bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2022‒01‒30
eighteen papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Rejuvenation Res. 2022 Jan 26.
      The development of senomorphic drugs to attenuate the senescent phenotype and senolytics to clear pro-inflammatory senescent cells to treat aging-associated disorders is being hotly pursued. The effort is complicated by the fact that senescent cells play a constructive role in some cellular processes such as tissue repair and wound healing. However, concerns about efficacy, which senescent cells to target, and unwanted side effects have created potential roadblocks. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells directed against urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which is expressed on at least a subset of senescent cells (SC) in atherosclerotic plaques and fibrotic livers, removed SC and improved glucose metabolism. A conventional vaccine targeting CD153-expressing senescent T-cells, also improved glucose metabolism in obese mice. Recent work to selectively target senescent cells associated with several pathologies has resulted in the creation of a peptide vaccine that primarily targets endothelial cells expressing high levels of GPNMB, recently identified as a biomarker of senescence. The vaccine reduces atherosclerotic plaque burden and metabolic dysfunction such as glucose intolerance in mouse models of obesity and atherosclerosis. For translation to humans the activity of the vaccine will need to be tightly controlled, as the target, GPNMB has multiple roles in normal physiology including acting to inhibit and possibly resolve inflammation. A promising alternative approach would be to use passive immunization with a monoclonal antibody directed against GPNMB.
  2. Exp Gerontol. 2022 Jan 24. pii: S0531-5565(22)00014-6. [Epub ahead of print]160 111706
      Metformin is one of the most effective therapies for treating type 2 diabetes and has been shown to also attenuate aging and age-related disorders. In this study, we explored the relationship between metformin and DNA damage repair in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Metformin treatment suppressed IR-induced senescence phenotypes, such as increased senescent-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity and decreased tube formation and proliferation. Moreover, metformin increased BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) and RAD51 expression in both aging and IR-exposed cells. Metformin-treated cells exhibited higher levels of the BRCA1-BARD1-RAD51 complex during irradiation, even in the presence of compound C, an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor. BARD1 knockdown confirmed its critical role in metformin-mediated inhibition of endothelial senescence. Metformin increased blood vessel sprouting and decreased SA β-gal activity in mouse aortas. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into how metformin can prevent endothelial cell senescence by promoting BARD1-related DNA damage repair, suggesting that metformin may be an effective anti-aging agent and a promising therapeutic for protecting against radiation-induced cardiotoxicity.
    Keywords:  BARD1; Cellular senescence; Endothelial cell dysfunction; Homologous recombination repair; Ionizing radiation; Metformin
  3. Eur Respir J. 2022 Jan 27. pii: 2102951. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection of the respiratory system can progress to a multi-systemic disease with aberrant inflammatory response. Cellular senescence promotes chronic inflammation, named as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We investigated whether COVID-19 disease is associated with cellular senescence and SASP.METHODS: Autopsy lung tissue samples from 11 COVID-19 patients and 43 age-matched non-COVID controls with similar comorbidities were analysed by immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2, markers of senescence and key SASP cytokines. Virally-induced senescence was functionally recapitulated in vitro, by infecting epithelial Vero-E6 cells and a three-dimensional alveosphere system of alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells with SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from COVID-19 patients.
    RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy predominantly in AT2 cells. Infected AT2 cells expressed the angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) and exhibited increased senescence (p16INK4A and SenTraGorTM positivity) and IL-1β and IL-6 expression. In vitro, infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 induced senescence (SenTraGorTM), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and increased cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8) and Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing (APOBEC) enzyme expression. Next-generation-sequencing analysis of progenies obtained from infected/senescent Vero-E6 cells demonstrated APOBEC-mediated SARS-CoV-2 mutations. Dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2-infection and senescence was confirmed in extra-pulmonary sites (kidney and liver) of a COVID-19 patient.
    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that in severe COVID-19, AT2 cells infected by SARS-CoV-2 exhibit senescence and a proinflammatory phenotype. In vitro, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces senescence and inflammation. Importantly, infected senescent cells may act as a source of SARS-CoV-2 mutagenesis mediated by APOBEC enzymes. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence may be an important molecular mechanism of severe COVID-19, disease persistence and mutagenesis.
