bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2022‒04‒10
27 papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Commun Biol. 2022 Apr 05. 5(1): 310
      Pathologic diabetic wound healing is caused by sequential and progressive deterioration of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and resolution/remodeling. Cellular senescence promotes wound healing; however, diabetic wounds exhibit low levels of senescent factors and accumulate senescent cells, which impair the healing process. Here we show that the number of p15INK4B + PDGFRα + senescent mesenchymal cells in adipose tissue increases transiently during early phases of wound healing in both non-diabetic mice and humans. Transplantation of adipose tissue from diabetic mice into non-diabetic mice results in impaired wound healing and an altered cellular senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), suggesting that insufficient induction of adipose tissue senescence after injury is a pathological mechanism of diabetic wound healing. These results provide insight into how regulation of senescence in adipose tissue contributes to wound healing and could constitute a basis for developing therapeutic treatment for wound healing impairment in diabetes.
  2. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 796850
      Lipids are key macromolecules that perform a multitude of biological functions ranging from maintaining structural integrity of membranes, energy storage, to signaling molecules. Unsurprisingly, variations in lipid composition and its levels can influence the functional and physiological state of the cell and its milieu. Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest and is a hallmark of the aging process, as well as several age-related pathologies. Senescent cells are often characterized by alterations in morphology, metabolism, chromatin remodeling and exhibit a complex pro-inflammatory secretome (SASP). Recent studies have shown that the regulation of specific lipid species play a critical role in senescence. Indeed, some lipid species even contribute to the low-grade inflammation associated with SASP. Many protein regulators of senescence have been well characterized and are associated with lipid metabolism. However, the link between critical regulators of cellular senescence and senescence-associated lipid changes is yet to be elucidated. Here we systematically review the current knowledge on lipid metabolism and dynamics of cellular lipid content during senescence. We focus on the roles of major players of senescence in regulating lipid metabolism. Finally, we explore the future prospects of lipid research in senescence and its potential to be targeted as senotherapeutics.
    Keywords:  aging; bioactive lipids; cellular senescence; lipids; senolytics
  3. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Apr 05. 13(4): 305
      Aging inducing the development of senescent cells (SNCs) in various tissues is considered as the main cause of the age-related diseases. Senotherapy has become a promising anti-aging therapy. However, the effectivity and side-effect of senolytic agents are still concern. Here, we observed the downregulation of senescence-related genes by adoptive infusion of natural killer (NK) cells in 26 cases in peripheral blood CD3+ T cells. NK cell treatment also significantly decreased levels of senescence markers and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) in three senescent adipose tissues when culturing them together. Interestingly, cytotoxic activity of mouse NK cells against SNCs was significantly enhanced by dopamine in vitro through D1-like receptors. Acein, dopamine-releasing peptide, promoted the adoptive infusion of NK cells in effectively eliminating SNCs in a variety of tissues and reduced local and systemic SASPs in aging mice but Acein alone did not have the senolytic effect. These data demonstrated that adoptive infusion of NK cells is an effective means in removing SNCs, and peptide Acein combined with NK cells further enhances this effect in aging mice.
  4. Front Physiol. 2022 ;13 812157
      Bone is a complex organ serving roles in skeletal support and movement, and is a source of blood cells including adaptive and innate immune cells. Structural and functional integrity is maintained through a balance between bone synthesis and bone degradation, dependent in part on mechanical loading but also on signaling and influences of the tissue microenvironment. Bone structure and the extracellular bone milieu change with age, predisposing to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk, and this is exacerbated in patients with diabetes. Such changes can include loss of bone mineral density, deterioration in micro-architecture, as well as decreased bone flexibility, through alteration of proteinaceous bone support structures, and accumulation of senescent cells. Senescence is a state of proliferation arrest accompanied by marked morphological and metabolic changes. It is driven by cellular stress and serves an important acute tumor suppressive mechanism when followed by immune-mediated senescent cell clearance. However, aging and pathological conditions including diabetes are associated with accumulation of senescent cells that generate a pro-inflammatory and tissue-destructive secretome (the SASP). The SASP impinges on the tissue microenvironment with detrimental local and systemic consequences; senescent cells are thought to contribute to the multimorbidity associated with advanced chronological age. Here, we assess factors that promote bone fragility, in the context both of chronological aging and accelerated aging in progeroid syndromes and in diabetes, including senescence-dependent alterations in the bone tissue microenvironment, and glycation changes to the tissue microenvironment that stimulate RAGE signaling, a process that is accelerated in diabetic patients. Finally, we discuss therapeutic interventions targeting RAGE signaling and cell senescence that show promise in improving bone health in older people and those living with diabetes.
