bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2021‒09‒26
forty-three papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Mol Cell. 2021 Sep 16. pii: S1097-2765(21)00695-X. [Epub ahead of print]81(18): 3848-3865.e19
      Metabolic rewiring and redox balance play pivotal roles in cancer. Cellular senescence is a barrier for tumorigenesis circumvented in cancer cells by poorly understood mechanisms. We report a multi-enzymatic complex that reprograms NAD metabolism by transferring reducing equivalents from NADH to NADP+. This hydride transfer complex (HTC) is assembled by malate dehydrogenase 1, malic enzyme 1, and cytosolic pyruvate carboxylase. HTC is found in phase-separated bodies in the cytosol of cancer or hypoxic cells and can be assembled in vitro with recombinant proteins. HTC is repressed in senescent cells but induced by p53 inactivation. HTC enzymes are highly expressed in mouse and human prostate cancer models, and their inactivation triggers senescence. Exogenous expression of HTC is sufficient to bypass senescence, rescue cells from complex I inhibitors, and cooperate with oncogenic RAS to transform primary cells. Altogether, we provide evidence for a new multi-enzymatic complex that reprograms metabolism and overcomes cellular senescence.
    Keywords:  MDH1; ME1; NAD; NADPH; PC; cellular senescence; hypoxia; metabolon; mitochondrial dysfunction; p53
  2. Nat Immunol. 2021 Sep 23.
      Blind mole rats (BMRs) are small rodents, characterized by an exceptionally long lifespan (>21 years) and resistance to both spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis. Here we report that cancer resistance in the BMR is mediated by retrotransposable elements (RTEs). Cells and tissues of BMRs express very low levels of DNA methyltransferase 1. Following cell hyperplasia, the BMR genome DNA loses methylation, resulting in the activation of RTEs. Upregulated RTEs form cytoplasmic RNA-DNA hybrids, which activate the cGAS-STING pathway to induce cell death. Although this mechanism is enhanced in the BMR, we show that it functions in mice and humans. We propose that RTEs were co-opted to serve as tumor suppressors that monitor cell proliferation and are activated in premalignant cells to trigger cell death via activation of the innate immune response. Activation of RTEs is a double-edged sword, serving as a tumor suppressor but contributing to aging in late life via the induction of sterile inflammation.
  3. Cell Syst. 2021 Sep 16. pii: S2405-4712(21)00338-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      NAD+ is an essential coenzyme for all living cells. NAD+ concentrations decline with age, but whether this reflects impaired production or accelerated consumption remains unclear. We employed isotope tracing and mass spectrometry to probe age-related changes in NAD+ metabolism across tissues. In aged mice, we observed modest tissue NAD+ depletion (median decrease ∼30%). Circulating NAD+ precursors were not significantly changed, and isotope tracing showed the unimpaired synthesis of nicotinamide from tryptophan. In most tissues of aged mice, turnover of the smaller tissue NAD+ pool was modestly faster such that absolute NAD+ biosynthetic flux was maintained, consistent with more active NAD+-consuming enzymes. Calorie restriction partially mitigated age-associated NAD+ decline by decreasing consumption. Acute inflammatory stress induced by LPS decreased NAD+ by impairing synthesis in both young and aged mice. Thus, the decline in NAD+ with normal aging is relatively subtle and occurs despite maintained NAD+ production, likely due to increased consumption.
    Keywords:  CD38; NAD; NADH; PARP; PARP1; SIRT1; aging; flux; mononucleotide; niacin; nicotinamide; redox; riboside; sirtuins
  4. Aging Cell. 2021 Sep 23. e13467
      Protein quality control mechanisms decline during the process of cardiac aging. This enables the accumulation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles that contribute to age-associated cardiac dysfunction. Macroautophagy is the process by which post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes clear defective proteins and organelles. We hypothesized that late-in-life exercise training improves autophagy, protein aggregate clearance, and function that is otherwise dysregulated in hearts from old vs. adult mice. As expected, 24-month-old male C57BL/6J mice (old) exhibited repressed autophagosome formation and protein aggregate accumulation in the heart, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and reduced exercise capacity vs. 8-month-old (adult) mice (all p < 0.05). To investigate the influence of late-in-life exercise training, additional cohorts of 21-month-old mice did (old-ETR) or did not (old-SED) complete a 3-month progressive resistance treadmill running program. Body composition, exercise capacity, and soleus muscle citrate synthase activity improved in old-ETR vs. old-SED mice at 24 months (all p < 0.05). Importantly, protein expression of autophagy markers indicate trafficking of the autophagosome to the lysosome increased, protein aggregate clearance improved, and overall function was enhanced (all p < 0.05) in hearts from old-ETR vs. old-SED mice. These data provide the first evidence that a physiological intervention initiated late-in-life improves autophagic flux, protein aggregate clearance, and contractile performance in mouse hearts.
    Keywords:  aging; cardiac function; exercise; protein aggregates
  5. Biochem Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 15. pii: S0006-2952(21)00381-6. [Epub ahead of print] 114765
      Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in men. Although androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) and antiandrogens confer increased survival rates, most patients eventually develop castration resistant disease (CRPC). Previous studies have shown that these treatments have limited cytotoxicity, and instead, promote tumor cell growth arrest. We show here that PCa cells grown in either charcoal-stripped serum or exposed to the antiandrogen, bicalutamide, undergo a senescent growth arrest marked by morphological changes, upregulated senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), cathepsin D accumulation, and expression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The senescent growth arrest is, however, transient, as cells can resume proliferation upon restoration of normo-androgenic conditions. Intriguingly, enrichment for senescent cells confirmed that ADT-induced senescent cells recover their proliferative capacity, even under prolonged androgen deprivation, and form androgen-independent outgrowths. Transplantation of the enriched senescent population into castrated, syngeneic mice confirmed that senescent cells escape arrest and form castration-resistant tumors in vivo. Outgrowth from senescence was associated with increased expression of constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants, a common mechanism of resistance to ADT. Finally, the selective elimination of senescent PCa cells following ADT in vitro by the senolytic navitoclax (ABT-263) interfered with the development of androgen-independent outgrowth. Taken together, these data support the premise that ADT-induced senescence is a transient cell state from which CRPC populations can emerge, identifying senescence as a potential driver of disease progression. Furthermore, it is feasible that senolytic therapy to eliminate senescent PCa cells could delay disease recurrence and/or progression to androgen independence.