  4. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Jan 27. 13(1): 86
      As we age, our body experiences chronic, systemic inflammation contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the elderly. The senescent immune system has been described to have a causal role in driving systemic aging and therefore may represent a key therapeutic target to prevent pathological consequences associated with aging and extend a healthy lifespan. Previous studies from our group associated a polymorphic haplotype variant in the BPIFB4 gene (LAV-BPIFB4) with exceptional longevity. Transfer of the LAV-BPIFB4 in preclinical models halted the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and frailty by counterbalancing chronic inflammation. In the present study, we aimed to delineate the action of systemic adeno-associated viral vector-mediated LAV-BPIFB4 gene transfer (AAV-LAV-BPIFB4) on the deleterious age-related changes of the immune system and thereby the senescence-associated events occurring in C57BL/6J mice aged 26 months. Our in vivo data showed that 26-months-old mice had a higher frequency of CD45+SA-beta Gal+ immune cells in peripheral blood than young (4-months-old) C57BL/6J mice. Notably, AAV-LAV-BPIFB4 gene transfer in aged mice reduced the pool of peripheral immunosenescent cells that were shown to be enriched in the spleen. In addition, the proper tuning of the immune secretory phenotype (IL1βlow, IL6low, IL10high) associated with a significant reduction in SA-beta Gal-positive area of aorta from AAV-LAV treated mice. At the functional level, the reduction of senescence-associated inflammation ensured sustained NAD+ levels in the plasma of AAV-LAV-BPIFB4 old mice by preventing the NADase CD38 increase in F4/80+ tissue-resident macrophages and Ly6Chigh pro-inflammatory monocytes of the spleen and bone marrow. Finally, to validate the clinical implication of our findings, we showed that Long-living-individuals (LLIs, >95 years), which delay CVDs onset, especially if LAV-carriers, were characterized by high NAD+ levels. In conclusion, the new senotherapeutic action of LAV-BPIFB4 may offer a valuable therapeutic tool to control aging and reduce the burden of its pathophysiological disorders, such as CVDs.
  5. Ageing Res Rev. 2022 Jan 24. pii: S1568-1637(22)00015-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101573
      Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is activated in chronic inflammatory states, e.g., in the aging process and age-related diseases. IDO1 enzyme catabolizes L-tryptophan (L-Trp) into kynurenine (KYN) thus stimulating the KYN pathway. The depletion of L-Trp inhibits the proliferation of immune cells in inflamed tissues and it also reduces serotonin synthesis predisposing to psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, IDO1 protein contains two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) which trigger suppressive signaling through the binding of PI3K p110 and SHP-1 proteins. This immunosuppressive activity is not dependent on the catalytic activity of IDO1. KYN and its metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) which can enhance immunosuppression. IDO1-KYN-AhR signaling counteracts excessive pro-inflammatory responses in acute inflammation but in chronic inflammatory states it has many harmful effects. A chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the aging process, a state called inflammaging. There is substantial evidence that the activation of the IDO1-KYN-AhR pathway robustly increases with the aging process. The activation of IDO1-KYN-AhR signaling does not only suppress the functions of effector immune cells, probably promoting immunosenescence, but it also impairs autophagy, induces cellular senescence, and remodels the extracellular matrix as well as enhancing the development of osteoporosis and vascular diseases. I will review the function of IDO1-KYN-AhR signaling and discuss its activation with aging as an enhancer of the aging process.
    Keywords:  Ageing; MDSC; NAD; RelB; Tolerance
  6. PLoS One. 2022 ;17(1): e0262488
      Cellular senescence is accompanied by metabolic and epigenomic remodeling, but the transcriptional mechanism of this process is unclear. Our previous RNA interference-based screen of chromatin factors found that lysine methyltransferases including SETD8 and NSD2 inhibited the senescence program in cultured fibroblasts. Here, we report that loss of the zinc finger and homeobox protein 3 (ZHX3), a ubiquitously expressed transcription repressor, induced senescence-associated gene expression and mitochondrial-nucleolar activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analyses of growing cells revealed that ZHX3 was enriched at the transcription start sites of senescence-associated genes such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (ARF-p16INK4a) gene and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) coding genes. ZHX3 expression was consistently downregulated in cells with replicative or oncogene-induced senescence. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified 28 proteins that interacted with ZHX3, including ATP citrate lyase and RNA metabolism proteins. Loss of ZHX3 or ZHX3-interaction partners by knockdown similarly induced the expression of p16INK4a and rRNA genes. Zhx3-knockout mice showed upregulation of p16INK4a in the testes, thymus and skeletal muscle tissues, together with relatively short survival periods in males. These data suggested that ZHX3 plays an essential role in transcriptional control to prevent cellular senescence.