    Keywords:  RAGE; aging; bone fragility; diabetes; glycation; mTOR; senescence; senolytic
  5. J Physiol. 2022 Apr 07.
      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be released from most cells in the body and act as intercellular messengers transferring information in their cargo to affect cellular function. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subset of EVs, referred to here as "small extracellular vesicles" (sEVs) can accelerate or slow the processes of ageing and age-related diseases dependent on their molecular cargo and cellular origin. Continued exploration of the vast complexity of sEV cargo aims to further characterise these systemic vehicles that may be targeted to ameliorate age-related pathologies. Marked progress in the development of mass spectrometry-based technologies mean it is now possible to characterise a significant proportion of the proteome of sEVs (surface and cargo) via unbiased proteomics. This information is vital for identifying biomarkers and the development of sEV-based therapeutics in the context of ageing. While exercise and physical activity are prominent features in maintaining health in advancing years, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. A potential mechanism by which plasma sEVs released during exercise could influence ageing and senescence is via the increased delivery of cargo proteins that function as antioxidant enzymes or inhibitors of senescence. These have been observed to increase in sEVs following acute and chronic exercise, as identified via independent interrogation of high coverage, publicly available proteomic datasets. Establishing tropism and exchange of functionally active proteins by these processes represents a promising line of enquiry in implicating sEVs as biologically relevant mediators of the ageing process. Abstract figure legend Summary of the role of Small extracellular vesicles in the regulation of cellular senescence and the role of exercise derived extracellular vesicles. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are known to play a role in a variety of physiological processes. Recently, they have been identified as potential regulators of paracrine senescence and sEVs from young animals or proliferative cells are capable of reversing/reducing senescence. However, the precise mechanism by which this occurs needs elucidating. As individuals age the accumulation of senescent cells increases, this is accompanied by increase in the senescent associated secretory phenotype and release of sEVs. Exercise is thought to act in a senolytic manner and be capable of preventing or reducing senescence. This subsequently may have implications for age-related pathologies and health span. sEVs may play a role in this process, with antioxidant enzymes and inhibitors of senescence being identified in the cargo of exercise derived sEVs. Created with This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  cellular senescence; exercise; proteomics; secreted factors; small extracellular vesicles
  6. Sci Adv. 2022 Apr 08. 8(14): eabm0756
      Cells responding to DNA damage implement complex adaptive programs that often culminate in one of two distinct outcomes: apoptosis or senescence. To systematically identify factors driving each response, we analyzed human IMR-90 fibroblasts exposed to increasing doses of the genotoxin etoposide and identified SRC as a key kinase contributing early to this dichotomous decision. SRC was activated by low but not high levels of etoposide. With low DNA damage, SRC-mediated activation of p38 critically promoted expression of cell survival and senescence proteins, while SRC-mediated repression of p53 prevented a rise in proapoptotic proteins. With high DNA damage, failure to activate SRC led to elevation of p53, inhibition of p38, and apoptosis. In mice exposed to DNA damage, pharmacologic inhibition of SRC prevented the accumulation of senescent cells in tissues. We propose that inhibiting SRC could be exploited to favor apoptosis over senescence in tissues to improve health outcomes.
