharmacological activation of SIRT1 on the progression of HGPIN lesions (using the Pten-/- mouse model) and on prostate tumor development (using an orthotopic model of prostate cancer cells stably silenced for SIRT1). We show that precise SIRT1 modulation could benefit both cancer prevention and treatment. Positive effect of SIRT1 activation can prevent Pten deletion-driven development of HGPIN lesions in mice if resveratrol is administered early (pre-cancer stage) with little to no benefit after the establishment of HGPIN lesions or tumor cell implantation. Mechanistically, our results show that under androgen deprivation conditions, SIRT1 inhibition induces senescence as evidenced by decreased gene signature associated with negative regulators of senescence and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of SIRT1 potentiated growth inhibitory effects of clinical androgen receptor blockade agents and radiation. Taken together, our findings provide an explanation for the discrepancy regarding the role of SIRT1 in prostate tumorigenesis. Our results reveal that the bifurcated roles for SIRT1 may occur in stage and context-dependent fashion by functioning in an antitumor role in prevention of early-stage prostate lesion development while promoting tumor development and disease progression post-lesion development. Clinically, these data highlight the importance of precise SIRT1 modulation to provide benefits for cancer prevention and treatment including sensitization to conventional therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  CDKN1A; Ptenknockout; radio-sensitization; resveratrol; β-galactosidase
  32. Front Aging Neurosci. 2022 ;14 853320
      We have previously reported that young adult rats exposed to daily, short-duration noise for extended time periods, develop accelerated presbycusis starting at 6 months of age. Auditory aging is associated with progressive hearing loss, cell deterioration, dysregulation of the antioxidant defense system, and chronic inflammation, among others. To further characterize cellular and molecular mechanisms at the crossroads between noise and age-related hearing loss (ARHL), 3-month-old rats were exposed to a noise-accelerated presbycusis (NAP) protocol and tested at 6 and 16 months of age, using auditory brainstem responses, Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunocytochemistry. Chronic noise-exposure leading to permanent auditory threshold shifts in 6-month-old rats, resulted in impaired sodium/potassium activity, degenerative changes in the lateral wall and spiral ganglion, increased lipid peroxidation, and sustained cochlear inflammation with advancing age. Additionally, at 6 months, noise-exposed rats showed significant increases in the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase 1/2, glutathione peroxidase 1, and catalase) and inflammation-associated molecules [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha]. The levels of IL-1β were upregulated in the spiral ganglion and spiral ligament, particularly in type IV fibrocytes; these cells showed decreased levels of connective tissue growth factor and increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal. These data provide functional, structural and molecular evidence that age-noise interaction contributes to exacerbating presbycusis in young rats by leading to progressive dysfunction and early degeneration of cochlear cells and structures. These findings contribute to a better understanding of NAP etiopathogenesis, which is essential as it affects the life quality of young adults worldwide.
    Keywords:  accelerated presbycusis; age-related hearing loss; aging; antioxidants; inflammation
  33. DNA Cell Biol. 2022 Apr 22.
      Calorie restriction (CR) if planned properly with regular exercise at different ages can result in healthy weight loss. CR can also have different beneficial effects on improving lifespan and decreasing the age-associated diseases by regulating physiological, biochemical, and molecular markers. The different pathways regulated by CR include:(1) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which involves PGC-1α, SIRT1, and SIRT3. AMPK also effects myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation; (2) Forkhead box transcription factor's signaling is related to the DNA repair, lipid metabolism, protection of protein structure, autophagy, and resistance to oxidative stress; (3) Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which involves key factors, such as S6 protein kinase-1 (S6K1), mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1), and 4E-binding protein (4E-BP). Under CR conditions, AMPK activation and mTOR inhibition helps in the activation of Ulk1 complex along with the acetyltransferase Mec-17, which is necessary for autophagy; (4) Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway downregulation protects against cancer and slows the aging process; (5) Nuclear factor kappa B pathway downregulation decreases the inflammation; and (6) c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase regulation as a response to the stress. The acute and chronic CR both shows antidepression and anxiolytic action by effecting ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling. CR also regulates GSK3β kinase and protects against age-related brain atrophy. CR at young age may show many deleterious effects by effecting different mechanisms. Parental CR before or during conception will also affect the health and development of the offspring by causing many epigenetic modifications that show transgenerational transmission. Maternal CR is associated with intrauterine growth retardation effecting the offspring in their adulthood by developing different metabolic syndromes. The epigenetic changes with response to paternal food supply also linked to offspring health. CR at middle and old age provides a significant preventive impact against the development of age-associated diseases.