    Keywords:  Androgen-deprivation; Castration-resistance; Navitoclax; Prostate Cancer; Senescence; Senolytic
  6. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Sep 24. 13(undefined):
      Suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 2 (SUV39H2/KMT1B), a member of the SUV39 subfamily of lysine methyltransferases (KMTs), functions as an oncogene in various types of cancers. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of SUV39H2 that drives the cardiomyocyte aging process through BTG2. In our study, cardiomyocyte aging was induced by H2O2 and aging cells exhibited increases in SUV39H2. Knockdown of SUV39H2 accelerated cardiomyocyte senescence, while overexpression of SUV39H2 inhibited the cardiomyocyte senescence phenotype. These effects of SUV39H2 on cardiomyocytes were independent of DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses identified a strong correlation between SUV39H2 and BTG2. In addition to this, BTG2 protein levels were significantly increased in SUV39H2-deficient cardiomyocytes, and BTG2 knockdown virtually rescued the cardiomyocyte senescence phenotype induced by SUV39H2 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that SUV39H2 protects cardiomyocytes from H2O2 exposure-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating the p53-BTG2 pathway. Our findings provide evidence that the activation of SUV39H2 has therapeutic or preventive potential against cardiac aging.
    Keywords:  H2O2; SUV39H2; cardiomyocyte senescence; oxidative stress damage
  7. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 739510
      Skeletal muscle undergoes vigorous tissue remodeling after injury. However, aging, chronic inflammatory diseases, sarcopenia, and neuromuscular disorders cause muscle loss and degeneration, resulting in muscular dysfunction. Cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, acts during normal embryonic development and remodeling after tissue damage; when these processes are complete, the senescent cells are eliminated. However, the accumulation of senescent cells is a hallmark of aging tissues or pathological contexts and may lead to progressive tissue degeneration. The mechanisms responsible for the effects of senescent cells have not been fully elucidated. Here, we review current knowledge about the beneficial and detrimental effects of senescent cells in tissue repair, regeneration, aging, and age-related disease, especially in skeletal muscle. We also discuss how senescence of muscle stem cells and muscle-resident fibro-adipogenic progenitors affects muscle pathologies or regeneration, and consider the possibility that immunosenescence leads to muscle pathogenesis. Finally, we explore senotherapy, the therapeutic targeting of senescence to treat age-related disease, from the standpoint of improving muscle regeneration.
    Keywords:  FAPs; aging; chronic inflammation; fibrosis; muscle regeneration; muscle stem cells; senescence; skeletal muscle
  8. Mech Ageing Dev. 2021 Sep 16. pii: S0047-6374(21)00144-5. [Epub ahead of print]199 111572
      Myofibroblasts play an important role in fibrogenesis. Hepatic stellate cells are the main precursors of myofibroblasts. Cellular senescence is the terminal cell fate in which proliferating cells undergo irreversible cell cycle arrest. Senescent hepatic stellate cells were identified in liver fibrosis. Senescent hepatic stellate cells display decreased collagen production and proliferation. Therefore, induction of senescence could be a protective mechanism against progression of liver fibrosis and the concept of therapy-induced senescence has been proposed to treat liver fibrosis. In this review, characteristics of senescent hepatic stellate cells and the essential signaling pathways involved in senescence are reviewed. Furthermore, the potential impact of senescent hepatic stellate cells on other liver cell types are discussed. Senescent cells are cleared by the immune system. The persistence of senescent cells can remodel the microenvironment and interact with inflammatory cells to induce aging-related dysfunction. Therefore, senolytics, a class of compounds that selectively induce death of senescent cells, were introduced as treatment to remove senescent cells and consequently decrease the disadvantageous effects of persisting senescent cells. The effects of senescent hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis need further investigation.
    Keywords:  Hepatic stellate cells; Liver fibrosis; Oxidative stress; Senescence
  9. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2021 Dec 03. 26 374-387
      Endothelial cell senescence is one of the most important causes of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous RNA molecules with covalently closed-loop structures, which have been reported to be abnormally expressed in many human diseases. However, the potential role of circRNAs in endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis remains largely unknown. Here, we compared the expression patterns of circRNAs in young and senescent human endothelial cells with RNA sequencing. Among the differentially expressed circRNAs, circGNAQ, a circRNA enriched in vascular endothelium, was significantly downregulated in senescent endothelial cells. circGNAQ silencing triggered endothelial cell senescence, as determined by a rise in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, reduced cell proliferation, and suppressed angiogenesis; circGNAQ overexpression showed the opposite effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that circGNAQ acted as an endogenous miR-146a-5p sponge to increase the expression of its target gene PLK2 by decoying the miR-146a-5p, thereby delaying endothelial cell senescence. In vivo studies showed that circGNAQ overexpression in the endothelium inhibited endothelial cell senescence and atherosclerosis progression. These results suggest that circGNAQ plays critical roles in endothelial cell senescence and consequently the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, implying that the management of circGNAQ provides a potential therapeutic approach for limiting the progression of atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; circGNAQ; circular RNA; endothelial cell senescence; vascular endothelium
  10. Geroscience. 2021 Sep 22.
      Persistent DNA damage (genotoxic stress) triggers signaling cascades that drive cells into apoptosis or senescence to avoid replicating a damaged genome. Sp1 has been found to play a role in double strand break (DSB) repair, and a link between Sp1 and aging has also been established, where Sp1 protein, but not RNA, levels decrease with age. Interestingly, inhibition ATM reverses the age-related degradation of Sp1, suggesting that DNA damage signaling is involved in senescence-related degradation of Sp1. Proteasomal degradation of Sp1 in senescent cells is mediated via sumoylation, where sumoylation of Sp1 on lysine 16 is increased in senescent cells. Taking into consideration our previous findings that Sp1 is phosphorylated by ATM in response to DNA damage and that proteasomal degradation of Sp1 at DSBs is also mediated by its sumoylation and subsequent interaction with RNF4, we investigated the potential contribution of Sp1's role as a DSB repair factor in mediating cellular senescence. We report here that Sp1 expression is decreased with a concomitant increase in senescence markers in response to DNA damage. Mutation of Sp1 at serine 101 to create an ATM phospho-null mutant, or mutation of lysine 16 to create a sumo-null mutant, prevents the sumoylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of Sp1 and results in a decrease in senescence. Conversely, depletion of Sp1 or mutation of Sp1 to create an ATM phosphomimetic results in premature degradation of Sp1 and an increase in senescence markers. These data link a loss of genomic stability with senescence through the action of a DNA damage repair factor.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; SUMOylation; Senescence; Sp1; Ubiquitylation
  11. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 725071
      Human osteoarthritic cartilage contains not only chondrocytes (OACs), but also mesenchymal stromal cells (OA-MSCs), whose abundance increases during osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is not clear how OA-MSC contributes to OA pathogenesis. Here, we show that aging OA-MSC plays an important role in cell senescence, fibrosis, and inflammation in cartilage. Protein array analysis indicates that OA-MSC expresses pro-inflammatory senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1, 5, and 6, which play key roles in OA pathogenesis. OAC is a main recipient of the inflammatory signals by expressing receptors of cytokines. RNAseq analysis indicates that the transition from normal cartilage stromal cells (NCSCs) to OA-MSC during aging results in activation of SASP gene expression. This cell transition process can be recapitulated by a serial passage of primary OAC in cell culture comprising (1) OAC dedifferentiation into NCSC-like cells, and (2) its subsequent senescence into pro-inflammatory OA-MSC. While OAC dedifferentiation is mediated by transcriptional repression of chondrogenic gene expression, OA-MSC senescence is mediated by transcriptional activation of SASP gene expression. We postulate that, through replication-driven OAC dedifferentiation and mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) senescence, OA-MSC becomes an internal source of sterile inflammation in human cartilage joint.
