bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2022‒03‒20
28 papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2022 ;1362 55-72
      Cellular senescence is one type of permeant arrest of cell growth and one of increasingly recognized contributor to aging and age-associated disease. High phosphate and low Klotho individually and synergistically lead to age-related degeneration in multiple organs. Substantial evidence supports the causality of high phosphate in cellular senescence, and potential contribution to human aging, cancer, cardiovascular, kidney, neurodegenerative, and musculoskeletal diseases. Phosphate can induce cellular senescence both by direct phosphotoxicity, and indirectly through downregulation of Klotho and upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Restriction of dietary phosphate intake and blockage of intestinal absorption of phosphate help suppress cellular senescence. Supplementation of Klotho protein, cellular senescence inhibitor, and removal of senescent cells with senolytic agents are potential novel strategies to attenuate phosphate-induced cellular senescence, retard aging, and ameliorate age-associated, and phosphate-induced disorders.
    Keywords:  Age-associated disease; Aging; Cellular senescence; Fibrosis; Klotho; Phosphate; Phosphorus; Phosphotoxicity; Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; p16; p21
  2. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 18. 13(1): 1417
      Most tumours are thought to arise through oncogenic cell generation followed by additional mutations. How a new oncogenic cell primes tumorigenesis by acquiring additional mutations remains unclear. We show that an additional TP53 mutation stimulates primary tumorigenesis by switching oncogene-induced senescence from a tumour suppressor to a driver. Zebrafish imaging reveals that a newly emerged oncogenic cell with the RasG12V mutation becomes senescent and is eliminated from the epithelia, which is prevented by adding a TP53 gain-of-function mutation (TP53R175H) into RasG12V cells. Surviving RasG12V-TP53R175H double-mutant cells senesce and secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-related inflammatory molecules that convert neighbouring normal cells into SASP factor-secreting senescent cells, generating a heterogeneous tumour-like cell mass. We identify oncogenic cell behaviours that may control the initial human tumorigenesis step. Ras and TP53 mutations and cellular senescence are frequently detected in human tumours; similar switching may occur during the initial step of human tumorigenesis.
  3. EBioMedicine. 2022 Mar 12. pii: S2352-3964(22)00096-2. [Epub ahead of print] 103912
      BACKGROUND: α-Klotho is a geroprotective protein that can attenuate or alleviate deleterious changes with ageing and disease. Declines in α-Klotho play a role in the pathophysiology of multiple diseases and age-related phenotypes. Pre-clinical evidence suggests that boosting α-Klotho holds therapeutic potential. However, readily clinically-translatable, practical strategies for increasing α-Klotho are not at hand. Here, we report that orally-active, clinically-translatable senolytics can increase α-Klotho in mice and humans.METHODS: We examined α-Klotho expression in three different human primary cell types co-cultured with conditioned medium (CM) from senescent or non-senescent cells with or without neutralizing antibodies. We assessed α-Klotho expression in aged, obese, and senescent cell-transplanted mice treated with vehicle or senolytics. We assayed urinary α-Klotho in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who were treated with the senolytic drug combination, Dasatinib plus Quercetin (D+Q).
    FINDINGS: We found exposure to the senescent cell secretome reduces α-Klotho in multiple nonsenescent human cell types. This was partially prevented by neutralizing antibodies against the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, activin A and Interleukin 1α (IL-1α). Consistent with senescent cells' being a cause of decreased α-Klotho, transplanting senescent cells into younger mice reduced brain and urine α-Klotho. Selectively removing senescent cells genetically or pharmacologically increased α-Klotho in urine, kidney, and brain of mice with increased senescent cell burden, including naturally-aged, diet-induced obese (DIO), or senescent cell-transplanted mice. D+Q increased α-Klotho in urine of patients with IPF, a disease linked to cellular senescence.
    INTERPRETATION: Senescent cells cause reduced α-Klotho, partially due to their production of activin A and IL-1α. Targeting senescent cells boosts α-Klotho in mice and humans. Thus, clearing senescent cells restores α-Klotho, potentially opening a novel, translationally-feasible avenue for developing orally-active small molecule, α-Klotho-enhancing clinical interventions. Furthermore, urinary α-Klotho may prove to be a useful test for following treatments in senolytic clinical trials.
