bims-senagi Biomed News
on Senescence and aging
Issue of 2021‒04‒11
28 papers selected by
Maria Grazia Vizioli
Mayo Clinic

  1. Mol Cell. 2021 Mar 27. pii: S1097-2765(21)00213-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular senescence is a state of stable proliferative arrest triggered by damaging signals. Senescent cells persist during aging and promote age-related pathologies via the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), whose regulation depends on environmental factors. In vivo, a major environmental variable is oxygenation, which varies among and within tissues. Here, we demonstrate that senescent cells express lower levels of detrimental pro-inflammatory SASP factors in physiologically hypoxic environments, as measured in culture and in tissues. Mechanistically, exposure of senescent cells to low-oxygen conditions leads to AMPK activation and AMPK-mediated suppression of the mTOR-NF-κB signaling loop. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment with hypoxia-mimetic compounds reduces SASP in cells and tissues and improves strength in chemotherapy-treated and aged mice. Our findings highlight the importance of oxygen as a determinant for pro-inflammatory SASP expression and offer a potential new strategy to reduce detrimental paracrine effects of senescent cells.
    Keywords:  SASP; aging; hypoxia; hypoxia mimetics; oxygen; p16; senescence
  2. Aging Cell. 2021 Apr 09. e13354
      In mice, cellular senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) positively contribute to cutaneous wound healing. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the expressions of p16, p21, and other senescence-associated biomarkers during human wound healing in 24 healthy subjects using a double-biopsy experimental design. The first punch biopsy created the wound and established the baseline. The second biopsy, concentric to the first and taken several days after wounding, was used to probe for expression of biomarkers by immunohistochemistry and RNA FISH. To assess the effects of age, we recruited 12 sex-matched younger (30.2 ± 1.3 years) and 12 sex-matched older (75.6 ± 1.8 years) subjects. We found that p21 and p53, but not p16, were induced during healing in younger, but not older subjects. A role for Notch signaling in p21 expression was inferred from the inducible activation of HES1. Further, other SASP biomarkers such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) were significantly induced upon wounding in both younger and older groups, whereas matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) was induced only in the younger group. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) was not detectable before or after wounding. This pilot study suggests the possibility that human cutaneous wound healing is characterized by differential expression of p21 and p53 between younger and older subjects.
    Keywords:  aging; human wound healing; p21; p53
  3. Cell Metab. 2021 Mar 31. pii: S1550-4131(21)00115-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular senescence is a stress or damage response that causes a permanent proliferative arrest and secretion of numerous factors with potent biological activities. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has been characterized largely for secreted proteins that participate in embryogenesis, wound healing, inflammation, and many age-related pathologies. By contrast, lipid components of the SASP are understudied. We show that senescent cells activate the biosynthesis of several oxylipins that promote segments of the SASP and reinforce the proliferative arrest. Notably, senescent cells synthesize and accumulate an unstudied intracellular prostaglandin, 1a,1b-dihomo-15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2. Released 15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 is a biomarker of senolysis in culture and in vivo. This and other prostaglandin D2-related lipids promote the senescence arrest and SASP by activating RAS signaling. These data identify an important aspect of cellular senescence and a method to detect senolysis.
    Keywords:  15d-PGJ2; RAS; SASP; aging; biomarker; cellular senescence; dihomo-prostaglandin; eicosanoid; lipids; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; oxylipin; prostaglandin; senescence
  4. Curr Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Dec;6(4): 173-182
      Purpose of review: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for therapeutic application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite their promise, recent findings suggest that MSC replication during repair process may lead to replicative senescence and stem cell exhaustion. Here, we review the basic mechanisms of MSC senescence, how it leads to degenerative diseases, and potential treatments for such diseases.Recent findings: Emerging evidence has shown a link between senescent MSCs and degenerative diseases, especially age-related diseases such as osteoarthritis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. During these disease processes, MSCs undergo cell senescence and mediate Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotypes (SASP) to affect the surrounding microenvironment. Thus, senescent MSCs can accelerate tissue aging by increasing the number of senescent cells and spreading inflammation to neighboring cells.
    Summary: Senescent MSCs not only hamper tissue repair through cell senescence associated stem cell exhaustion, but also mediate tissue degeneration by initiating and spreading senescence-associated inflammation. It suggests new strategies of MSC-based cell therapy to remove, rejuvenate, or replace (3Rs) the senescent MSCs.