    Keywords:  SASP; cartilage; cell senescence; mesenchymal stem cell; osteoarthritis
  12. Mol Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 20. pii: MOLPHARM-EMC-2021-000361. [Epub ahead of print]
      Senescence is a cell state that contributes to several homeostatic and pathological processes. In addition to being induced in somatic cells in response to replicative exhaustion (replicative senescence, RS) as part of organismal aging, senescence can also be triggered prematurely by oncogene hyperactivation or tumor suppressor dysfunction (oncogene-induced senescence, OIS). Consequently, senescent cells comprise a major component of precancerous lesions of skin, oral mucosa, nasopharynx, prostate, gut, and lung. Unfortunately, invasive (or minimally invasive) interventions are currently the only available approach employed to eradicate premalignant lesions that carry the potential for cancer progression. Senolytics are a newly emerging drug class capable of selectively eliminating senescent cells. While senolytics have been successfully demonstrated to mitigate a myriad of aging-related pathologies and to cull senescent cancer cells, there is a paucity of evidence for the potential use of senolytics as a novel approach to eliminate oncogene-induced senescent cells. This Emerging Concepts commentary will: (i) summarize evidence in established models of OIS including B-Raf-induced nevi, transgenic lung cancer and pancreatic adenocarcinoma models as well as evidence from clinical precancerous lesions; (ii) suggest that OIS is targetable; and (iii) propose the utilization of senolytic agents as a revolutionary means to interfere with the ability of senescent premalignant cells to progress to cancer in vitro and in vivo. If proven to be effective, senolytics will represent an emerging tool to pharmacologically treat precancerous lesions. Significance Statement The treatment of premalignant lesions is largely based on the utilization of invasive measures. Oncogene-Induced Senescence (OIS) is one form of senescence that occurs in response to oncogene overexpression in somatic cells and is present in precancerous lesions. While the contribution of OIS to disease progression is undetermined, recent evidence suggests that senescent cells are permissive for malignant transformation. Accordingly, the pharmacological targeting of oncogene-induced senescent cells could potentially provide a novel means for the treatment of premalignant disease.
    Keywords:  Oncogenes; cancer; cancer chemotherapy; carcinogenesis
  13. Elife. 2021 Sep 21. pii: e62635. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Aging is associated with central fat redistribution and insulin resistance. To identify age-related adipose features, we evaluated the senescence and adipogenic potential of adipose-derived-stromal cells (ASCs) from abdominal subcutaneous fat obtained from healthy normal-weight young (<25y) or older women (>60y). Increased cell passages of young-donor ASCs (in vitro aging), resulted in senescence but not oxidative stress. ASC-derived adipocytes presented impaired adipogenesis but no early mitochondrial dysfunction. Conversely, aged-donor ASCs at early passages displayed oxidative stress and mild senescence. ASC-derived adipocytes exhibited oxidative stress, and early mitochondrial dysfunction but adipogenesis was preserved. In vitro aging of aged-donor ASCs resulted in further increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and severe adipocyte dysfunction. When in vitro aged young-donor ASCs were treated with metformin, no alteration was alleviated. Conversely, metformin treatment of aged-donor ASCs decreased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in decreased senescence. Metformin's prevention of oxidative stress and of the resulting senescence improved the cells' adipogenic capacity and insulin sensitivity. This effect was mediated by the activation of AMP-activated-protein-kinase as revealed by its specific inhibition and activation. Overall, aging ASC-derived adipocytes presented impaired adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Targeting stress-induced senescence of ASCs with metformin may improve age-related adipose tissue dysfunction.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human
  14. Aging Cell. 2021 Sep 24. e13475
      Satellite cell-dependent skeletal muscle regeneration declines during aging. Disruptions within the satellite cells and their niche, together with alterations in the myofibrillar environment, contribute to age-related dysfunction and defective muscle regeneration. In this study, we demonstrated an age-related decline in satellite cell viability and myogenic potential and an increase in ROS and cellular senescence. We detected a transient upregulation of miR-24 in regenerating muscle from adult mice and downregulation of miR-24 during muscle regeneration in old mice. FACS-sorted satellite cells were characterized by decreased levels of miR-24 and a concomitant increase in expression of its target: Prdx6. Using GFP reporter constructs, we demonstrated that miR-24 directly binds to its predicted site within Prdx6 mRNA. Subtle changes in Prdx6 levels following changes in miR-24 expression indicate miR-24 plays a role in fine-tuning Prdx6 expression. Changes in miR-24 and Prdx6 levels were associated with altered mitochondrial ROS generation, increase in the DNA damage marker: phosphorylated-H2Ax and changes in viability, senescence, and myogenic potential of myogenic progenitors from mice and humans. The effects of miR-24 were more pronounced in myogenic progenitors from old mice, suggesting a context-dependent role of miR-24 in these cells, with miR-24 downregulation likely a part of a compensatory response to declining satellite cell function during aging. We propose that downregulation of miR-24 and subsequent upregulation of Prdx6 in muscle of old mice following injury are an adaptive response to aging, to maintain satellite cell viability and myogenic potential through regulation of mitochondrial ROS and DNA damage pathways.