  7. Cell Biosci. 2022 Apr 04. 12(1): 43
      BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB is a multi-subunit transcription factor that plays a central role in cellular senescence. We previously reported that an increase in the p52 subunit is seen in senescent cells and aged tissue. In the current work, we examined the mechanism by which p52 is activated and whether the increase in p52 promotes senescence.RESULTS: Using both primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and WI-38 human lung fibroblasts, we examined cells after serial passage and following prolonged culture. An increase in p52 was found in the nucleus relative to pre-senescent cells. The increase in p52 protein was not reflected by an increase in NFKB2 mRNA or by an increase in the abundance of upstream activating kinases, IKKα and NIK. To examine whether p52 promotes senescence, we over-expressed mature p52 in primary MEFs. Significantly more senescence was seen compared to control, a finding not seen with p52 mutated at critical DNA binding residues. In addition, blocking p52 nuclear translocation with the peptide inhibitor, SN52, decreased β-galactosidase (β-gal) formation. Subsequent filtration studies demonstrated that proteins in conditioned media (CM) were necessary for the increase in p52 and mass spectrometry identified S100A4 and cyclophilin A (CYPA) as potential factors in CM necessary for induction of p52. The requirement of these proteins in CM for induction of p52 was confirmed using depletion and supplementation studies. In addition, we found that activation of STAT3 signaling was required for the increase in p52. Finally, genome wide ChIP-sequencing analysis confirmed that there is an increase in p52 chromatin enrichment with senescence and identified several downstream factors whose expression is regulated by increased p52 binding.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that p52 nuclear translocation is increased in senescent cells by factors in conditioned media and that mature p52 induces cellular senescence. The data are consistent with the prior observation that p52 is elevated in aged tissue and support the hypothesis that p52 contributes to organismal aging.
    Keywords:  CYPA; NF-κB; S100A4; STAT3; Senescence; p52
  8. Aging Dis. 2022 Apr;13(2): 433-446
      Aging has been recognized to be a highly complex biological health problem with a high risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Particularly, age-related turnover in adipose tissue is a major contributor to metabolic syndromes and shortened lifespan. Adipocytes undergo senescence in early stage, which results in adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction, redistribution, and inflammation. The well-established association between DNA methylation (DNAm) and aging has been observed in the past few decades. Indeed, age-related alteration in DNAm is highly tissue-specific. This review intends to summarize the advancements how DNAm changes coupled with aging process in adipose tissue, by which DNAm regulates cellular senescence, metabolic function, adipokine secretion and beiging process in adipocytes. Elucidation of the effect of DNAm on adipose aging would have great potential to the development of epigenetic therapeutic strategies against aging-related diseases in clinical settings.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; adipocytes; adipose tissue; aging
  9. Redox Biol. 2022 Apr 02. pii: S2213-2317(22)00081-7. [Epub ahead of print]52 102309
      Skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs), also called satellite cells, are instrumental for postnatal muscle growth and skeletal muscle regeneration. Numerous signaling cascades regulate the fate of MuSCs during muscle regeneration but the molecular mechanism by which MuSCs sense mechanical stimuli remain unclear. Here, we describe that Piezo1, a mechanosensitive ion channel, keeps MuSCs in a quiescent state and prevents senescence. Absence of Piezo1 induces precocious activation of MuSCs, attenuates proliferation, and impairs differentiation, essentially abolishing efficient skeletal muscle regeneration and replenishment of the MuSC pool. Furthermore, we discovered that inactivation of Piezo1 results in compensatory up-regulation of T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, leading to increased Ca2+ influx, which strongly induces NOX4 expression via cPKC. Elevated NOX4 expression in Piezo1-deficient MuSCs increases ROS levels and DNA damage, causing P53-dependent cellular senescence and cell death. The importance of the P53/P21-axis for mediating Piezo1-dependent cellular defects was confirmed by pharmacological inhibition of P53 in Piezo1-deficient mice, which abrogates increased senescence of muscle cells and normalizes muscle regeneration. Our findings uncover an essential role of Piezo1-mediated mechano-signaling in MuSCs for maintaining quiescence and preventing senescence. Reduced mechano-signaling due to decreased physical activity during aging may contribute to the increase of senescent cells and the decline of MuSC numbers in geriatric mice and humans.