  7. Aging Cell. 2022 Jan 28. e13539
      Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is an intrinsic property of all mitochondria and may have evolved to protect cells against the production of damaging reactive oxygen species. Therefore, compounds that enhance mitochondrial uncoupling are potentially attractive anti-aging therapies; however, chronic ingestion is associated with a number of unwanted side effects. We have previously developed a controlled-release mitochondrial protonophore (CRMP) that is functionally liver-directed and promotes oxidation of hepatic triglycerides by causing a subtle sustained increase in hepatic mitochondrial inefficiency. Here, we sought to leverage the higher therapeutic index of CRMP to test whether mild mitochondrial uncoupling in a liver-directed fashion could reduce oxidative damage and improve age-related metabolic disease and lifespan in diet-induced obese mice. Oral administration of CRMP (20 mg/[kg-day] × 4 weeks) reduced hepatic lipid content, protein kinase C epsilon activation, and hepatic insulin resistance in aged (74-week-old) high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J male mice, independently of changes in body weight, whole-body energy expenditure, food intake, or markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis. CRMP treatment was also associated with a significant reduction in hepatic lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and inflammation. Importantly, long-term (49 weeks) hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling initiated late in life (94-104 weeks), in conjugation with HFD feeding, protected mice against neoplastic disorders, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in a strain and sex-specific manner. Taken together, these studies illustrate the complex variation of aging and provide important proof-of-concept data to support further studies investigating the use of liver-directed mitochondrial uncouplers to promote healthy aging in humans.
    Keywords:  2,4-dinitrophenol; anti-aging; hepatic steatosis; insulin sensitivity; longevity; mitochondrial uncoupling
  8. Biogerontology. 2022 Jan 27.
      Astrocytes, the most predominant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), have well-recognized neuroprotective functions. However, during the CNS aging, astrocytes can become neurotoxic and contribute to chronic inflammation in age-associated brain deterioration and disease. Astrocytes are known to become senescent or reactive due to the exposure to stressful stimuli, in both cases they contribute to an impaired cognitive function through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Although both scenarios (senescence and reactive gliosis) have been studied independently, there are no direct studies comparing their secretomes simultaneously in the aging-brain. In this review we discuss the most recent studies in that respect, in order to analyze their simultaneous participation in brain aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; Astrocytes; Chemokines; Cytokines; Inflammation
  9. Microb Cell. 2022 Jan 03. 9(1): 21-23
      Gut microbiome changes have been associated with human ageing and implicated in age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, studies to date have used stool samples, which do not represent the entire gut. Although more challenging to access, the small intestine plays critical roles in host metabolism and immune function. In this paper (Leite et al. (2021), Cell Reports, doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109765), we demonstrate significant differences in the small intestinal microbiome in older subjects, using duodenal aspirates from 251 subjects aged 18-80 years. Differences included significantly decreased microbial diversity in older subjects, driven by increased relative abundance of phylum Proteobacteria, particularly family Enterobacteriaceae and coliform genera Escherichia and Klebsiella. Moreover, while this decreased diversity was associated with the 'ageing process' (comprising chronologic age, number of medications, and number of concomitant diseases), changes in certain taxa were found to be associated with number of medications alone (Klebsiella), number of diseases alone (Clostridium, Bilophila), or chronologic age alone (Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus). Lastly, many taxa associated with increasing chronologic age were anaerobes. These changes may contribute to changes in human health that occur during the ageing process.
    Keywords:  age; aging; coliforms; concomitant diseases; medication use; proteobacteria; small intestinal microbiome