    FUNDING: This work was supported by National Institute of Health grants AG013925 (J.L.K.), AG062413 (J.L.K., S.K.), AG044271 (N.M.), AG013319 (N.M.), and the Translational Geroscience Network (AG061456: J.L.K., T.T., N.M., S.B.K., S.K.), Robert and Arlene Kogod (J.L.K.), the Connor Group (J.L.K.), Robert J. and Theresa W. Ryan (J.L.K.), and the Noaber Foundation (J.L.K.). The previous IPF clinical trial was supported by the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers at WFSM (AG021332: J.N.J., S.B.K.), UTHSCA (AG044271: A.M.N.), and the Translational Geroscience Network.
    Keywords:  Cellular senescence; Senolytics; α-Klotho
  4. Elife. 2022 Mar 18. pii: e77749. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Many of the features associated with senescence appear steadily over time before cells stop dividing.
    Keywords:  chromosomes; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; gene expression; genetics; genomics; human; replicative senescence; senescence
  5. Biochem Pharmacol. 2022 Mar 11. pii: S0006-2952(22)00083-1. [Epub ahead of print] 114989
      Senescence is a special state of tumor suppression induced by cell cycle arrest. However, releasing senescence-associated secretory phenotypes by senescent cells could provide tumorigenic conditions and epigenetic changes in neighboring cells. The conventional anticancer drugs activate therapy-induced senescence by several mechanisms which include an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species, upregulation of tumor suppressor proteins (e.g., p53, p21, p38, and p16) and modulation of dysregulated signaling mediators, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/ATM and Rad3-related, checkpoint kinase1/2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt, Ras/Raf pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase. On the other hand, conventional anticancer agents induce the secretion of procarcinogenic molecules, including inflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukins, and angiogenic mediators, namely vascular endothelial growth factor, in the tumor microenvironment. This condition urges the need for finding novel alternative therapies, novel senolytics, senescence inducers and combination therapies in the regulation of senescence towards the regulation of multiple tumorigenic conditions. This comprehensive review highlights the therapeutic targets and signaling pathways in the senescence of tumor cells. The critical roles of anticancer drug-induced senescence, senolytics, and associated combined administrations are evaluated in the attenuation of cellular senescence pathways to achieve cancer prevention and efficient treatment. Current challenges/pitfalls, limitations, and future research are also discussed.
    Keywords:  Cancer; senescence; senolytics; signaling pathways; synthetic drugs; therapeutic targets
  6. Aging Cell. 2022 Mar 15. e13570
      Aging of the blood system is characterized by increased hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid-biased differentiation leading to higher propensity for hematological malignancies. Unraveling cell-intrinsic mechanisms regulating HSC aging could aid reversal or slowing of aging. Asrij/OCIAD1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of hematopoiesis and governs mitochondrial, endosomal, and proteasomal function in mammalian stem cells. Asrij deletion in mice causes loss of HSC quiescence, myeloid skewing, reduced p53 and increased DNA damage, features attributed to aged HSCs. Mechanistically, Asrij controls p53 ubiquitination and degradation and AKT/STAT5 activation. Asrij localizes to endosomes and mitochondria. As decline in organelle structure and function are common hallmarks of aging, we asked whether Asrij regulates organelle function in aged HSCs. We find that chronologically aged wild-type (WT) HSCs had reduced Asrij levels. Expectedly, young asrij KO mice had reduced AcH4K16 levels; however, transcriptome analysis of KO HSCs showed a modest overlap of gene expression with aged WT HSCs. Further, analysis of organelle structure and function in asrij KO mice revealed significant changes, namely damaged mitochondria, elevated ROS; impaired endosomal trafficking seen by increased cleaved Notch1, reduced Rab5; and reduced 26S proteasome activity. Pharmacological correction of mitochondrial and proteasome activity in asrij KO mice restored HSC and myeloid cell frequencies. Furthermore, lysophosphatidic acid-induced Asrij upregulation in aged WT mice rescued mitochondrial and proteasome activity and restored HSC frequency. Our results highlight a new role for Asrij in preventing HSC aging by regulating organelle homeostasis and will help decipher organelle dynamics in HSC longevity.
    Keywords:  Asrij/OCIAD1; HSC; aging; endosome; homeostasis; mitochondria; organelle; proteasome
  7. Br J Cancer. 2022 Mar 19.
      The capability of tumour cells to escape from therapy-induced senescence, as well as cell-non-autonomous functions of senescence, support the premise that senescence could serve as one pathway to tumour dormancy (among others that include quiescence and diapause) that is permissive for disease recurrence. Consequently, the pharmacologic targeting of senescent tumour cells could mitigate the risk for cancer resurgence, thereby enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.