    Keywords:  AMPK; ROS; calorie restriction; mTOR
  34. Geroscience. 2022 Apr 22.
      Elderly patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have greater mortality and poorer outcomes than younger individuals. The extent to which old age alters long-term recovery and chronic microglial activation after TBI is unknown, and evidence for therapeutic efficacy in aged mice is sorely lacking. The present study sought to identify potential inflammatory mechanisms underlying age-related outcomes late after TBI. Controlled cortical impact was used to induce moderate TBI in young and old male C57BL/6 mice. At 12 weeks post-injury, aged mice exhibited higher mortality, poorer functional outcomes, larger lesion volumes, and increased microglial activation. Transcriptomic analysis identified age- and TBI-specific gene changes consistent with a disease-associated microglial signature in the chronically injured brain, including those involved with complement, phagocytosis, and autophagy pathways. Dysregulation of phagocytic and autophagic function in microglia was accompanied by increased neuroinflammation in old mice. As proof-of-principle that these pathways have functional importance, we administered an autophagic enhancer, trehalose, in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks after TBI. Old mice treated with trehalose showed enhanced functional recovery and reduced microglial activation late after TBI compared to the sucrose control group. Our data indicate that microglia undergo chronic changes in autophagic regulation with both normal aging and TBI that are associated with poorer functional outcome. Enhancing autophagy may therefore be a promising clinical therapeutic strategy for TBI, especially in older patients.
    Keywords:  Aging; Autophagy; Microglia; Neurodegeneration; Neuroinflammation; Traumatic brain injury
  35. Biomedicines. 2022 Apr 05. pii: 854. [Epub ahead of print]10(4):
      Premature endothelial senescence decreases the atheroprotective capacity of the arterial endothelium. Apolipoprotein C3 (ApoC3) delays the catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles and plays a critical role in atherosclerosis progression. FBXO31 is required for the intracellular response to DNA damage, which is a significant cause of cellular senescence. Sesamol is a natural antioxidant with cardiovascular-protective properties. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of ApoC3-rich low-density lipoprotein (AC3RL) mediated via FBXO31 on endothelial cell (EC) senescence and its inhibition by sesamol. AC3RL and ApoC3-free low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (AC3(-)L) were isolated from the plasma LDL of patients with ischemic stroke. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) treated with AC3RL induced EC senescence in a dose-dependent manner. AC3RL induced HAEC senescence via DNA damage. However, silencing FBXO31 attenuated AC3RL-induced DNA damage and reduced cellular senescence. Thus, FBXO31 may be a novel therapeutic target for endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the aortic arch of hamsters fed a high-fat diet with sesamol showed a substantial reduction in their atherosclerotic lesion size. In addition to confirming the role of AC3RL in aging and atherosclerosis, we also identified AC3RL as a potential therapeutic target that can be used to combat atherosclerosis and the onset of cardiovascular disease in humans.
    Keywords:  FBXO31; apolipoprotein C3-rich LDL; atherosclerosis; premature endothelial senescence; sesamol
  36. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 15. pii: 4387. [Epub ahead of print]23(8):
      During the aging process our body becomes less well equipped to deal with cellular stress, resulting in an increase in unrepaired damage. This causes varying degrees of impaired functionality and an increased risk of mortality. One of the most effective anti-aging strategies involves interventions that combine simultaneous glucometabolic support with augmented DNA damage protection/repair. Thus, it seems prudent to develop therapeutic strategies that target this combinatorial approach. Studies have shown that the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activating protein GIT2 (GIT2) acts as a keystone protein in the aging process. GIT2 can control both DNA repair and glucose metabolism. Through in vivo co-regulation analyses it was found that GIT2 forms a close coexpression-based relationship with the relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3). Cellular RXFP3 expression is directly affected by DNA damage and oxidative stress. Overexpression or stimulation of this receptor, by its endogenous ligand relaxin 3 (RLN3), can regulate the DNA damage response and repair processes. Interestingly, RLN3 is an insulin-like peptide and has been shown to control multiple disease processes linked to aging mechanisms, e.g., anxiety, depression, memory dysfunction, appetite, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the various roles of RXFP3/RLN3 signaling in aging and age-related disorders.