  10. Cell Biol Int. 2022 Jan 25.
      Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), one of the stem cells identified from human placenta, possess numerous advantages and have been considered as an attractive and available cell source for regenerative medicine. Accumulating evidences have showed that cellular senescence was one of the pathogenic hubs of diabetic wound chronicity. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts are the primary cells involved in wound healing. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the anti-senescence effects of hAECs on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in diabetic wounds. Sustained hyperglycemia impaired cell function and accelerated senescence in vitro. However, this phenotype was rescued by hAECs-conditioned medium (hAECs-CM), with increased migration and proliferation in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and enhanced collagen synthesis and α-SMA production in fibroblasts. In addition, hAECs-CM dramatically inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in keratinocytes and fibroblasts under high-glucose (HG) condition. Moreover, hAECs-CM could downregulate the increased RAGE and P21 induced by continuous HG stimulation. Intradermal injection of hAECs in diabetic wounds promoted re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation, accompanied by decreased P21+ cells and increased PCNA+ cells in epidermis and dermis, as well as promoted collagen deposition and α-SMA expression. Furthermore, CM-Dil-labelled hAECs survived to day 5 but disappeared by day 10 in diabetic wounds. These findings indicated that hAECs could inhibit diabetes-induced premature senescence and enhance the function of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via paracrine effects, partly by inhibiting RAGE/P21 signaling pathway. Thus, hAECs targeting cellular senescence induced by a hyperglycemic environment may be a new strategy for the treatment of diabetic wounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Amniotic epithelial cell; conditioned medium.; diabetic wound; fibroblast; keratinocyte; senescence
  11. Aging Pathobiol Ther. 2021 Dec 31. 3(4): 134-135
      Old cats develop chronic diseases similar to diseases in older people. One-fourth of American households own cats, and almost half are more than 7 years old. Cats share the same environment and are exposed to many of the same chemical stresses. In addition, genomic diversity and population stratification are similar to that occurring in people. With these comparative features, the aging cat represents a geroscience model to investigate the pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions for aging. However, cats are generally not recognized as a translational model for aging research mainly because of the lack of knowledge and appreciation within the scientific community. In addition, cat owners are not aware of any research programs designed to enhance healthy aging in their pets because none exist. Much work is needed to inform and educate the scientific community as well as cat owners about the power of aging cats as a transformative model to investigate aging and age-related diseases that will benefit both human and feline health.
    Keywords:  Aging cats; age-related diseases; geroscience; healthy aging
  12. Aging Cell. 2022 Jan 23. e13542
      Sex differences in aging occur in many animal species, and they include sex differences in lifespan, in the onset and progression of age-associated decline, and in physiological and molecular markers of aging. Sex differences in aging vary greatly across the animal kingdom. For example, there are species with longer-lived females, species where males live longer, and species lacking sex differences in lifespan. The underlying causes of sex differences in aging remain mostly unknown. Currently, we do not understand the molecular drivers of sex differences in aging, or whether they are related to the accepted hallmarks or pillars of aging or linked to other well-characterized processes. In particular, understanding the role of sex-determination mechanisms and sex differences in aging is relatively understudied. Here, we take a comparative, interdisciplinary approach to explore various hypotheses about how sex differences in aging arise. We discuss genomic, morphological, and environmental differences between the sexes and how these relate to sex differences in aging. Finally, we present some suggestions for future research in this area and provide recommendations for promising experimental designs.
    Keywords:  aging; comparative biology; lifespan; mortality; sex differences
  13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Feb 01. pii: e2117754119. [Epub ahead of print]119(5):
      High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is a cancer with dismal prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of existing chemo- and immunotherapies. To elucidate mechanisms mediating sensitivity or resistance to these therapies, we developed a fast and flexible autochthonous mouse model based on somatic introduction of HGSOC-associated genetic alterations into the ovary of immunocompetent mice using tissue electroporation. Tumors arising in these mice recapitulate the metastatic patterns and histological, molecular, and treatment response features of the human disease. By leveraging these models, we show that the ability to undergo senescence underlies the clinically observed increase in sensitivity of homologous recombination (HR)-deficient HGSOC tumors to platinum-based chemotherapy. Further, cGas/STING-mediated activation of a restricted senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) was sufficient to induce immune infiltration and sensitize HR-deficient tumors to immune checkpoint blockade. In sum, our study identifies senescence propensity as a predictor of therapy response and defines a limited SASP profile that appears sufficient to confer added vulnerability to concurrent immunotherapy and, more broadly, provides a blueprint for the implementation of electroporation-based mouse models to reveal mechanisms of oncogenesis and therapy response in HGSOC.
    Keywords:  cancer immunotherapy; mouse models; ovarian cancer; senescence
  14. Front Aging Neurosci. 2021 ;13 766267
      Microglia have been recognized as macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that are regarded as a culprit of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, microglia have been considered as a cell that should be suppressed for maintaining a homeostatic CNS environment. However, microglia ontogeny, fate, heterogeneity, and their function in health and disease have been defined better with advances in single-cell and imaging technologies, and how to maintain homeostatic microglial function has become an emerging issue for targeting neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are long-lived cells of yolk sac origin and have limited repopulating capacity. So, microglial perturbation in their lifespan is associated with not only neurodevelopmental disorders but also neurodegenerative diseases with aging. Considering that microglia are long-lived cells and may lose their functional capacity as they age, we can expect that aged microglia contribute to various neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, understanding microglial development and aging may represent an opportunity for clarifying CNS disease mechanisms and developing novel therapies.