  8. Front Neurol. 2021 ;12 811518
      Aging is characterized, amongst other features, by a complex process of cellular senescence involving both innate and adaptive immunity, called immunosenescence and associated to inflammaging, a low-grade chronic inflammation. Both processes fuel each other and partially explain increasing incidence of cancers, infections, age-related autoimmunity, and vascular disease as well as a reduced response to vaccination. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a lifelong disease, for which considerable progress in disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and management has improved long-term survival. However, disability progression, increasing with age and disease duration, remains. Neurologists are now involved in caring for elderly MS patients, with increasing comorbidities. Aging of the immune system therefore has relevant implications for MS pathogenesis, response to DMTs and the risks mediated by these treatments. We propose to review current evidence regarding markers and molecular mechanisms of immunosenescence and their relevance to understanding MS pathogenesis. We will focus on age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune system in MS and other auto-immune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. The consequences of these immune changes on MS pathology, in interaction with the intrinsic aging process of central nervous system resident cells will be discussed. Finally, the impact of immunosenescence on disease evolution and on the safety and efficacy of current DMTs will be presented.
    Keywords:  T/B cells; astrocytes; disease modifying therapies; immunosenescence; inflammaging; microglia; multiple sclerosis; oligodendrocytes
  9. Ageing Res Rev. 2022 Mar 11. pii: S1568-1637(22)00050-2. [Epub ahead of print]77 101608
      Osteocytes play a critical role in maintaining bone homeostasis and in regulating skeletal response to hormones and mechanical loading. Substantial evidence have demonstrated that osteocytes and their lacunae exhibit morphological changes in aged bone, indicating the underlying involvement of osteocytes in bone aging. Notably, recent studies have deciphered aged osteocytes to have characteristics such as impaired mechanosensitivity, accumulated cellular senescence, dysfunctional perilacunar/canalicular remodeling, and degenerated lacuna-canalicular network. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of osteocytes remain unclear. Nonetheless, osteocyte transcriptomes analyzed via advanced RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques have identified several bone aging-related genes and signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Bmp/TGF, and Jak-STAT. Moreover, inflammation, immune dysfunction, energy shortage, and impaired hormone responses possibly affect osteocytes in age-related bone deterioration. In this review, we summarize the hallmarks of aging bone and osteocytes and discuss osteocytic mechanisms in age-related bone loss and impaired bone quality. Furthermore, we provide insights into the challenges faced and their possible solutions when investigating osteocyte transcriptomes. We also highlight that single-cell RNA-seq can decode transcriptomic messages in aged osteocytes; therefore, this technique can promote novel single cell-based investigations in osteocytes once a well-established standardized protocol specific for osteocytes is developed. Interestingly, improved understanding of osteocytic mechanisms have helped identify promising targets and effective therapies for aging-related osteoporosis and fragile fractures.
    Keywords:  Bone aging; Osteocyte; Osteocyte transcriptome; Osteocytic mechanisms; RNA sequencing
  10. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 835675
      Skin-resident stromal cells, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and immune cells including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and their functional products work in concert to ensure the realization of skin barrier immunity. However, aging-induced immunosenescence predisposes the elderly to pruritic dermatoses, including type 2 inflammation-mediated. Inflammaging, characterized by chronic low level of pro-inflammatory cytokines released from senescent cells with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), may drive immunosenescence and tangle with type 2 inflammatory dermatoses. The present mini-review summarizes current evidence on immunosenescence and type 2 inflammation in the skin and further focuses on future needs from an inflammaging perspective to clarify their complexity.
    Keywords:  dermatosis; immunosenescence; inflammaging; mini-review and challenges; skin aging
  11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Mar 10. pii: S0006-291X(22)00366-7. [Epub ahead of print]604 88-95
      Circular RNAs (circRNAs), characterized as single-stranded closed circular RNA molecules, have been established to exert pivotal functions in various biological or pathological processes. Nonetheless, the effects and underlying mechanisms concerning circRNAs on the aging and aging-related diseases remain elusive. We herein compared the expression patterns of circRNAs in young and senescent mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and uncovered that circRNF169 was dramatically up-regulated in senescent MEFs compared with that in young MEFs. Therefore, we further digged into the role and potential mechanisms of circRNF169 in the senescence of MEFs. The results of senescence-associate-β-galactosidase staining and BrdU incorporation assay showed that silencing of circRNF169 significantly delayed MEFs senescence and promoted cell proliferation, while ectopic expression of circRNF169 exhibited the opposite effects. Moreover, the dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that circRNF169 acted as an endogenous miR-30c-5p sponge, which accelerated cellular senescence by sequestering and inhibiting miR-30c-5p activity. Taken together, our results suggested that circRNF169 exerted a crucial role in cellular senescence through sponging miR-30c-5p and represented a promising target for aging intervention.