    Keywords:  Mechanosensing; Muscle stem cells; Senescence; Skeletal muscle regeneration; p53
  10. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Apr 04. 13(4): 300
      Adipose tissue, which is the crucial energy reservoir and endocrine organ for the maintenance of systemic glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, undergoes significant changes during aging. These changes cause physiological declines and age-related disease in the elderly population. Here, we review the age-related changes in adipose tissue at multiple levels and highlight the underlying mechanisms regulating the aging process. We also discuss the pathogenic pathways of age-related fat dysfunctions and their systemic negative consequences, such as dyslipidemia, chronic general inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Age-related changes in adipose tissue involve redistribution of deposits and composition, in parallel with the functional decline of adipocyte progenitors and accumulation of senescent cells. Multiple pathogenic pathways induce defective adipogenesis, inflammation, aberrant adipocytokine production, and insulin resistance, leading to adipose tissue dysfunction. Changes in gene expression and extracellular signaling molecules regulate the aging process of adipose tissue through various pathways. In addition, adipose tissue aging impacts other organs that are infiltrated by lipids, which leads to systemic inflammation, metabolic system disruption, and aging process acceleration. Moreover, studies have indicated that adipose aging is an early onset event in aging and a potential target to extend lifespan. Together, we suggest that adipose tissue plays a key role in the aging process and is a therapeutic target for the treatment of age-related disease, which deserves further study to advance relevant knowledge.
  11. Aging Dis. 2022 Apr;13(2): 468-490
      Aging and aging-related diseases have emerged as increasingly severe health and social problems. Therefore, it is imperative to discover novel and effective therapeutics to delay the aging process and to manage aging-related diseases. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), one of the classes of antihyperglycemic drugs, have been recommended to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Moreover, GLP-1 RAs have been shown to protect against oxidative stress, cellular senescence and chronic inflammation, which are widely accepted as the major risk factors of aging. However, their significance in aging or aging-related diseases has not been elucidated. Herein, we explain the underlying mechanisms and protective roles of GLP-1 RAs in aging from a molecular, cellular and phenotypic perspective. We provide novel insights into the broad prospect of GLP-1 RAs in preventing and treating aging-related diseases. Additionally, we highlight the gaps for further studies in clinical applications of GLP-1 RAs in aging-related diseases. This review forms a basis for further studies on the relationship between aging-related diseases and GLP-1 RAs.
    Keywords:  GLP-1 receptor agonists; aging; aging-related diseases; glucagon-like peptide-1
  12. Geroscience. 2022 Apr 04.
      Alterations of mitochondrial and glycolytic energy pathways related to aging could contribute to cerebrovascular dysfunction. We studied the impact of aging on energetics of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) by comparing the young (passages 7-9), pre-senescent (passages 13-15), and senescent (passages 20-21) cells. Pre-senescent HBMECs displayed decreased telomere length and undetectable telomerase activity although markers of senescence were unaffected. Bioenergetics in HBMECs were determined by measuring the oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR) rates. Cellular ATP production in young HBMECs was predominantly dependent on glycolysis with glutamine as the preferred fuel for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In contrast, pre-senescent HBMECs displayed equal contribution to ATP production rate from glycolysis and OXPHOS with equal utilization of glutamine, glucose, and fatty acids as mitofuels. Compared to young, pre-senescent HBMECs showed a lower overall ATP production rate that was characterized by diminished contribution from glycolysis. Impairments of glycolysis displayed by pre-senescent cells included reduced basal glycolysis, compensatory glycolysis, and non-glycolytic acidification. Furthermore, impairments of mitochondrial respiration in pre-senescent cells involved the reduction of maximal respiration and spare respiratory capacity but intact basal and ATP production-related OCR. Proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration, however, were unchanged in the pre-senescent HBMECs. HBMECS at passages 20-21 displayed expression of senescence markers and continued similar defects in glycolysis and worsened OXPHOS. Thus, for the first time, we characterized the bioenergetics of pre-senescent HBMECs comprehensively to identify the alterations of the energy pathways that could contribute to aging.