    Keywords:  Age-associated diseases; Cell senescence; Mesenchymal stem cells; Osteoarthritis; Replication stress; Senolytics
  5. Maturitas. 2021 May;pii: S0378-5122(21)00023-2. [Epub ahead of print]147 7-13
      Cellular senescence is a critical part of human anti-tumor defence; however, the accumulation of senescent cells with age underpins a wide range of pathologies. Senescent change in immune cells, or immunosenescence, has a wide range of physiological effects and is at least partially responsible for many diseases associated with aging. Immunosenescence underpins inflammaging, increased vulnerability to infectious disease with age, malignant change in the elderly, and auto-immunity. Understanding the effects and mechanisms of immunosenescence will improve disease outcomes and prevention in older adults, and generate new treatments for common illnesses. In this review we summarize the key changes occurring in immunosenescence across each facet of the immune system, and identify their clinical correlates.
    Keywords:  Aging; Geroscience; Immunosenescence; Inflammaging; Senescence
  6. Exp Cell Res. 2021 Mar 31. pii: S0014-4827(21)00117-8. [Epub ahead of print] 112585
      Cardiomyocytes are particularly prone to lipofuscin accumulation. In the aging heart, lipofuscin accumulation is augmented. This study examined distribution of lipofuscin and senescent cardiomyocytes and evaluated improvement of lipofuscin accumulation and cardiomyocytic senescence of the aging heart after treatment with rapamycin. The results of Schmorl staining, Sudan black staining and autofluorescence detection showed that there was more lipofuscin in the myocardium of the ventricles especially in the left ventricle. The conductive tissue contains less lipofuscin than the myocardium. In the aged hearts, lipofuscin accumulation and senescent cardiomyocytes were increased, and the level of autophagy was reduced. In double staining of Sudan black B and senescence-β-galactosidase, 10% - 20% lipofuscin-loaded cardiomyocytes became senescent. All senescent cardiomyocytes contained lipofuscin deposits. After enhancing autophagy with feed of rapamycin for six months, lipofuscin accumulation and senescence of cardiomyocytes are improved in old rats. Colocalization of autophagic structure and lipofuscin as well as electron micrographs showed some lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes were sequestrated by autophagic structures. This study suggests that rapamycin-enhanced autopahgy is effective for reducing lipofuscinogenesis and promoting degradation of lipofuscin. Therefore, enhancing autophagy is a novel therapy for alleviating lipofuscin accumulation and myocardial senescence.
    Keywords:  autophagy; conducting tissue; lipofuscin; myocardium; rapamycin; senescence
  7. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Apr 02. pii: S1568-1637(21)00081-7. [Epub ahead of print] 101334
      BACKGROUND: Higher numbers of senescent cells have been implicated in age-related disease pathologies. However, whether different diseases have different senescent phenotypes is unknown. Here we provide a systematic overview of the current available evidence of senescent cells in age-related diseases pathologies in humans and the markers currently used to detect senescence levels in humans.METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE were systematically searched from inception to the 29th of September 2019, using keywords related to 'senescence', 'age-related diseases' and 'biopsies'.
    RESULTS: In total 12,590 articles were retrieved of which 103 articles were included in this review. The role of senescence in age-related disease has been assessed in 9 different human organ system and 27 different age-related diseases of which heart (27/103) and the respiratory systems (18/103) are the most investigated. Overall, 27 different markers of senescence have been used to determine cellular senescence and the cell cycle regulator p16ink4a is most often used (23/27 age-related pathologies).
    CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates that a higher expression of senescence markers are observed within disease pathologies. However, not all markers to detect senescence have been assessed in all tissue types.