    Keywords:  Aging; Cellular senescence; CircRNF169; miR-30c-5p
  12. Neurotox Res. 2022 Mar 17.
      Drug dependence on morphine is commonly accompanied by neurodegenerative disorders. A previous study showed that prolonged exposure to morphine induces cellular senescence in neuronal cells by reducing telomere length. Phoenixin-14 is a newly discovered brain peptide with pleiotropic roles. However, it is unknown whether phoenixin-14 possesses a beneficial property against morphine-induced cellular senescence. Our results show that morphine reduced the expression of G protein-coupled receptor 173 (GPR173) in M17 neuronal cells. Therefore, we speculated that phoenixin-14, as a ligand for GPR173, may be involved in the morphine-mediated response in M17 cells. Further, we found that phoenixin-14 mitigated morphine-induced oxidative stress by reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in M17 neuronal cells. The morphine-induced cellular senescence in M17 neuronal cells was prevented by phoenixin-14. Phoenixin-14 resolved the morphine-caused cell cycle arrest with significant changes in the expression levels of p21, cyclin-dependent kinases 6 (CDK6), and p-Rb. It also elevated the telomerase activity and restored the expressions of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and TERF2 in morphine-induced M17 neuronal cells. Furthermore, phoenixin-14 restored the yes-associated protein (YAP) expression against morphine in M17 neuronal cells. Knockdown of YAP abolished the beneficial effects of phoenixin-14 on cellular senescence against morphine induction. Taken together, these aggregate data demonstrate that phoenixin-14 prevented cellular senescence against morphine induction in M17 neuronal cells via regulating YAP expression.
    Keywords:  Aging; Cellular senescence; Morphine; Phoenixin-14
  13. Aging (Albany NY). 2022 Mar 15. 14(undefined):
      With the increasing burden of a globally aging population, low back pain has become one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, caused mainly by intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. There are currently several clinical methods to alleviate back pain, but there is scarce attention paid as to whether they can improve age-related IVD degeneration. It is therefore difficult to conduct an in-depth evaluation of these methods. A large number of clinical studies have shown that manual therapy (MT), a widely used comprehensive alternative method, has effects on pain, the mechanisms of which require further study. In this study, MT was performed on aging rats for 6 months, and their behaviors were compared with those of a non-intervention group of aging and young rats. After the intervention, all rats were examined by X-ray to observe lumbar spine degeneration, and the IVD tissues were dissected for detection, including pathological staining, immunofluorescence, Western bolt, etc. This study demonstrated the possibility that MT intervention delay the lumbar IVD degeneration in aging rats, specifically improving the motor function and regulating senescence-associated β-galactosidase, p53, p21, p16, and telomerase activity to retard the senescence of cells in IVDs. Moreover, MT intervention can modify oxidative stress, increase the expression of SIRT1 and FOXO1 in IVDs and decrease ac-FOXO1 expression, suggesting that MT can reduce oxidative stress through the SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway, thereby playing a role in delaying the aging of IVDs. This study shows that drug-free, non-invasive mechanical interventions could be of major significance in improving the physical function of the elderly.
    Keywords:  SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway; aging; intervertebral disc degeneration; manual therapy; oxidative stress
  14. Elife. 2022 Mar 18. pii: e67190. [Epub ahead of print]11
      A rare but severe complication of curative-intent radiation therapy is the induction of second primary cancers. These cancers preferentially develop not inside the planning target volume (PTV) but around, over several centimeters, after a latency period of 1-40 years. We show here that normal human or mouse dermal fibroblasts submitted to the out-of-field dose scattering at the margin of a PTV receiving a mimicked patient's treatment do not die but enter in a long-lived senescent state resulting from the accumulation of unrepaired DNA single-strand breaks, in the almost absence of double-strand breaks. Importantly, a few of these senescent cells systematically and spontaneously escape from the cell cycle arrest after a while to generate daughter cells harboring mutations and invasive capacities. These findings highlight single-strand break-induced senescence as the mechanism of second primary cancer initiation, with clinically relevant spatiotemporal specificities. Senescence being pharmacologically targetable, they open the avenue for second primary cancer prevention.