    Keywords:  Prdx6; aging; miR-24; muscle regeneration; oxidative stress; satellite cells; senescence
  15. Aging Cell. 2021 Sep 21. e13470
      Aging is paradoxically associated with a deteriorated immune defense (immunosenescence) and increased basal levels of tissue inflammation (inflammaging). The lung is particularly sensitive to the effects of aging. The immune cell mechanisms underlying physiological lung aging remain poorly understood. Here we reveal that aging leads to increased interferon signaling and elevated concentrations of chemokines in the lung, which is associated with infiltration of monocytes into the lung parenchyma. scRNA-seq identified a novel Type-1 interferon signaling dependent monocyte subset (MO-ifn) that upregulated IFNAR1 expression and exhibited greater transcriptomal changes with aging than the other monocytes. Blockade of type-1 interferon signaling by treatment with anti-IFNAR1 neutralizing antibodies rapidly ablated MO-ifn cells. Treatment with anti-IFNAR1 antibodies also reduced airway chemokine concentrations and repressed the accumulation of the overall monocyte population in the parenchyma of the aged lung. Together, our work suggests that physiological aging is associated with increased basal level of airway monocyte infiltration and inflammation in part due to elevated type-1 interferon signaling.
    Keywords:  aging; interferon-stimulated genes; lung; monocytes; type 1 interferon
  16. NPJ Aging Mech Dis. 2021 Sep 21. 7(1): 25
      NAD+ supplementation has significant benefits in compromised settings, acting largely through improved mitochondrial function and DNA repair. Elevating NAD+ to physiological levels has been shown to improve the function of some adult stem cells, with implications that these changes will lead to sustained improvement of the tissue or system. Here, we examined the effect of elevating NAD+ levels in models with reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) potential, ATM-deficient and aged WT mice, and showed that supplementation of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor, improved lymphoid lineage potential during supplementation. In aged mice, this improved lymphoid potential was maintained in competitive transplants and was associated with transcriptional repression of myeloid gene signatures in stem and lineage-committed progenitor cells after NR treatment. However, the altered transcriptional priming of the stem cells toward lymphoid lineages was not sustained in the aged mice after NR removal. These data characterize significant alterations to the lineage potential of functionally compromised HSCs after short-term exposure to NR treatment.
  17. Tissue Cell. 2021 Sep 17. pii: S0040-8166(21)00168-3. [Epub ahead of print]73 101652
      OBJECTIVE: Cellular senescence, associated with aging, leads to impaired tissue regeneration. We hypothesize that vaginal injury initiates cell senescence, further propagated during aging resulting in pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Our objective was to employ a mouse model of POP (Fibulin-5 knockout mice, Fbln5-/-) to determine if vaginal distention leads to cellular senescence and POP.METHODS: 6wk old females [wild-type (WT), n = 81; Fbln5-/-, n = 47)] were assigned to control vs vaginal distention, which approximated vaginal delivery. Serial POP measurements were obtained until vagina were harvested from euthanized mice at 24, 48, 72 h and 1wk. Markers of cell senescence were quantified by immunofluorescence. DNA damage was assessed with γ-H2Ax.
    RESULTS: WT distended mice showed decreased p53 (p = 0.0230) and γ-H2Ax (p = 0.0008) in vaginal stromal cells at 1wk compared to controls. In WT mice, SA-β-Gal activity increased 1wk after distention (p = 0.05). In Fbln5-/- mice, p53 and γ-H2Ax did not decrease, but p16 decreased 72 h after distention (p = 0.0150). SA-β-Gal activity also increased in Fbln5-/-, but at earlier time points and 1wk after distention (p < 0.0001). Fbln5-/- mice developed POP after distention earlier than non distended animals (p = 0.0135).
    CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal distention downregulates p53 and γ-H2Ax in WT mice, thereby promoting cell proliferation 1wk after injury. This was absent among Fbln5-/- distention mice suggesting they do not escape senescence. These findings indicate a failure of cellular protection from senescence in animals predisposed to POP.
    Keywords:  Animal model; Cell senescence; Childbirth trauma; Pelvic organ prolapse; Pregnancy
  18. Mol Cell. 2021 Sep 16. pii: S1097-2765(21)00690-0. [Epub ahead of print]81(18): 3672-3674
      Igelmann et al. report a novel metabolic cycle, which they name HTC, that converts NADH into the key antioxidant factor NADPH. The HTC is repressed by the tumor suppressors p53 and RB, and this determines whether oncogene-expressing cells undergo senescence (HTCoff) or malignant transformation (HTCon).
  19. Biomed Res. 2021 ;42(5): 173-179
      Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) intermediate, has been shown to ameliorate various pathologies in elderly mouse disease models. Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate immune cells; however, their functions decline with aging. In this study, we examined the effect of NMN treatment on NK cells in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of NMN augmented NK cell cytotoxic activity in both young and elderly B6 mice as well as young BALB/c mice. Oral administration of NMN also increased NK cell cytotoxicity in elderly B6 and BALB/c mice. However, the NK cell population was not increased in the mice whose NK cell cytotoxic activity was activated by NMN. Interestingly, NMN administration did not augment NK cell cytotoxic activity in IFN-γ deficient mice. These results suggest that NMN administration augments NK cell cytotoxic activity, but not cell number, in a manner dependent on IFN-γ in both young and elderly mice.
  20. Cell Metab. 2021 Sep 18. pii: S1550-4131(21)00418-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Dietary restriction (DR) has long been viewed as the most robust nongenetic means to extend lifespan and healthspan. Many aging-associated mechanisms are nutrient responsive, but despite the ubiquitous functions of these pathways, the benefits of DR often vary among individuals and even among tissues within an individual, challenging the aging research field. Furthermore, it is often assumed that lifespan interventions like DR will also extend healthspan, which is thus often ignored in aging studies. In this review, we provide an overview of DR as an intervention and discuss the mechanisms by which it affects lifespan and various healthspan measures. We also review studies that demonstrate exceptions to the standing paradigm of DR being beneficial, thus raising new questions that future studies must address. We detail critical factors for the proposed field of precision nutrigeroscience, which would utilize individualized treatments and predict outcomes using biomarkers based on genotype, sex, tissue, and age.
    Keywords:  aging; biomarkers; caloric restriction; dietary restriction; healthspan; lifespan; precision medicine; precision nutrigeroscience; senescence
  21. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2021 Sep 24.