    Keywords:  ATP; Extracellular acidification rate; Glycolysis; Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxygen consumption rate
  13. Exp Gerontol. 2022 Apr 01. pii: S0531-5565(22)00103-6. [Epub ahead of print] 111795
      The ability of the small intestine to perform various functions, such as digestion/absorption of nutrients, gradually declines with age. However, the mechanism that causes intestinal senescence remains unclear. Therefore, age-related changes in the jejunum and ileum were evaluated using senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains that possess characteristic phenotypes of aging. In particular, to understand how senescence affects the small intestine, we investigated whether age-related changes in the morphology of the intestinal villi and its capability to digest/absorb nutrients are associated with the senescence phenotypes identified in specific SAM strains. Four SAM strains were selected (SAMP1, SAMP6, SAMP10, and SAMR1; of which SAMR1 served as a control of SAMP strain) and age-related changes in the small intestine were evaluated for each strain. A villus morphological analysis, mRNA expression level analysis of the small intestine-specific molecules, and disaccharidase activity measurement were performed. We observed that the mRNA expression levels of the genes involved in the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells and in the digestion/absorption of nutrients were markedly decreased in all the SAM strains, especially in the SAMP10 strain. Our results revealed that all the SAM strains spontaneously induced senescence of the small intestine, which occurred due to the disorders affecting the differentiation/maturation system of intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, it was evident that senile phenotypes, such as brain dysfunction, enhanced intestinal senescence in the SAMP10 strain. The results of this study suggest that the brain-intestinal nervous system may play role in maintenance of villous morphology and nutrients uptake via the GLP-2 and IGF-2 signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Digestion/absorption of nutrients; Insulin-like growth factor-2; Intestinal senescence; Senescence-accelerated mouse; Small intestinal villous morphology
  14. Aging (Albany NY). 2022 Apr 04. 14(undefined):
      Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secretory proteins that regulate IGF signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of IGFBP5 in replicative senescence in embryonic mouse fibroblasts (MEFs). During passages according to the 3T3 method, MEFs underwent senescence after the 5th passage (P5) based on cell growth arrest, an increase in the number of cells positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL) staining, and upregulation of p16 and p19. In P8 MEFs, IGFBP5 mRNA level was markedly reduced compared with that in P2 MEFs. Downregulation of IGFBP5 via siRNA in P2 MEFs increased the number of SA-β-GAL-positive cells, upregulated p16 and p19, and inhibited cell growth. Incubation of MEFs with IGFBP5 during serial passage increased the cumulative population doubling and decreased SA-β-GAL positivity compared with those in vehicle-treated cells. IGFBP5 knockdown in P2 MEFs increased phosphorylation levels of ERK1 and ERK2. Silencing of ERK2, but not that of ERK1, blocked the increase in the number of SA-β-GAL-positive cells in IGFBP5-knockdown cells. The reduction in the cell number and upregulation of p16 and p21 in IGFBP5-knockdown cells were attenuated by ERK2 knockdown. Our results suggest that downregulation of IGFBP5 during serial passage contributes to replicative senescence via ERK2 in MEFs.
    Keywords:  ERK1; ERK2; IGFBP5; mouse embryonic fibroblasts; replicative senescence
  15. Front Pharmacol. 2022 ;13 865524
      Metformin is a widely accepted first-line hypoglycemic agent in current clinical practice, and it has been applied to the clinic for more than 60 years. Recently, researchers have identified that metformin not only has an efficient capacity to lower glucose but also exerts anti-aging effects by regulating intracellular signaling molecules. With the accelerating aging process and mankind's desire for a long and healthy life, studies on aging have witnessed an unprecedented boom. Osteoporosis, sarcopenia, degenerative osteoarthropathy, and frailty are age-related diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The decline in motor function is a problem that many elderly people have to face, and in serious cases, they may even fail to self-care, and their quality of life will be seriously reduced. Therefore, exploring potential treatments to effectively prevent or delay the progression of aging-related diseases is essential to promote healthy aging. In this review, we first briefly describe the origin of metformin and the aging of the movement system, and next review the evidence associated with its ability to extend lifespan. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms related to the modulation of aging in the musculoskeletal system by metformin, mainly its contribution to bone homeostasis, muscle aging, and joint degeneration. Finally, we analyze the protective benefits of metformin in aging-related diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
    Keywords:  aging; bone homeostasis; drug effects; metformin; musculoskeletal diseases
  16. Exp Gerontol. 2022 Apr 04. pii: S0531-5565(22)00106-1. [Epub ahead of print] 111798
      Hypertrophy in white adipose tissue (WAT) can result in sustained systemic inflammation, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, and onset of senescence in adipocytes. Inflammation and hypertrophy can be induced in vitro using palmitic acid (PA). WAT adipocytes have innately low β-oxidation capacity, while inorganic nitrate can promote a beiging phenotype, with promotion of β-oxidation when cells are exposed to nitrate during differentiation. We hypothesized that treatment of human adipocytes with PA in vitro can induce senescence, which might be attenuated by nitrate treatment through stimulation of β-oxidation to remove accumulated lipids. Differentiated subcutaneous and omental adipocytes were treated with PA and nitrate and senescence markers were analyzed. PA induced DNA damage and increased p16INK4a levels in both human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes in vitro. However, lipid accumulation and lipid droplet size increased after PA treatment only in subcutaneous adipocytes. Thus, hypertrophy and senescence seem not to be causally associated. Contrary to our expectations, subsequent treatment of PA-induced adipocytes with nitrate did not attenuate PA-induced lipid accumulation or senescence. Instead, we found a significantly beneficial effect of oleic acid (OA) on human subcutaneous adipocytes when applied together with PA, which reduced the DNA damage caused by PA treatment.