    Keywords:  cancer biology; cell biology; dna double-strand breaks; dna repair; dna single-strand breaks; normal human dermal fibroblasts; parp; radiotherapy; sarcoma; second primary cancer; senescence
  15. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 18. 13(1): 1469
      N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent RNA modification at the posttranscriptional level and involved in various diseases and cellular processes. However, the underlying mechanism of m6A regulation in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) remains elusive. Here, we show that methylation of the lncRNA NORAD significantly increases in senescent nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) by m6A sequencing. Subsequent loss- and gain-of-function experiments reveal WTAP is increased in senescent NPCs due to an epigenetic increase in H3K4me3 of the promoter mediated by KDM5a, and significantly promotes NORAD m6A modification. Furthermore, YTHDF2-mediated decay of NORAD is enhanced in senescent NPCs, and then deficiency of NORAD results in less sequestraion of PUMILIO proteins, contributing to the augmented activity of PUM1/2, thus repressing the expression of target E2F3 mRNAs and promoting the cellular senescence. Here, we show interruption of NORAD m6A modification or the NORAD/PUMILIO/E2F3 axis could serve as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit the senescence of NPCs and development of IVDD.
  16. Nucleic Acids Res. 2022 Mar 14. pii: gkac146. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aging in humans is intricately linked with alterations in circadian rhythms concomitant with physiological decline and stem cell exhaustion. However, whether the circadian machinery directly regulates stem cell aging, especially in primates, remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that deficiency of BMAL1, the only non-redundant circadian clock component, results in an accelerated aging phenotype in both human and cynomolgus monkey mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). Unexpectedly, this phenotype was mainly attributed to a transcription-independent role of BMAL1 in stabilizing heterochromatin and thus preventing activation of the LINE1-cGAS-STING pathway. In senescent primate MPCs, we observed decreased capacity of BMAL1 to bind to LINE1 and synergistic activation of LINE1 expression. Likewise, in the skin and muscle tissues from the BMAL1-deficient cynomolgus monkey, we observed destabilized heterochromatin and aberrant LINE1 transcription. Altogether, these findings uncovered a noncanonical role of BMAL1 in stabilizing heterochromatin to inactivate LINE1 that drives aging in primate cells.
  17. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2022 Mar 07. pii: S0167-4943(22)00057-7. [Epub ahead of print]101 104676
      PURPOSE: Cell senescence plays a vital role in intervertebral disc degeneration. The regulatory mechanism of the cellular senescence of nucleus pulposus cells has not been fully elucidated. A recent study identified GATA4 as an emerging regulator of IMR90 cellular senescence. However, whether GATA4 controls senescence in nucleus pulposus cells still needs to be explored.METHODS: Nucleus pulposus cells were exposed to acidified medium mimic the acid environment of intervertebral disc degeneration.
    RESULTS: We found that GATA4 protein expression was significantly upregulated in older rats and nucleus pulposus cells undergoing stress-induced aging. Moreover, the data indicated that inhibition of GATA4 significantly inhibited the senescence of nucleus pulposus cells cultured under acidic conditions and that over expression of GATA4 promoted a senescence phenotype. The NF-κB pathway has been confirmed in this study to play a role in the regulation of nucleus pulposus cell senescence by GATA4. By using the NF-κB pathway inhibitor, PDTC (100 μmol/L), significantly decreased the IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS)-4, ADAMTS-5 expression level, and increased Aggrecan and typeⅡcollagen expression level in GATA4 transfected nucleus pulposus cells compared with the group in the absence of PDTC.
    CONCLUSION: This outcome suggested that GATA4 might play a significant role in nucleus pulposus cell senescence through the NF-κB signaling pathway, and GATA4 is a promising target for intervertebral disc degeneration treatment in the future.