      The presence of foreign or misplaced nucleic acids is a danger signal that triggers innate immune responses through activating cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and binding to its downstream signaling effector stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Then the cGAS-STING pathway activation links nucleic acid sensing to immune responses and pathogenic entities clearance. However, overactivation of this signaling pathway leads to fatal immune disorders and contributes to the progression of many human inflammatory diseases. Therefore, optimal activation of this pathway is crucial for the elimination of invading pathogens and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In this review, we will summarize its fundamental roles in initiating host defense against invading pathogens and discuss its pathogenic roles in multiple neuro-inflammatory diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  AD; ALS; HD; MS; PD; STING; cGAS; neuroinflammation
  22. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 Sep 24. pii: keab725. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of asporin in modulating chondrocyte senescence in osteoarthritis (OA) pathology.METHODS: Asporin and senescence-related hallmark expression were examined in human and experimental OA mouse cartilage samples. Twelve-week-old male C57 mice were administered with recombinant protein (rm-asporin)- or asporin-siRNA-expressing lentiviruses via intra-articular injection once a week after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to induce OA. Cartilage damage was measured using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βGal) staining, γH2AX, p21, and p16INK4a were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot to assess the specific role of asporin in chondrocyte senescence. The TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling pathway and miR-26b-5p were further evaluated to explore the mechanism of asporin in OA.
    RESULTS: Asporin was upregulated in articular chondrocytes of OA patients and DMM mice and accompanied by accumulation of senescent cells. Asporin overexpression exaggerated OA progression, whereas silencing asporin restored chondrocyte homeostasis and deferred chondrocyte senescence, leading to markedly attenuated DMM-induced OA. Cellular and molecular analyses showed that asporin can be inhibited by miR-26b-5p, which was significantly downregulated in OA cartilage, leading to exacerbation of experimental OA partially through inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling in chondrocytes.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that asporin plays an essential role in chondrocyte senescence and OA pathogenesis. Upregulated by miR-26b-5p, asporin inhibits the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway to accelerate chondrocyte senescence and exacerbate cartilage degeneration. Targeting the miR-26b-5p/asporin/Smad2 axis may serve as a practical therapeutic strategy to delay chondrocyte senescence and OA development.
    Keywords:  Osteoarthritis; Smad2; asporin; miR-26b-5p; senescence
  23. Cell. 2021 Sep 15. pii: S0092-8674(21)01046-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Although mutations leading to a compromised nuclear envelope cause diseases such as muscular dystrophies or accelerated aging, the consequences of mechanically induced nuclear envelope ruptures are less known. Here, we show that nuclear envelope ruptures induce DNA damage that promotes senescence in non-transformed cells and induces an invasive phenotype in human breast cancer cells. We find that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated exonuclease TREX1 translocates into the nucleus after nuclear envelope rupture and is required to induce DNA damage. Inside the mammary duct, cellular crowding leads to nuclear envelope ruptures that generate TREX1-dependent DNA damage, thereby driving the progression of in situ carcinoma to the invasive stage. DNA damage and nuclear envelope rupture markers were also enriched at the invasive edge of human tumors. We propose that DNA damage in mechanically challenged nuclei could affect the pathophysiology of crowded tissues by modulating proliferation and extracellular matrix degradation of normal and transformed cells.
    Keywords:  TREX1, nuclear envelope rupture, DNA damage, mammary duct carcinoma, tumor invasion, senescence, breast cancer, cGAS, confinement, epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  24. Trends Genet. 2021 Sep 21. pii: S0168-9525(21)00258-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      The aging process is associated with the accumulation of epigenetic alterations in immune cells, although the origin of these changes is not clear. Understanding this epigenetic drift in the immune system can provide essential information about the progression of the aging process and the immune history of each individual.
    Keywords:  T cells; aging; epigenetics; immunosenescence
  25. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Sep 21. pii: S1568-1637(21)00213-0. [Epub ahead of print] 101466
      Aging is a natural biological event that has some downsides such as increased frailty, decline in cognitive and physical functions leading to chronical diseases, and lower quality of life. There is therefore a pressing need of reliable biomarkers to identify populations at risk of developing age-associated syndromes in order to improve their quality of life, promote healthy ageing and a more appropriate clinical management, when needed. Here we discuss the importance of hippuric acid, an endogenous co-metabolite, as a possible hallmark of human aging and age-related diseases, summarizing the scientific literature over the last years. Hippuric acid, the glycine conjugate of benzoic acid, derives from the catabolism by means of intestinal microflora of dietary polyphenols found in plant-based foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, tea and coffee). In healthy conditions hippuric acid levels in blood and/or urine rise significantly during aging while its excretion drops in conditions related with aging, including cognitive impairments, rheumatic diseases, sarcopenia and hypomobility. This literature highlights the utility of hippuric acid in urine and plasma as a plausible hallmark of frailty, related to low fruit and vegetable intake and changes in gut microflora.
    Keywords:  aging; gut microbiota; hippurate; metabolism
  26. Aging Med (Milton). 2021 Sep;4(3): 206-213
      The deterioration of tissue structure and decline in physiological function during aging are accompanied by alterations to the gut microbiota. The elderly has higher risks of various diseases and chronic diseases. However, inter-individual differences are more apparent in elderly than younger, and a proportion of individuals have a delayed onset or even avoid developing chronic diseases. This difference in health status is influenced by both heredity and Lifestyle and environmental factors. During the process of aging, the gut microbiota is also affected by the external environment, and provides a buffer to external challenge, and thus the gut microbiota reflects an individual's personal experience. Moreover, the immune system undergoes a series of changes with age, which are related to chronic inflammation in the elderly. The formation, maturation and senescence of the intestinal immune system is closely related to the gut microbiota. Additionally, changes in the gut microbiota of elderly individuals may modulate the immune system, which may in turn affect health status. Herein, we summarize the correlations between the gut microbiota with individual health status in the elderly and explore the related mechanisms, which may provide a basis to maintain or enhance the health of the elderly though interventions targeting the gut microbiota.
    Keywords:  aging; chronic disease; chronic inflammation; gut microbiota; immunity
  27. Aging Med (Milton). 2019 Dec;2(4): 216-222
      Immunosenescence, also known as immune aging, refers to the degeneration, compensation, and reconstruction of the immune system with aging. Immune aging is an important factor in the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infectious diseases, malignant tumors, and a variety of chronic diseases and has long been a hotspot in geriatrics and immunology research. In this paper, the characteristics and progression of immune aging are briefly reviewed for clinicians' reference.