    Keywords:  Age-related Disease; Ageing; Cellular Senescence; Humans; Pathology
  8. Aging Dis. 2021 Apr;12(2): 662-670
      Worldwide COVID-19 infection poses an enormous risk to public health and an alarming global socioeconomic burden. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with underlying health conditions as well as on the elderly population is extensive and effective strategies are needed to understand the mechanism behind it. Cellular senescence defines as an irreversible cell cycle arrest due to DNA damage leading to accumulation of senescent cells in the elderly population and may result in worsening of COVID-19 mediated increased mortality. However, whether this variation in senescence levels, in different aged populations, translation to COVID-19 infection is unknown. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been recently identified to be responsible for inducing pathogenic signals, although a clear understanding of how the host receptor interacts with SARS-CoV-2 protein and mediates the immune responses is not clear. In this review, we address the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and the cellular senescence responding immune response to pathogenic SARS-CoV-2. We provide a prospective summary of what to expect and how to brace the possible immunological strategy to protect against COVID-19 infection. The review majorly explores an underline mechanism of how senescent cells trigger a hyperimmune inflammatory response and cause high mortality in aging people could serve as a potential aid to alleviate the treatment for elderly battling COVID-19 infection.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; aging; cytokine storm; immune senescence; therapeutics
  9. Aging Dis. 2021 Apr;12(2): 552-569
      Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is defined as a syndrome of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Myogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium are important for cardiomyocyte (CM) survival, improving cardiac function and decreasing the progression of heart failure after IHD. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent irreversible cell cycle arrest caused by stress that results in a decline in cellular functions, such as proliferation, migration, homing, and differentiation. In addition, senescent cells produce the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which affects the tissue microenvironment and surrounding cells by secreting proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix degradation proteins. The accumulation of cardiovascular-related senescent cells, including vascular endothelial cells (VECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), CMs and progenitor cells, is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, such as vascular aging, atherosclerotic plaque formation, myocardial infarction (MI) and ventricular remodeling. This review summarizes the processes of angiogenesis, myogenesis and cellular senescence after IHD. In addition, this review focuses on the relationship between cellular senescence and cardiovascular disease and the mechanism of cellular senescence. Finally, we discuss a potential therapeutic strategy for MI targeting senescent cells.
    Keywords:  angiogenesis; ischemic heart disease (IHD); myogenesis; senescence
  10. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2021 Apr 05.
      Aging is an unavoidable process, leads to cell senescence due to physiochemical changes in an organism. Anti-aging remedies have always been of great interest since ancient times. The purpose of anti-aging activities is to increase the life span and the quality of life. Anti-aging activities are primarily involved in the therapies of age-related disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. These diseases are triggered by multiple factors that are involved in numerous molecular pathways including telomere shortening, NF-κB pathway, adiponectin receptor pathway, insulin and IGF signaling pathway, AMPK, mTOR and mitochondria dysfunction. Natural products are known as effective molecules to delay the aging process through influencing metabolic pathways and thus ensure an extended lifespan. These natural compounds are being utilized in drug design and development through computational and high throughput techniques for effective pro-longevity drugs. A comprehensive study of natural compounds demonstrated with their anti-aging activities along with databases of natural products for drug designing was executed and summarized in this review article.
    Keywords:  Aging; Alzheimer’s disease; Drug designing; Natural Products; Pro-longevity drugs; Signaling pathways
  11. Immunol Lett. 2021 Mar 31. pii: S0165-2478(21)00050-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      The human immune system is in continuous interaction with environmental factors (pathogens, exercise, stress, pollutants, diet, vaccines, and therapeutics) that condition its efficiency by promoting or moderating multiple immune mechanisms. While the deleterious impact of external factors can be avoided or limited, the immune system itself grows weaker with age. Immune cells persist in the elderly, and the observed decline of cellular immunity is related to cellular senescence. Immunosenescence, which affects both T and B cells, erodes lymphocyte-dependent responses to vaccines and pathogens. Germinal centers (GCs), the organized lymphoid structures where B cells engage in affinity maturation, are regulated by follicular helper (Tfh) and follicular regulatory (Tfr) T cells, the major T cell components of GCs. This review discusses how age-related changes affect Tfh and Tfr cells as key components of B cell immunity, and how they ultimately shape the response of the ageing immune system to vaccines and infectious challenges.
    Keywords:  Ageing; B cells; T cells
  12. Oncogene. 2021 Apr 06.
      Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is an age-dependent blood malignancy. Like many other age-dependent human diseases, laboratory animal research of CML uses young mice that do not factor in the influence of aging. To understand how aging may impact animal modeling of human age-dependent diseases, we established the first aging mouse model of human CML in BALB/c mice in the advanced age defined by 75% survival. This model was developed by noncytotoxic depletion of bone marrow lineage-positive cells followed by BCR-ABL retroviral transduction and transplantation. CML developed in aging mice shared many similarities to that in young mice, but had increased incidence of anemia that is often seen in human CML. Importantly, we showed that aging of both donor hematopoietic stem cells and recipient bone marrow niche impacted BCR-ABL mediated leukemogenesis and leukemia spectrum. Optimal CML induction relied on age-matching for donors and recipients, and cross-transplantation between young and old mice produced a mixture of different leukemia. Therefore, our model provides initial evidence of the feasibility and merit of CML modeling in aging mice and offers a new tool for future studies of CML stem cell drug resistance and therapeutic intervention in which aging would be taken into consideration as an influencing factor.