    Keywords:  intervertebral disc degeneration; mechanism; senescence regulation
  18. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2022 Mar 13. e14352
      BACKGROUND: Aging is a complex biological process and associated with a progressive decline in functions of most organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Age-related GI motor disorders/dysfunctions include esophageal reflux, dysphagia, constipation, fecal incontinence, reduced compliance, and accommodation. Although the incidence and severity of these diseases and conditions increase with age, they are often underestimated due in part to nonspecific and variable symptoms and lack of sufficient medical attention. They negatively affect quality of life and predispose the elderly to other diseases, sarcopenia, and frailty. The mechanisms underlying aging-associated GI dysfunctions remain unclear, and there is limited data examining the effect of aging on GI motor functions. Many studies on aging-associated changes to cells within the tunica muscularis including enteric neurons, smooth muscles, and interstitial cells have proposed that cell loss and/or molecular changes may be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related GI motor disorders/dysfunctions. There is also evidence that the aging contributes to phenotypic changes in innate immune cells, which are physically and functionally linked to other cells in the tunica muscularis and can alter GI (patho) physiology. However, various patterns of changes have been reported, some of which are contradictory, indicating a need for additional work in this area.PURPOSE: Although GI infection due to intestinal bacterial overgrowth, bleeding, and cancers are also important and common problems in the elderly patients, this mini-review focuses on data obtained from enteric neuromuscular aging research with the goal of better understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of enteric neuromuscular aging to enhance future therapy.
    Keywords:  aging; enteric neuron; gastrointestinal motility; interstitial cells of Cajal; muscularis propria macrophage; senescence
  19. Circ Res. 2022 Mar 18. 130(6): 928-941
      Pulmonary hypertension is an enigmatic, deleterious disease driven by multiple heterogeneous causes with a burgeoning proportion of older patients with complex, chronic comorbidities without adequate treatment options. The underlying endothelial pathophenotypes that direct vasoconstriction and panvascular remodeling remain both controversial and incompletely defined. This review discusses emerging concepts centered on endothelial senescence in pulmonary vascular disease. This principle proposes a more heterogeneous, dynamic pulmonary endothelium in disease; it provides a potentially unifying feature of endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension irrespective of cause; and it supports a clinically relevant link between aging and pulmonary hypertension like other chronic illnesses. Thus, taking cues from studies on aging and age-related diseases, we present possible opportunities and barriers to diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of senescence in pulmonary hypertension.
    Keywords:  aging; arterial pressure; heart failure; pulmonary hypertension; vasoconstriction
  20. J Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Mar 14. pii: mjac016. [Epub ahead of print]
      O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of intracellular proteins is a dynamic process broadly implicated in age-related disease, yet it remains uncharacterized whether and how O-GlcNAcylation contributes to the natural aging process. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and the opposing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) control this nutrient-sensing protein modification in cells. Here, we show that global O-GlcNAc levels are increased in multiple tissues of aged mice. In aged liver, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) is among the most heavily O-GlcNAcylated proteins. CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation is reversed by calorie restriction and is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the O-GlcNAc pathway. High glucose stimulates CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation and inhibits CPS1 activity. Liver-specific deletion of OGT potentiates CPS1 activity and renders CPS1 irresponsive to further stimulation by a prolonged fasting. Our results identify CPS1 O-GlcNAcylation as a key nutrient-sensing regulatory step in the urea cycle during aging and dietary restriction, implying a role for mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation in nutritional regulation of longevity.
    Keywords:   O-GlcNAcylation; ageing; calorie restriction; carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1; dietary restriction; post-translational modification; urea cycle
  21. Mol Neurobiol. 2022 Mar 16.
      We have shown that deficiency of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), an enzyme generating the sphingolipid ceramide, improves memory in adult mice. Here, we performed sphingolipid and RNA-seq analyses on the cortex from 10-month-old nSMase2-deficient (fro/fro) and heterozygous (+ /fro) mice. fro/fro cortex showed reduced levels of ceramide, particularly in astrocytes. Differentially abundant transcripts included several functionally related groups, with decreases in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and astrocyte activation transcripts, while axon guidance and synaptic transmission and plasticity transcripts were increased, indicating a role of nSMase2 in oxidative stress, astrocyte activation, and cognition. Experimentally induced oxidative stress decreased the level of glutathione (GSH), an endogenous inhibitor of nSMase2, and increased immunolabeling for ceramide in primary + /fro astrocytes, but not in fro/fro astrocytes. β-galactosidase activity was lower in 5-week-old fro/fro astrocytes, indicating delayed senescence due to nSMase2 deficiency. In fro/fro cortex, levels of the senescence markers C3b and p27 and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α were reduced, concurrent with twofold decreased phosphorylation of their downstream target, protein kinase Stat3. RNA and protein levels of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit 2B (Grin2b/NR2B) were increased by twofold, which was previously shown to enhance cognition. This was consistent with threefold reduced levels of exosomes carrying miR-223-3p, a micro-RNA downregulating NR2B. In summary, our data show that nSMase2 deficiency prevents oxidative stress-induced elevation of ceramide and secretion of exosomes by astrocytes that suppress neuronal function, indicating a role of nSMase2 in the regulation of neuroinflammation and cognition.