    Keywords:  Cell culture; DNA damage; Human adipocytes; Nitrate; Oleic acid; Palmitate; Senescence
  17. Elife. 2022 Apr 04. pii: e71196. [Epub ahead of print]11
      The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nearly all exchanges between nucleus and cytoplasm, and in many species it changes composition as the organism ages. However, how these changes arise and whether they contribute themselves to ageing is poorly understood. We show that SAGA-dependent attachment of DNA circles to NPCs in replicatively ageing yeast cells causes NPCs to lose their nuclear basket and cytoplasmic complexes. These NPCs were not recognized as defective by the NPC quality control machinery (SINC) and not targeted by ESCRTs. They interacted normally or more effectively with protein import and export factors but specifically lost mRNA export factors. Acetylation of Nup60 drove the displacement of basket and cytoplasmic complexes from circle-bound NPCs. Mutations preventing this remodeling extended the replicative lifespan of the cells. Thus, our data suggest that the anchorage of accumulating circles locks NPCs in a specialized state and that this process is intrinsically linked to the mechanisms by which ERCs promote ageing.
    Keywords:  S. cerevisiae; cell biology; evolutionary biology
  18. Aging Cell. 2022 Apr 07. e13604
      Methionine restriction (MetR) can extend lifespan and delay the onset of aging-associated pathologies in most model organisms. Previously, we showed that supplementation with the metabolite S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) extends lifespan and activates the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the mechanism involved and whether SAH can extend metazoan lifespan have remained unknown. Here, we show that SAH supplementation reduces Met levels and recapitulates many physiological and molecular effects of MetR. In yeast, SAH supplementation leads to inhibition of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and activation of autophagy. Furthermore, in Caenorhabditis elegans SAH treatment extends lifespan by activating AMPK and providing benefits of MetR. Therefore, we propose that SAH can be used as an intervention to lower intracellular Met and confer benefits of MetR.
    Keywords:   Caenorhabditis elegans ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH); S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM); methionine restriction (MetR)
  19. Elife. 2022 Apr 07. pii: e75244. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) are linked to aging. Here, we profile highly conserved CpGs in 339 predominantly female mice belonging to the BXD family for which we have deep longevity and genomic data. We use a 'pan-mammalian' microarray that provides a common platform for assaying the methylome across mammalian clades. We computed epigenetic clocks and tested associations with DNAm entropy, diet, weight, metabolic traits, and genetic variation. We describe the multifactorial variance of methylation at these CpGs, and show that high fat diet augments the age-associated changes. Entropy increases with age. The progression to disorder, particularly at CpGs that gain methylation over time, was predictive of genotype-dependent life expectancy. The longer-lived BXD strains had comparatively lower entropy at a given age. We identified two genetic loci that modulate rates of epigenetic age acceleration (EAA): one on chromosome (Chr) 11 that encompasses the Erbb2/Her2 oncogenic region, and a second on Chr19 that contains a cytochrome P450 cluster. Both loci harbor genes associated with EAA in humans including STXBP4, NKX2-3, and CUTC. Transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed associations with oxidation-reduction, metabolic, and immune response pathways. Our results highlight concordant loci for EAA in humans and mice, and demonstrate a tight coupling between the metabolic state and epigenetic aging.