  13. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 650431
      The thirst to postpone and even reverse aging progress has never been quenched after all these decades. Unequivocally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with extraordinary abilities such as self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation, deserve the limelight in this topic. Though having several affable clinical traits, MSCs going through senescence would, on one hand, contribute to age-related diseases and, on the other hand, lead to compromised or even counterproductive therapeutical outcomes. Notably, increasing evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) could invigorate various regulatory processes. With even a slight dip or an uptick of expression, ncRNAs would make a dent in or even overturn cellular fate. Thereby, a systematic illustration of ncRNAs identified so far to steer MSCs during senescence is axiomatically an urgent need. In this review, we introduce the general properties and mechanisms of senescence and its relationship with MSCs and illustrate the ncRNAs playing a role in the cellular senescence of MSCs. It is then followed by the elucidation of ncRNAs embodied in extracellular vesicles connecting senescent MSCs with other cells and diversified processes in and beyond the skeletal system. Last, we provide a glimpse into the clinical methodologies of ncRNA-based therapies in MSC-related fields. Hopefully, the intricate relationship between senescence and MSCs will be revealed one day and our work could be a crucial stepping-stone toward that future.
    Keywords:  extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stem cells; molecular therapy; non-coding RNA; senescence
  14. Geroscience. 2021 Apr 06.
      Aging has become one of the fastest-growing research topics in biology. However, exactly how the aging process occurs remains unknown. Epigenetics plays a significant role, and several epigenetic interventions can modulate lifespan. This review will explore the interplay between epigenetics and aging, and how epigenetic reprogramming can be harnessed for age reversal. In vivo partial reprogramming holds great promise as a possible therapy, but several limitations remain. Rejuvenation by reprogramming is a young but rapidly expanding subfield in the biology of aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; Epigenetics; Rejuvenation; Reprogramming
  15. Cell Commun Signal. 2021 Apr 08. 19(1): 44
      BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly prevalent and represents a growing challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. A minority of affected patients develops inflammation, subsequently fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is a leading cause of cancer-related death. An increased number of senescent cells correlate with age-related tissue degeneration during NAFLD-induced HCC. Senolytics are promising agents that target selectively senescent cells. Previous studies showed that whereas a combination of the senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin (D + Q) reduced NAFLD in mice, D + Q lacked efficacy in removing doxorubicin-induced β-gal-positive senescent cells in human HCC xenografted mice. Whether D + Q has an effect on the age-associated spectrum of NAFLD-inflammation-HCC remains unknown.METHODS: Here, we utilized an established model of age- and obesity-associated HCC, the low dose diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/high fat diet (HFD), a regimen promoting liver inflammation and tumorigenesis over a long period of 9 months. Four groups of mice each were created: group 1 included control untreated mice; group 2 included mice treated with D + Q; group 3 included mice undergoing the DEN/HFD protocol; group 4 included mice undergoing the DEN/HFD protocol with the administration of D + Q. At the end of the chemical/dietary regimen, we analyzed liver damage and cell senescence by histopathology, qPCR and immunoblotting approaches.
    RESULTS: Unexpectedly, D + Q worsened liver disease progression in the DEN/HFD mouse model, slightly increasing histological damage and tumorigenesis, while having no effect on senescent cells removal.
    CONCLUSIONS: In summary, using an animal model that fully recapitulates NAFLD, we demonstrate that these compounds are ineffective against age-associated NAFLD-induced HCC. Video Abstract.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Inflammation; Liver diseases; Obesity; Senolytics
  16. Biogerontology. 2021 Apr 10.
      Life expectancy, and longevity have been increasing in recent years. However, this is, in most cases, accompanied by age-related diseases. Thus, it became essential to better understand the mechanisms inherent to aging, and to establish biomarkers that characterize this physiological process. Among all biomolecules, lipids appear to be a good target for the study of these biomarkers. In fact, some lipids have already been associated with age-related diseases. With the development of analytical techniques such as Mass Spectrometry, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Lipidomics has been increasingly used to study pathological, and physiological states of an organism. Thus, the study of serum, and plasma lipidome in centenarians, and elderly individuals without age-related diseases can be a useful tool for the identification of aging biomarkers, and to understand physiological aging, and longevity. This review focus on the importance of lipids as biomarkers of aging, and summarize the changes in the lipidome that have been associated with aging, and longevity.