    Keywords:  DNA; G-protein-coupled receptors; GIT2; aging; damage; relaxin-family peptide receptor 3
  37. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 19. 13(1): 2135
      Chronological age is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. Previous findings indicate that epigenetic age could be altered in viral infection. However, the epigenetic aging in COVID-19 has not been well studied. In this study, DNA methylation of the blood samples from 232 healthy individuals and 413 COVID-19 patients is profiled using EPIC methylation array. Epigenetic ages of each individual are determined by applying epigenetic clocks and telomere length estimator to the methylation profile of the individual. Epigenetic age acceleration is calculated and compared between groups. We observe strong correlations between the epigenetic clocks and individual's chronological age (r > 0.8, p < 0.0001). We also find the increasing acceleration of epigenetic aging and telomere attrition in the sequential blood samples from healthy individuals and infected patients developing non-severe and severe COVID-19. In addition, the longitudinal DNA methylation profiling analysis find that the accumulation of epigenetic aging from COVID-19 syndrome could be partly reversed at late clinic phases in some patients. In conclusion, accelerated epigenetic aging is associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing severe COVID-19. In addition, the accumulation of epigenetic aging from COVID-19 may contribute to the post-COVID-19 syndrome among survivors.
  38. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Apr 26. 119(17): e2121028119
      SignificanceOlder adults are more vulnerable to infection and less capable of vigorously responding to vaccination. The contribution of peripheral T cell maintenance defects to these processes is incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that lymph nodes (LNs), which are critical for naive T (TN) cell maintenance and initiation of new immune responses, age asynchronously. Skin-draining LNs undergo early (6 to 9 mo) and deeper LN and spleen late-life (18 mo) atrophy, characterized by reduced ability to maintain TN cells, structural and numerical loss of LN stromal cell microenvironments, and reduced immunity to cutaneous vaccination. These results highlight the critical role of age-related LN atrophy in functional immunity and immune homeostasis.
    Keywords:  T cells; aging; homeostasis; secondary lymphoid organs
  39. Viruses. 2022 Apr 15. pii: 820. [Epub ahead of print]14(4):
      The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a disastrous impact on global health. Although some vaccine candidates have been effective in combating SARS-CoV-2, logistical, economical, and sociological aspects still limit vaccine access globally. Recently, we reported on two room-temperature stable AAV-based COVID-19 vaccines that induced potent and protective immunogenicity following a single injection in murine and primate models. Obesity and old age are associated with increased mortality in COVID-19, as well as reduced immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of the AAVCOVID vaccine candidates in murine models of obesity and aging. Results demonstrate that obesity did not significantly alter the immunogenicity of either vaccine candidate. In aged mice, vaccine immunogenicity was impaired. These results suggest that AAV-based vaccines may have limitations in older populations and may be equally applicable in obese and non-obese populations.