    Keywords:  Ceramide; Extracellular vesicles; Grin2b; Oxidative stress
  22. Aging Cell. 2022 Mar 15. e13582
      Older humans and animals often exhibit reduced immune responses to infection and vaccination, and this often directly correlates to the numbers and frequency of naive T (Tn) cells. We found such a correlation between reduced numbers of blood CD8+ Tn cells and severe clinical outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) in both humans naturally exposed to, and mice experimentally infected with, WNV. To examine possible causality, we sought to increase the number of CD8 Tn cells by treating C57BL/6 mice with IL-7 complexes (IL-7C, anti-IL-7 mAb bound to IL-7), shown previously to efficiently increase peripheral T-cell numbers by homeostatic proliferation. T cells underwent robust expansion following IL-7C administration to old mice increasing the number of total T cells (>fourfold) and NS4b:H-2Db -restricted antigen-specific CD8 T cells (twofold). This improved the numbers of NS4b-specific CD8 T cells detected at the peak of the response against WNV, but not survival of WNV challenge. IL-7C-treated old animals also showed no improvement in WNV-specific effector immunity (neutralizing antibody and in vivo T-cell cytotoxicity). To test quantitative limits to which CD8 Tn cell restoration could improve protective immunity, we transferred graded doses of Ag-specific precursors into old mice and showed that injection of 5400 (but not of 1800 or 600) adult naive WNV-specific CD8 T cells significantly increased survival after WNV. These results set quantitative limits to the level of Tn reconstitution necessary to improve immune defense in older organisms and are discussed in light of targets of immune reconstitution.
    Keywords:  IL-7/ CD8 T cells; immune aging; immune rejuvenation
  23. Aging Cell. 2022 Mar 15. e13590
      Down syndrome (DS) is a leading cause of intellectual disability that also results in hallmark Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies such as amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau. The Ts65Dn mouse model is commonly used to study DS, as trisomic Ts65Dn mice carry 2/3 of the triplicated gene homologues as occur in human DS. The Ts65Dn strain also allows investigation of mechanisms common to DS and AD pathology, with many of these triplicated genes implicated in AD; for example, trisomic Ts65Dn mice overproduce amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is then processed into soluble Aβ40-42 fragments. Notably, Ts65Dn mice show alterations to the basal forebrain, which parallels the loss of function in this region observed in DS and AD patients early on in disease progression. However, a complete picture of soluble Aβ40-42 accumulation in a region-, age-, and sex-specific manner has not yet been characterized in the Ts65Dn model. Here, we show that trisomic mice accumulate soluble Aβ40-42 in the basal forebrain, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in an age-specific manner, with elevation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as early as 4 months of age. Furthermore, we detected sex differences in accumulation of Aβ40-42 within the basal forebrain, with females having significantly higher Aβ40-42 at 7-8 months of age. Lastly, we show that APP expression in the basal forebrain and hippocampus inversely correlates with Aβ40-42  levels. This spatial and temporal characterization of soluble Aβ40-42 in the Ts65Dn model allows for further exploration of the role soluble Aβ plays in the progression of other AD-like pathologies in these key brain regions.
    Keywords:  Amyloid-β40-42; Ts65Dn; basal forebrain; down syndrome; hippocampus
  24. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 797581
      It is well documented that the environment of the developing fetus, including availability of nutrients and presence of toxins, can have major impact on adult phenotype, age-related traits and risk of chronic disease. There is also accumulating evidence that postnatal environment can impact adult characteristics related to evolutionary fitness, health, and aging. To determine whether early life hormonal interventions can alter trajectory of aging, we have examined the effects of early life growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in Prop1df (Ames dwarf) mice which are GH deficient and remarkably long lived. Twice-daily GH injections between the ages of two and eight weeks completely normalized ("rescued") a number of adult metabolic characteristics believed to contribute to extended longevity of these mutants. Importantly, longevity of Ames dwarf mice was reduced by early life GH treatment. This was associated with histone H3 modifications. We conclude that the trajectory of mammalian aging can be modified by early life interventions. Mechanistic links among interventions during postnatal development, adult metabolic characteristics, aging, and longevity, apparently involve epigenetic phenomena.