    Keywords:  Aging; Biomarkers of aging; Lipidomics; Lipids; Longevity
  17. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021 Apr 06.
      Unconventional T Cells (UTCs) are a unique population of immune cells that links innate and adaptive immunity. Following activation, UTCs contribute to a host of immunological activities, rapidly responding to microbial and viral infections and playing key roles in tumor suppression. Aging and chronic disease both have been shown to adversely affect UTC numbers and function, with increased inflammation, change in body composition, and physical inactivity potentially contributing to the decline. One possibility to augment circulating UTCs is through increased physical activity. Acute exercise is a potent stimulus leading to the mobilization of immune cells while the benefits of exercise training may include anti-inflammatory effects, reductions in fat mass, and improved fitness. We provide an overview of age-related changes in UTCs, along with chronic diseases that are associated with altered UTC number and function. We summarize how UTCs respond to acute exercise and exercise training and discuss potential mechanisms that may lead to improved frequency and function.
    Keywords:  Exercise training; Gamma delta T cells; MAIT cells; NKT cells
  18. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Mar 26. 13
      PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) is necessary for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) elements to bind at telomeres and non-telomere sites. We aimed to investigate the role of PINX1 and TERT in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury during acute stage and convalescent phase. Lung injury rat model was induced, and the expression of PINX1 and TERT in serum and lung tissues was examined using RT-qPCR on day 0 (D0), D3, and D14, respectively. The pathologic changes of lung tissues on D3 and D14 were detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining after TERT overexpression, PINX1 overexpression, or PINX1 silencing in lung injury rats. Results revealed that TERT was persistently reduced on D3 and D14, while PINX1 was decreased on D3 but increased on D14. TERT overexpression and PINX1 silencing led to the most serious lung damage, the highest levels of inflammatory factors and apoptosis on D3, while the best recovery was observed on D14. Simultaneously, PINX1 overexpression presented the opposite effects at acute stage and convalescent phase. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay verified the connection between PINX1 and TERT. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that regulation of PINX1 expression ameliorates lung injury and alleviates cell senescence during the convalescent phase through affecting the telomerase activity.
    Keywords:  PINX1; acute lung injury; cell senescence; inflammation; telomerase reverse transcriptase
  19. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Apr 06. 13
      Stem cell approaches have become an attractive therapeutic option for intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs) participate in the regeneration and homeostasis of the intervertebral disc (IVD), but the molecular mechanisms governing these processes remain to be elucidated. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) which act as key receptors for extracellular protons in central and peripheral neurons, have been implicated in IVDD where degeneration is associated with reduced microenvironmental pH. Here we show that ASIC1 and ASIC3, but not ASIC2 and ASIC4 are upregulated in human IVDs according to the degree of clinical degeneration. Subjecting IVD-derived NP-MSCs to pH 6.6 culture conditions to mimic pathological IVD changes resulted in decreased cell proliferation that was associated with cell cycle arrest and induction of senescence. Key molecular changes observed were increased expression of p53, p21, p27, p16 and Rb1. Instructively, premature senescence in NP-MSCs could be largely alleviated using ASIC inhibitors, suggesting both ASIC1 and ASIC3 act decisively upstream to activate senescence programming pathways including p53-p21/p27 and p16-Rb1 signaling. These results highlight the potential of ASIC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for IVDD and broadly define an in vitro system that can be used to evaluate other IVDD therapies.
    Keywords:  acid sensing ion channels (ASICs); cellular senescence; intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD); nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs)
  20. Dev Cell. 2021 Apr 05. pii: S1534-5807(21)00242-2. [Epub ahead of print]56(7): 876-877
      Coupling DNA sensing to the initiation of immune responses necessitates auxiliary control mechanisms to avoid autoimmunity. A key factor is the exonuclease TREX1, which antagonizes DNA-mediated activation of cGAS. Two studies, by Mohr et al. (2021) and Zhou et al. (2021), uncover new aspects of this important control mechanism.