    Keywords:  chromosomes; gene expression; genetics; genomics; mouse
  20. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 07. 13(1): 1897
      Dietary protein restriction is increasingly recognized as a unique approach to improve metabolic health, and there is increasing interest in the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. Recent work indicates that the hormone FGF21 mediates the metabolic effects of protein restriction in young mice. Here we demonstrate that protein restriction increases lifespan, reduces frailty, lowers body weight and adiposity, improves physical performance, improves glucose tolerance, and alters various metabolic markers within the serum, liver, and adipose tissue of wildtype male mice. Conversely, mice lacking FGF21 fail to exhibit metabolic responses to protein restriction in early life, and in later life exhibit early onset of age-related weight loss, reduced physical performance, increased frailty, and reduced lifespan. These data demonstrate that protein restriction in aging male mice exerts marked beneficial effects on lifespan and metabolic health and that a single metabolic hormone, FGF21, is essential for the anti-aging effect of this dietary intervention.
  21. FEBS J. 2022 Apr 03.
      Age-related impairment of coordination of the processes of maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis is associated with a decrease in the functionality of cells and leads to degenerative processes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be a marker of oxidative stress and tissue degeneration. However, the mechanism of accumulation of age-related damage in mtDNA remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of mtDNA damage in several organs of rats during aging, as well as the possibility of reversing these alterations by dietary restriction (DR). We showed that mtDNA of brain compartments (with the exception of the cerebellum), along with kidney mtDNA, was the most susceptible to accumulation of age-related damage, while liver, testis, and lung were the least susceptible organs. DR prevented age-related accumulation of mtDNA damage in the cortex and led to its decrease in the lung and testis. Changes in mtDNA copy number and expression of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy were also tissue-specific. There was a tendency for an age-related decrease in the copy number of mtDNA in the striatum and its increase in the kidney. DR promoted an increase in the amount of mtDNA in the cerebellum and hippocampus. mtDNA damage may be associated not only with the metabolic activity of organs but also with the lipid composition and activity of processes associated with the isoprostanes pathway of lipid peroxidation. The comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and oxylipins profiles in old rats showed that DR decreased the synthesis of arachidonic acid and its metabolites synthesized by the cyclooxygenase (COX), cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP), and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolic pathways.
    Keywords:  caloric restriction; mitochondria; oxidative stress; oxylipins; quality control
  22. Microbiome. 2022 Apr 04. 10(1): 57
      BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction can delay the development of metabolic diseases ranging from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and is linked to both changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota and immunological consequences. However, the interaction between dietary intake, the microbiome, and the immune system remains poorly described.RESULTS: We transplanted the gut microbiota from an obese female before (AdLib) and after (CalRes) an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) into germ-free mice. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to evaluate taxa with differential abundance between the AdLib- and CalRes-microbiota recipients and single-cell multidimensional mass cytometry to define immune signatures in murine colon, liver, and spleen. Recipients of the CalRes sample exhibited overall higher alpha diversity and restructuring of the gut microbiota with decreased abundance of several microbial taxa (e.g., Clostridium ramosum, Hungatella hathewayi, Alistipi obesi). Transplantation of CalRes-microbiota into mice decreased their body fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance compared to AdLib-microbiota recipients. Finally, the CalRes-associated microbiota reduced the levels of intestinal effector memory CD8+ T cells, intestinal memory B cells, and hepatic effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
    CONCLUSION: Caloric restriction shapes the gut microbiome which can improve metabolic health and may induce a shift towards the naïve T and B cell compartment and, thus, delay immune senescence. Understanding the role of the gut microbiome as mediator of beneficial effects of low calorie diets on inflammation and metabolism may enhance the development of new therapeutic treatment options for metabolic diseases.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01105143 , "Effects of negative energy balance on muscle mass regulation," registered 16 April 2010. Video Abstract.