    Keywords:  aging; microglia; microglia culture; microglia lifespan; neurodegenerative diseases
  15. Metab Brain Dis. 2022 Jan 28.
      α-Synuclein (α-Syn) plays a key role in the development of Parkinson' desease (PD). As aging is acknowledged to be the greatest risk factor for PD, here we investigated α-Syn expression in the ileum, thoracic spinal cord, and midbrain of young (1-month-old), middle-aged (6-, 12-month-old) to old (18-month-old) mice. We demonstrated that both the levels of α-Syn monomers, oligomers and ratios of oligomers to monomers were increased with aging in the ileum, thoracic spinal cord, and midbrain. Whereas, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was decreased with aging in the midbrain. We failed to find corresponding α-Syn mRNA increase with aging. However, we found an increased expression of caspase-1 in the ileum, thoracic spinal cord, and midbrain. A specific caspase-1 inhibitor VX765 significantly reduced levels of both the α-Syn monomers and oligomers triggered by the rotenone in vitro. Taken together, the increase in α-Syn aggregation with aging might not occur first in the gut, but simultaneously in the nervous system of gut-brain axis. The mechanism of the age-dependent aggregation of α-Syn in nervous system is likely triggered by the aging-related caspase-1 activation.
    Keywords:  Aging; Caspase-1; Parkinson’ desease; Rotenone; α-Synuclein
  16. Aging (Albany NY). 2022 Jan 25. 14(undefined):
      Using animal models to study the underlying mechanisms of aging will create a critical foundation from which to develop new interventions for aging-related brain disorders. Aging-related reorganization of the brain network has been described for the human brain based on functional, metabolic and structural connectivity. However, alterations in the brain metabolic network of aging rats remain unknown. Here, we submitted young and aged rats to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and constructed brain metabolic networks. The topological properties were detected, and the network robustness against random failures and targeted attacks was analyzed for age-group comparison. Compared with young rats, aged rats showed reduced betweenness centrality (BC) in the superior colliculus and a decreased degree (D) in the parietal association cortex. With regard to network robustness, the brain metabolic networks of aged rats were more vulnerable to simulated damage, which showed significantly lower local efficiency and clustering coefficients than those of the young rats against targeted attacks and random failures. The findings support the idea that aged rats have similar aging-related changes in the brain metabolic network to the human brain and can therefore be used as a model for aging studies to provide targets for potential therapies that promote healthy aging.
    Keywords:  PET; aging; brain metabolic network; network robustness; topological property
  17. Mech Ageing Dev. 2022 Jan 20. pii: S0047-6374(22)00014-8. [Epub ahead of print]202 111632
      Impaired mitochondrial function and abnormalities in the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (Kyn) pathway are linked to age-related mood disorders. This study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of the mitochondria isolated from young rat brain on depression-like behaviors of aged rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS). Aged (22 months old) male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Aged, Aged + Mit, Aged + CMS, and Aged + CMS + Mit. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and sucrose preference test (SPT). Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP levels, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) levels, and Kyn metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Golgi Cox staining was used to investigate the neuronal morphology. Mitotherapy decreased immobility time and anhedonia in the FST; increased open arm time and entries in the EPM; decreased grooming and increased rearing, center time, and the entrance in the OFT. Mitotherapy also reduced IDO and Kyn metabolites, restored MMP and ATP production, and enhanced dendritic length and spine density in the PFC. Overall, mitotherapy improved anxiety-and depression-like behaviors in aged rats and it could be considered as a new therapeutic strategy for age-related depressive disorders.
    Keywords:  Aging; Depression; Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase; Mitochondria injection; Stress
  18. Aging Pathobiol Ther. 2020 Sep 29. 2(3): 166-167
      Effective treatments to prevent or delay age-related learning impairment are not generally available. In a preliminary preclinical study, mice 20 months of age were fed a diet containing 14 ppm rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, for three months and then tested in a spatial navigation task. Mice fed the nonmedicated control diet showed learning impairment while mice fed the rapamycin diet were not learning impaired. This observation provides support for additional preclinical studies and suggests that short-term rapamycin treatment could be a possible strategy for preventing or delaying age-related cognitive impairment in people.
    Keywords:  Age-related learning impairment; aging mice; rapamycin