    Keywords:  AAV; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; adeno-associated virus; aging; animal model; genetic vaccine; obesity; vaccine
  40. Transl Oncol. 2022 Apr 19. pii: S1936-5233(22)00090-0. [Epub ahead of print]21 101431
      Glutamine metabolism, known as glutaminolysis, is abnormally activated in many cancer cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations or active c-MYC. Glutaminolysis plays an important role in the proliferation of cancer cells with oncogenic mutations. In this study, we characterized radiation-induced cell death, which was enhanced by glutaminolysis inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H460 cell lines with KRAS mutation. A clonogenic survival assay revealed that treatment with a glutaminase inhibitor, CB839, enhanced radiosensitivity. X-irradiation increased glutamate production, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP production, whereas CB839 treatment suppressed these effects. The data suggest that the enhancement of glutaminolysis-dependent energy metabolism for ATP production is important for survival after X-irradiation. Evaluation of the cell death phenotype revealed that glutaminolysis inhibitory treatment with CB839 or a low-glutamine medium significantly promoted the proliferation of β-galactosidase-positive and IL-6/IL-8 secretory cells among X-irradiated tumor cells, corresponding to an increase in the senescent cell population. Furthermore, treatment with ABT263, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, transformed senescent cells into apoptotic cells. The findings suggest that combination treatment with a glutaminolysis inhibitor and a senolytic drug is useful for efficient radiotherapy.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Glutaminolysis; Radiation; Senescence; Senolytic drug
  41. EMBO J. 2022 Apr 19. e109272
      Double-stranded DNA is recognized as a danger signal by cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS), triggering innate immune responses. Palmitoylation is an important post-translational modification (PTM) catalyzed by DHHC-palmitoyl transferases, which participate in the regulation of diverse biological processes. However, whether palmitoylation regulates cGAS function has not yet been explored. Here, we found that palmitoylation of cGAS at C474 restricted its enzymatic activity in the presence of double-stranded DNA. cGAS palmitoylation was catalyzed mainly by the palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC18 and double-stranded DNA promoted this modification. Mechanistically, palmitoylation of cGAS reduced the interaction between cGAS and double-stranded DNA, further inhibiting cGAS dimerization. Consistently, ZDHHC18 negatively regulated cGAS activation in human and mouse cell lines. In a more biologically relevant model system, Zdhhc18-deficient mice were found to be resistant to infection by DNA viruses, in agreement with the observation that ZDHHC18 negatively regulated cGAS mediated innate immune responses in human and mouse primary cells. In summary, the negative role of ZDHHC18-mediated cGAS palmitoylation may be a novel regulatory mechanism in the fine-tuning of innate immunity.
    Keywords:  ZDHHC18; cGAS; innate immunity; palmitoylation
  42. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 858996
      Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in various tissues and are easily cultivated. For use in clinical protocols, MSCs must be expanded to obtain an adequate number of cells, but a senescence state may be instituted after some passages, reducing their replicative potential. In this study, we report a case where MSC derived from an elderly donor acquired a senescence state after three passages. The bone marrow was aspirated from a female patient submitted to a cell therapy for the incontinency urinary protocol; MSCs were cultivated with DMEM low glucose, supplemented with 10% autologous serum (AS) plus 1% L-glutamine and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. Senescence analysis was performed by β-galactosidase staining after 24 and 48 h. Controls were established using BM-MSC from healthy donors and used for senescence and gene expression assays. Gene expression was performed using RT-PCR for pluripotency genes, such as SOX2, POU5F1, NANOG, and KLF4. MSC telomere length was measured by the Southern blotting technique, and MSCs were also analyzed for their capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. The patient's MSC expansion using AS displayed an early senescence state. In order to understand the role of AS in senescence, MSCs were then submitted to two different culture conditions: 1) with AS or 2) with FBS supplementation. Senescence state was assessed after 24 h, and no statistical differences were observed between the two conditions. However, patients' cells cultured with AS displayed a higher number of senescence cells than FBS medium after 48 h (p = 0.0018). Gene expression was performed in both conditions; increased expression of KLF4 was observed in the patient's cells in comparison to healthy controls (p = 0.0016); reduced gene expression was observed for NANOG (p = 0.0016) and SOX2 (p = 0.0014) genes. Telomere length of the patient's cells was shorter than that of a healthy donor and that of a patient of similar age. Osteocyte differentiation seemed to be more diffuse than that of the healthy donor and that of the patient of similar age. MSCs could enter a senescence state during expansion in early passages and can impact MSC quality for clinical applications, reducing their efficacy when administered.
    Keywords:  clinical use; differentiation; mesenchymal stem cells; senescence; telomere