    Keywords:  immune aging; immune cells; immune organs; immunosenescence
  28. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021 ;8 720402
      End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients exhibit clinical features of premature ageing, including frailty, cardiovascular disease, and muscle wasting. Accelerated ageing also concerns the immune system. Patients with ESRD have both immune senescence and chronic inflammation that are resumed in the so-called inflammaging syndrome. Immune senescence is particularly characterised by premature loss of thymic function that is associated with hyporesponsiveness to vaccines, susceptibility to infections, and death. ESRD-related chronic inflammation has multiple causes and participates to accelerated cardiovascular disease. Although, both characterisation of immune senescence and its consequences are relatively well-known, mechanisms are more uncertain. However, prevention of immune senescence/inflammation or/and rejuvenation of the immune system are major goal to ameliorate clinical outcomes of ESRD patients.
    Keywords:  end-stage renal disease; immune senescence; inflammaging; kidney transplantation; thymus
  29. Mol Med Rep. 2021 Nov;pii: 823. [Epub ahead of print]24(5):
      Inflammation and oxidative stress are key steps in the progression of non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Intervention in these two processes will therefore benefit NASH treatment. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as a multiple functional transcription factor, has been reported to be involved in the prevention of NASH progression. However, the mechanism by which PPARγ prevents NASH remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that the level of PPARγ was inversely correlated with that of microRNA (miRNA/miRs)‑21‑5p in both mice and humans with NASH. Activation of PPARγ inhibited lipid droplet accumulation, hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress by downregulating miR‑21‑5p in an in vitro model. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that PPARγ suppressed transcriptional activity of miR‑21‑5p and bound to miR‑21‑5p promoter region. Furthermore, PPARγ downregulated miR‑21‑5p while miR‑21‑5p upregulated secreted frizzled‑related protein 5 (SFRP5) by targeting the 3'‑UTR of its mRNA. In vivo experiments revealed that PPARγ repressed inflammation and oxidative stress and miR‑21‑5p expression while increased SFRP5 level in a NASH mouse model. In summary, PPARγ attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in NASH by modulating the miR‑21‑5p/SFRP5 pathway, thus holding promise of a new target for NASH treatment.
    Keywords:  inflammation; miR‑21‑5p; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; oxidative stress; peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ; secreted frizzled‑related protein 5
  30. Stem Cell Rev Rep. 2021 Sep 21.
      Adult neurogenesis is the ongoing generation of functional new neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the mammalian brain. However, this process declines with aging, which is implicated in the recession of brain function and neurodegeneration. Understanding the mechanism of adult neurogenesis and stimulating neurogenesis will benefit the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy, a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal function. Whether and how autophagy affects adult neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In present study, we revealed a close connection between impaired autophagy and adult neurogenetic decline. Expression of autophagy-related genes and autophagic activity were significantly declined in the middle-adult subventricular/subgranular zone (SVZ/SGZ) homogenates and cultured NPCs, and inhibiting autophagy by siRNA interference resulted in impaired proliferation and differentiation of NPCs. Conversely, stimulating autophagy by rapamycin not only revitalized the viability of middle-adult NPCs, but also facilitated the neurogenesis in middle-adult SVZ/SGZ. More importantly, autophagic activation by rapamycin also ameliorated the olfactory sensitivity and cognitional capacities in middle-adult mice. Taken together, our results reveal that compromised autophagy is involved in the decline of adult neurogenesis, which could be reversed by autophagy activation. It also shed light on the regulation of adult neurogenesis and paves the way for developing a therapeutic strategy for aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords:  Adult neurogenesis; Autophagy; Neural progenitor cell; Rapamycin; mTOR
  31. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2021 Sep 21. 22(1): 809
      BACKGROUND: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) axis has been shown to protect against the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle function. Here, we investigated the protective effects of ACE2 in mitigating the age-associated decline of skeletal muscle function and to identify the potential underlying molecular mechanisms.METHODS: We measured the expression levels of Ang-(1-7) in C57BL/6J mice of different ages and correlated these levels with measures of skeletal muscle function. We also investigated the expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2 A (MEF2A) in ACE2 knockout (ACE2KO) mice and its relationship with muscle function. We then treated aged ACE2KO mice for four weeks with Ang-(1-7) and characterized the levels of MEF2A and skeletal muscle function before and after treatment. We assessed the impact of Ang-(1-7) on the growth and differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro and assessed changes in expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4).
    RESULTS: Aged mice showed reduced skeletal muscle function and levels of Ang-(1-7) expression in comparison to young and middle-aged mice. In ACE2KO mice, skeletal muscle function and MEF2A protein expression were significantly lower than in age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. After one month of Ang-(1-7) treatment, skeletal muscle function in the aged ACE2KO mice improved, while MEF2A protein expression was similar to that in the untreated group. In C2C12 cells, Ang-(1-7) was shown to promote along with the upregulated expression of Glut4.
    CONCLUSIONS: The ACE2/ Ang-(1-7) axis has a protective function in skeletal muscle and administration of exogenous Ang-(1-7) can delay the age-related decline in the function of skeletal muscle.
    Keywords:  aging; angiotensin 1–7; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; skeletal muscle
  32. Trends Cancer. 2021 Sep 18. pii: S2405-8033(21)00185-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      The inability to unequivocally identify senescent cancer cells is hindering the development of novel anticancer therapies using senolytic compounds. In a recent study in Cell Reports, Jochems et al. used a machine-learning approach to generate a classifier for senescent cancer cells based on transcriptional signatures.
  33. J Diabetes Res. 2021 ;2021 6626627
      Background: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play important roles in vascular repair. However, the mechanisms of high-glucose- (HG-) induced cord blood EPC senescence and the role of B2 receptor (B2R) remain unknown.Methods: Cord blood samples from 26 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and samples from 26 healthy controls were collected. B2R expression on circulating CD34+ cells of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) was detected using flow cytometry. The plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. EPCs were treated with HG (40 mM) alone or with bradykinin (BK) (1 nM). The B2R and eNOS small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the PI3K antagonist LY294002 were added to block B2R, eNOS, and PI3K separately. To determine the number of senescent cells, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining was performed. The level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EPCs was assessed by Mito-Sox staining. Cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and the relative length of telomeres were detected by real time-PCR. The distribution of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria of EPCs was detected by immunofluorescence. The expression of B2R, p16, p21, p53, P-Ser473AKT, T-AKT, eNOS, and hTERT was demonstrated by Western blot.