    Keywords:  Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD); aging; early life interventions; growth hormone; healthspan; lifespan; mutant mice; postnatal development
  25. Aging Cell. 2022 Mar 17. e13592
      Delirium is the most common postoperative complication in older patients after prolonged anesthesia and surgery and is associated with accelerated cognitive decline and dementia. The neuronal pathogenesis of postoperative delirium is largely unknown. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive reaction of cells to perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum function. Dysregulation of UPR has been implicated in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. However, whether UPR plays a role in anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment remains unexplored. By performing in vivo calcium imaging in the mouse frontal cortex, we showed that exposure of aged mice to the inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane for 2 hours resulted in a marked elevation of neuronal activity during recovery, which lasted for at least 24 hours after the end of exposure. Concomitantly, sevoflurane anesthesia caused a prolonged increase in phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α, the markers of UPR activation. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PERK prevented neuronal hyperactivity and memory impairment induced by sevoflurane. Moreover, we showed that PERK suppression also reversed various molecular and synaptic changes induced by sevoflurane anesthesia, including alterations of synaptic NMDA receptors, tau protein phosphorylation, and dendritic spine loss. Together, these findings suggest that sevoflurane anesthesia causes abnormal UPR in the aged brain, which contributes to neuronal hyperactivity, synapse loss and cognitive decline in aged mice.
    Keywords:  delirium; dendritic spine; neuronal activity; sevoflurane; synapse; unfolded protein response
  26. Geroscience. 2022 Mar 12.
      Aging is associated with a massive infiltration of T lymphocytes in the lacrimal gland. Here, we aimed to characterize the immune phenotype of aged CD4+ T cells in this tissue as compared with lymphoid organs. To perform this, we sorted regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4+CD25+GITR+) and non-Tregs (CD4+CD25negGITRneg) in lymphoid organs from female C57BL/6J mice and subjected these cells to an immunology NanoString® panel. These results were confirmed by flow cytometry, live imaging, and tissue immunostaining in the lacrimal gland. Importantly, effector T helper 1 (Th1) genes were highly upregulated on aged Tregs, including the master regulator Tbx21. Among the non-Tregs, we also found a significant increase in the levels of EOMESmed/high, TbetnegIFN-γ+, and CD62L+CD44negCD4+ T cells with aging, which are associated with cell exhaustion, immunopathology, and the generation of tertiary lymphoid tissue. At the functional level, aged Tregs from lymphoid organs are less able to decrease proliferation and IFN-γ production of T responders at any age. More importantly, human lacrimal glands (age range 55-81 years) also showed the presence of CD4+Foxp3+ cells. Further studies are needed to propose potential molecular targets to avoid immune-mediated lacrimal gland dysfunction with aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; CD4+ T cells; Conventional T cells; Dry eye disease; Lacrimal gland; Lymphoid organs; Regulatory T cells; Sjögren’s syndrome; Transcriptome
  27. Neurobiol Aging. 2022 Feb 05. pii: S0197-4580(22)00020-3. [Epub ahead of print]113 15-27
      Typical aging is associated with increases in false memory rates among older adults. Such errors are frequently associated with differential neural activity during encoding and retrieval in older compared to younger adults within visual cortices and the hippocampus. It remains unknown how pattern similarity reductions relate to false memories in healthy aging. Using encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) analyses in a sample of younger and older adults, we examined how the similarity of neural patterns between memory phases associated with target and lure objects was impacted by age and contributed to false memory rates. Single-item ERS for targets and lures was reduced by age throughout much of the ventral visual stream and the posterior hippocampus. Furthermore, ERS associated with perceptual lures within the visual stream maintained differential relationships with false memory. Finally, a global ERS metric accounted for age deficits in single-item ERS, but did not contribute to false memory rates. These findings highlight the contribution of age-related reductions in ERS across multiple representational levels to false memories in healthy aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; Encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS); False memory
  28. Exp Gerontol. 2022 Mar 09. pii: S0531-5565(22)00073-0. [Epub ahead of print]162 111765
      Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent enzyme. It is a novel member of the sirtuin family that has been shown to have an important role in various molecular pathways in glycolysis, cancer, and neurodegenerative responses. Recently, SIRT6 has emerged as a prominent research issue because its biochemical activity and regulation are possibly associated with human metabolism and disease. In this review, we summarized the connection between SIRT6 and glycolytic metabolism; discussed recent developments in the involvement of SIRT6 in a variety of life-threatening illnesses, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease; and explored possible treatment approaches for those diseases with SIRT6. This review provides insights into the role of SIRT6 in disease.
    Keywords:  Ageing; Cancer; Metabolism; Neurodegenerative diseases; SIRT6