    Keywords:  Adaptive immune system; Caloric restriction; Gut microbiota; Immune senescence; Obesity
  23. Mech Ageing Dev. 2022 Apr 01. pii: S0047-6374(22)00054-9. [Epub ahead of print] 111672
      Ageing is associated with modified function of both innate and adaptive immunity. It is believed that changes occurring in ageing immune system are responsible for increased severity and deadliness of COVID-19 in the elderly. Although supported by statistics and epidemiology, these finding do not compute at the mechanistic level as depending solely on chronological and biological ageing. The phenomena describing changes in the aging immune system are immunosenescence and inflammageing, which develop in time depending on challenges to the individual immune system (immunobiography). Thus, "richer" immunobiography (in addition to other factors, including genetic, epigenetics or metabolic) may adversely affect the reactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 not only at later decades of life, but also earlier, in young and middle-aged individuals. On the other hand, infection with SARS-CoV-2 is affecting the function of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, adding to the individual immunobiography. Summarizing, immunosenescence and inflammaging may aggravate, but also may be aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; immunobiography; immunosenescence; inflammaging
  24. Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Apr 06. e0002822
      Genome instability causes cellular senescence in many organisms. The rRNA gene cluster (rDNA) is one of the most unstable regions in the genome and this instability might convey a signal that induces senescence in the budding yeast. The instability of rDNA mostly depends on replication fork blocking (RFB) activity which induces recombination and gene amplification. By overexpression of Fob1, responsible for the RFB activity, we found that unstable rDNA induces cell cycle arrest and restricts replicative life span. We isolated yeast mutants that grew normally while Fob1 was overexpressed, expecting that some of the mutated genes would be related to the production of a "senescence signal" that elongates cell cycle, stops cell division and finally restricts replicative life span. Our screen identified three suppressor genes, RPS12, UBC4, and CCR4. Replicative life spans of the rps12 and ubc4 mutants were longer than that of wild-type cells. An increase in the levels of extrachromosomal rDNA circles and noncoding transcripts, known to shorten replicative life span, was observed in ubc4 and rps12 respectively, while DNA double strand-breaks at the RFB that are triggers of rDNA instability were reduced in the rps12 mutant. Overall, our observations indicate that Rps12 and Ubc4 contribute to the connection between rDNA instability and replicative life span.
    Keywords:  budding yeast; genome instability; life span; noncoding transcription; ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA); senescence
  25. Crit Rev Immunol. 2021 ;41(4): 39-53
      The TCR-mediated recognition of self and microbial protein antigens by CD8+ T cells presented by the relatively nonvariable, class Ib MHC molecule, Qa-1 in mice and HLA-E in humans, is emerging as an important arm of the immune response. In this brief review, we will cover key examples of Qa1/HLA-E-restricted CD8+ T cells and their role in immunity against microbes and in cancer, but also as an important immunoregulatory pathway complementary to the FoxP3+CD4+ Treg. Although much remains to be learned, increased understanding of HLA-E-targeted immune responses can be potentially exploited in the development of broader and complementary immunotherapeutics against bacteria/viruses, tumors, and autoimmune diseases.
  26. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2022 Apr 09. pii: zbac052. [Epub ahead of print]
      As both physiological and psychological factors influence age-associated declines in older people, the development of drug therapy with multifaceted effects is required. To investigate the utility of ninjin'yoeito (NYT) against geriatric syndromes, we evaluated the effects of NYT on age-related declines in old C57BL/6 mice (88-week-old) as a pre-clinical model of frailty progression. Here, we showed that NYT reversed the decline of rectal temperature in old mice, and also improved forelimb grip strength compared to that in the old control group without affecting skeletal muscle loss. Moreover, NYT significantly increased the duration of grooming after a sucrose solution was sprayed, which reflected self-care motivation. Finally, we revealed the anti-oxidant effects of NYT using a cell-free assay. These results suggest that NYT can improve both physiological and psychological declines associated with aging, and the mechanism may include anti-oxidant effects. NYT may have potential utility for maintaining the health of older people.
    Keywords:  age-associated declines; anti-oxidant effect; kampo medicine; ninjin'yoeito
  27. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 04. 13(1): 1794
      Astrocytes extend endfeet that enwrap the vasculature, and disruptions to this association which may occur in disease coincide with breaches in blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Here we investigate if focal ablation of astrocytes is sufficient to disrupt the BBB in mice. Targeted two-photon chemical apoptotic ablation of astrocytes induced a plasticity response whereby surrounding astrocytes extended processes to cover vascular vacancies. In young animals, replacement processes occur in advance of endfoot retraction, but this is delayed in aged animals. Stimulation of replacement astrocytes results in constriction of pre-capillary arterioles, suggesting that replacement astrocytes are functional. Pharmacological inhibition of pSTAT3, as well as astrocyte specific deletion of pSTAT3, reduces astrocyte replacement post-ablation, without perturbations to BBB integrity. Similar endfoot replacement occurs following astrocyte cell death due to reperfusion in a stroke model. Together, these studies uncover the ability of astrocytes to maintain cerebrovascular coverage via substitution from nearby cells.