    Results: B2R expression on circulating CD34+ cells of CBMCs was significantly reduced in patients with GDM compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, B2R expression on circulating CD34+ cells of CBMCs was inversely correlated with plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations and positively correlated with plasma NO levels. BK treatment decreased EPC senescence and ROS generation. Furthermore, BK treatment of HG-exposed cells led to elevated P-Ser473AKT and eNOS protein expression compared with HG treatment alone. BK reduced hTERT translocation in HG-induced senescent EPCs. B2R siRNA, eNOS siRNA, and antagonist of the PI3K signalling pathway blocked the protective effects of BK.
    Conclusion: BK, acting through PI3K-AKT-eNOS signalling pathways, reduced hTERT translocation, increased the relative length of telomeres while reducing mtDNA copy number, and finally protected against EPC senescence induced by HG.
  34. Microvasc Res. 2021 Sep 17. pii: S0026-2862(21)00128-X. [Epub ahead of print]139 104258
      BACKGROUND: Cardiac aging is an irreversible process that is determined by a number of slowly deleterious changes in morphological and physiological properties of the heart. We investigated the effects of curcumin on cardiac angiogenesis, in old male rats.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats randomly divided into young, age (rats of 26-28 months of age) and curcumin-age (rats of 26-28 months of age treatment with curcumin 50mg/kg). Finally, the expression of VEGF, NF-κB, and TSP-1 were assessed by ELISA in cardiac tissue. Also, angiogenesis was determined by immunostaining for PECAM-1/CD31 and apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL.
    RESULTS: After 2 months, curcumin-age had significantly higher cardiac VEGF-A and NF-κB and lower cardiac TSP-1 expression levels in comparison with age and young. A significant increase in levels of NF-κB and TSP-1 were observed in the age group.
    CONCLUSION: Results suggest that curcumin through regulation of cardiogenic mediators and improving cardiac angiogenesis can promote heart performance in the senescent rats.
    Keywords:  Aging; Angiogenesis; Curcumin; NF-κB; TSP-1; VEGF-A
  35. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Sep 22. 13(undefined):
      Ionizing radiation is known to cause cell apoptosis at high dose range, but little is known about the cellular response to low dose radiation. In this study, we found that conditioned medium harvested from WI-38 lung fibroblasts and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to 0.1Gy to 1Gy could enhance the migration and invasion of unirradiated H1299 cells in both 2D and 3D culturing circumstances. Low dose radiation did not induce apoptosis, but induced senescence in irradiated cells. We next examined the expression of immediately early genes including c-Myc and K-Ras. Although both genes could be up-regulated by low dose radiation, induction of c-Myc was more specific to low dose range (0.5Gy) at transcriptional and translational levels. Knockdown of c-Myc by shRNA could repress the senescence induced by low dose radiation. The conditioned medium of irradiated cells induced migration of unirradiated cells was also repressed by knockdown of c-Myc. The c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 could suppress low dose radiation induced cell senescence, and the conditioned medium harvested from irradiated cells pretreated with 10058-F4 also lost the ability to enhance the migration of unirradiated cells. The cytokine array analysis revealed that immunosuppressive monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 increased by low dose radiation could be repressed by 10058-F4. We also showed that 10058-F4 could suppress low dose radiation induced tumor progression in a xenograft tumor model. Taken together, current data suggest that -Myc is involved in low dose radiation induced cell senescence and potent bystander effect to increase the motility of unirradiated cells.
    Keywords:  bystander effect; c-Myc; low dose radiation; migration and invasion; senescence
  36. Bioengineered. 2021 Dec;12(1): 6844-6854
      Vitamin D is widely considered to have a regulatory effect on the immune system. Some clinical investigations have shown that the demand for vitamin D increases with age. Calcitriol is the biologically active form of vitamin D. However, its effect on human natural killer (NK) cells remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-aging and immunomodulatory effects of calcitriol on NK cells using a series of immunological methods to explore its important role in innate immunity. We found that calcitriol reversed the expression of aging-related biomarkers in NK cells and inhibited their expansion by maintaining these cells in the G1 phase, without any apoptosis and exhaustion. Calcitriol repressed the release of inflammation-related cytokines, such as interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The degranulation of NK cells was downregulated by calcitriol when these cells were co-cultured with K562 tumor cells. We also found that calcitriol upregulated the aging-related sirtuin 1- protein/kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (SIRT1/pERK) pathway and SIRT1-deltaExon8 (SIRT1-∆Exon8) expression by activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Moreover, calcitriol could be a potential negative regulator of NK cell apoptosis and mitochondrial inactivation which caused by oxidative stress. Thus, calcitriol exhibits anti-aging effects on human NK cells in vitro by activating the SIRT1-PERK axis and resisting oxidative senescence.
    Keywords:  Calcitriol; SIRT1-∆Exon8; anti-aging; nk cells; oxidative senescence
  37. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Sep 23. 12(10): 865
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex condition that involves both apoptosis and senescence and currently cannot be cured. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), known for its role as a potent regulator of glucose and energy metabolism, protects from various diseases, possibly by mediating autophagy. In the present study, the role of FGF21 in the progression of OA was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, the results revealed that FGF21 administration alleviated apoptosis, senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolism of the chondrocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) by mediating autophagy flux. Furthermore, CQ, an autophagy flux inhibitor, could reverse the protective effect of FGF21. It was observed that the FGF21-induced autophagy flux enhancement was mediated by the nuclear translocation of TFEB, which occurs due to the activation of the SIRT1-mTOR signaling pathway. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that FGF21 treatment could reduce OA in the DMM model. Taken together, these findings suggest that FGF21 protects chondrocytes from apoptosis, senescence, and ECM catabolism via autophagy flux upregulation and also reduces OA development in vivo, demonstrating its potential as a therapeutic agent in OA.
  38. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2021 Sep 24.
      BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and damage are associated with a number of ageing phenotypes, including age-related loss of muscle mass and reduced contractile function (sarcopenia). Our group and others have reported loss of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity and increased denervation as initiating factors in sarcopenia, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, generation of reactive oxygen species and peroxides, and loss of muscle mass and weakness. Previous studies from our laboratory show that denervation-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial peroxide generation is highly correlated to muscle atrophy. Here, we directly test the impact of scavenging muscle mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide on the structure and function of the NMJ and muscle mass and function in a mouse model of denervation-induced muscle atrophy CuZnSOD (Sod1-/- mice, Sod1KO).METHODS: Whole-body Sod1KO mice were crossed to mice with increased expression of human catalase (MCAT) targeted specifically to mitochondria in skeletal muscle (mMCAT mice) to determine the impact of reduced hydrogen peroxide levels on key targets of sarcopenia, including mitochondrial function, NMJ structure and function, and indices of muscle mass and function.
    RESULTS: Female adult (~12-month-old) Sod1KO mice show a number of sarcopenia-related phenotypes in skeletal muscle including reduced mitochondrial oxygen consumption and elevated reactive oxygen species generation, fragmentation, and loss of innervated NMJs (P < 0.05), a 30% reduction in muscle mass (P < 0.05), a 36% loss of force generation (P < 0.05), and a loss of exercise capacity (305 vs. 709 m in wild-type mice, P < 0.05). Muscle from Sod1KO mice also shows a 35% reduction in sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum ATPase activity (P < 0.05), changes in the amount of calcium-regulating proteins, and altered fibre-type composition. In contrast, increased catalase expression in the mMCAT × Sod1KO mice completely prevents the mitochondrial and NMJ-related phenotypes and maintains muscle mass and force generation. The reduction in exercise capacity is also partially inhibited (~35%, P < 0.05), and the loss of fibre cross-sectional area is inhibited by ~50% (P < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Together, these striking findings suggest that scavenging of mitochondrial peroxide generation by mMCAT expression efficiently prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and NMJ disruption associated with denervation-induced atrophy and weakness, supporting mitochondrial H2 O2 as an important effector of NMJ alterations that lead to phenotypes associated with sarcopenia.
    Keywords:  Catalase; Mitochondria; Neuromuscular junction; Oxidative stress; ROS; Skeletal muscle; Sod
  39. J Frailty Aging. 2021 ;10(4): 313-319
      The find solutions for optimizing healthy aging and increase health span is one of the main challenges for our society. A novel healthcare model based on integration and a shift on research and care towards the maintenance of optimal functional levels are now seen as priorities by the WHO. To address this issue, an integrative global strategy mixing longitudinal and experimental cohorts with an innovative transverse understanding of physiological functioning is missing. While the current approach to the biology of aging is mainly focused on parenchymal cells, we propose that age-related loss of function is largely determined by three elements which constitute the general ground supporting the different specific parenchyma: i.e. the stroma, the immune system and metabolism. Such strategy that is implemented in INSPIRE projects can strongly help to find a composite biomarker capable of predicting changes in capacity across the life course with thresholds signalling frailty and care dependence.
    Keywords:  Biomarkers; dependence; frailty; healthy aging
  40. Biogerontology. 2021 Sep 20.
      Aging often leads to an increase risk of age-related diseases, and the development of anti-aging drugs have become the trend and focus of the current scientific research. In this experiment, serum samples from healthy people of different ages were analyzed based on clinical lipidomics, and a total of 10 potential biomarkers in middle-aged and youth group, 20 biomarkers in the youth and the elderly group were obtained. Furthermore, dhSph and dhCer involved above may affect the aging process through sphingolipid metabolic pathway. As the first and rate-limiting step of catalyzing de novo sphingolipid pathway, SPT may play a key role in human anti-aging, which is revealed by lipidomics liposome tracer analysis. The potential active components in ginseng on SPT was further verified by molecular docking virtual screening and atomic force microscope. Four ingredients of ginseng may reduce the levels of metabolites dhSph and dhCer by inhibiting the activity of SPT, and play an anti-aging effect by affecting the sphingolipid metabolism pathway.A clinical trials registration number: ChiCTR1900026836.
    Keywords:  Aging; Ginseng; Lipidomics; SPT; Sphingolipid metabolism
  41. Nat Chem Biol. 2021 Oct;17(10): 1027-1036
      Aging is an inevitable biochemical process that adversely affects personal health and poses ever-increasing challenges to society. Recent research has revealed the crucial role of metabolism in regulating aging and longevity. During diverse metabolic processes, the host organism and their symbiotic partners-the microbiota-produce thousands of chemical products (metabolites). Emerging studies have uncovered specific metabolites that act as signaling molecules to actively regulate longevity. Here we review the latest progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which metabolites from the host and/or microbiota promote longevity. We also highlight state-of-the-art technologies for discovering, profiling and imaging aging- and longevity-regulating metabolites and for deciphering the molecular basis of their actions. The broad application of these technologies in aging research, together with future advances, will foster the systematic discovery of aging- and longevity-regulating metabolites and their signaling pathways. These metabolite signals should provide promising targets for developing new interventions to promote longevity and healthy aging.
  42. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Sep 20. 13(undefined):
      Studies reveal a linkage of miR-29s in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that the serum levels of miR-29s in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice exhibited dynamic changes. The role of miR-29b2/c in aging and PD was studied utilizing miR-29b2/c gene knockout mice (miR-29b2/c KO). miR-29b2/c KO mice were characterized by a markedly lighter weight, kyphosis, muscle weakness and abnormal gait, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The WT also developed apparent dermis thickening and adipose tissue reduction. However, deficiency of miR-29b2/c alleviated MPTP-induced damages of the dopaminergic system and glial activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and consequently improved the motor function of MPTP-treated KO mice. Knockout of miR-29b2/c inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated primary cultures of mixed glia, primary astrocytes, or LPS-treated primary microglia. Moreover, miR-29b2/c deficiency enhanced the activity of AMPK but repressed the NF-κB p65 signaling in glial cells. Our results show that miR-29b2/c KO mice display the progeria-like phenotype. Less activated glial cells and repressed neuroinflammation might bring forth dopaminergic neuroprotection in miR-29b2/c KO mice. Conclusively, miR-29b2/c is involved in the regulation of aging and plays a detrimental role in Parkinson's disease.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Parkinson's disease; glial cells; miR-29b2/c; neuroinflammation
  43. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Sep 21. pii: S1043-2760(21)00203-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lipophagy is the process of selective degradation of lipid droplets (LDs) by autophagy. Several studies have highlighted the importance of lipophagy in regulating cellular lipid levels in various tissues and disease conditions. In recent years, disruption of autophagy and accumulation of LDs have been reported as pathological hallmarks in several neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, raising the question whether lipophagy is a process that is important in the progression of these disorders. This supports the growing interest in lipid metabolism as a major player in neurodegeneration, and the emerging understanding of several neurological pathologies as not only proteinopathies but also lipidopathies. In this review we discuss the importance of lipophagy in the most common central nervous system diseases. We examine the latest evidence for the reported interplay between abnormalities in lipid accumulation and autophagy, and propose lipophagy as a potentially important mechanism in neurodegeneration.