  21. Aging Cell. 2021 Apr 08. e13355
      Although dysfunctional protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a key factor in many age-related diseases, the untargeted identification of structurally modified proteins remains challenging. Peptide location fingerprinting is a proteomic analysis technique capable of identifying structural modification-associated differences in mass spectrometry (MS) data sets of complex biological samples. A new webtool (Manchester Peptide Location Fingerprinter), applied to photoaged and intrinsically aged skin proteomes, can relatively quantify peptides and map statistically significant differences to regions within protein structures. New photoageing biomarker candidates were identified in multiple pathways including extracellular matrix organisation (collagens and proteoglycans), protein synthesis and folding (ribosomal proteins and TRiC complex subunits), cornification (keratins) and hemidesmosome assembly (plectin and integrin α6β4). Crucially, peptide location fingerprinting uniquely identified 120 protein biomarker candidates in the dermis and 71 in the epidermis which were modified as a consequence of photoageing but did not differ significantly in relative abundance (measured by MS1 ion intensity). By applying peptide location fingerprinting to published MS data sets, (identifying biomarker candidates including collagen V and versican in ageing tendon) we demonstrate the potential of the MPLF webtool for biomarker discovery.
    Keywords:  ageing; biomarkers; mass spectrometry; peptide location fingerprinting; photoageing; proteomics; skin; tendon
  22. Aging Dis. 2021 Apr;12(2): 480-493
      Aging is a universal phenomenon in all biological organisms, defined by the loss of reproductive capacity and a progressive decline in fitness. In humans, aging is further associated with an increased incidence of disease conditions. The current aging population has become a primary public burden of the 21st century. Therefore, to delay the aging process and maintain fitness in the aging population, the discovery of novel anti-aging drugs remains an urgent need. In recent years, metformin, a widely used hypoglycemic drug, has attracted growing attention in the field of anti-aging research. Reportedly, numerous studies have indicated that metformin regulates aging-related pathways, possibly delaying the aging process by modulating these pathways. The elucidation of these anti-aging effects may provide insights into the age-retarding potential of metformin. The present review focuses on the predominant molecular mechanisms associated with aging, as well as the anti-aging effects of metformin.
    Keywords:  Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; aging; metformin; oxidative stress; proteostasis
  23. BMC Microbiol. 2021 Apr 09. 21(1): 106
      BACKGROUND: While aging is a potent risk factor of dry eye disease, age-related gut dysbiosis is associated with inflammation and chronic geriatric diseases. Emerging evidence have demonstrated that gut dysbiosis contributes to the pathophysiology or exacerbation of ocular diseases including dry eye disease. However, the relationship between aging-related changes in gut microbiota and dry eye disease has not been elucidated. In this pilot study, we investigated the association between aging-dependent microbiome changes and dry eye severity in C57BL/6 male mice.RESULTS: Eight-week-old (8 W, n = 15), one-year-old (1Y, n = 10), and two-year-old (2Y, n = 8) C57BL/6 male mice were used. Dry eye severity was assessed by corneal staining scores and tear secretion. Bacterial genomic 16 s rRNA from feces was analyzed. Main outcomes were microbiome compositional differences among the groups and their correlation to dry eye severity. In aged mice (1Y and 2Y), corneal staining increased and tear secretion decreased with statistical significance. Gut microbiome α-diversity was not different among the groups. However, β-diversity was significantly different among the groups. In univariate analysis, phylum Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Alistipes, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Helicobacter were significantly related to dry eye severity. After adjustment of age, multivariate analysis revealed phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Lactobacillus, Alistipes, Prevotella, Paraprevotella, and Helicobacter to be significantly associated with dry eye severity.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study suggests that aging-dependent changes in microbiome composition are related to severity of dry eye signs in C57BL/6 male mice.
    Keywords:  16S rRNA; Aging; Dry eye; Microbiome; Paraprevotella
  24. Aging Dis. 2021 Apr;12(2): 529-551
      Iron is an essential component in many biological processes in the human body. It is critical for the visual phototransduction cascade in the retina. However, excess iron can be toxic. Iron accumulation and reduced efficiency of intracellular antioxidative defense systems predispose the aging retina to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by retinal iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The mechanisms underlying AMD include oxidative stress-mediated death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and subsequent death of retinal photoreceptors. Understanding the mechanism of the disruption of iron and redox homeostasis in the aging retina and AMD is crucial to decipher these mechanisms of cell death and AMD pathogenesis. The mechanisms of retinal cell death in AMD are an area of active investigation; previous studies have proposed several types of cell death as major mechanisms. Ferroptosis, a newly discovered programmed cell death pathway, has been associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Ferroptosis is initiated by lipid peroxidation and is characterized by iron-dependent accumulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation in the aging retina and AMD, with an emphasis on ferroptosis.
    Keywords:  age-related macular degeneration; ferroptosis; iron; lipid peroxidation; retina
  25. Eur J Immunol. 2021 Apr 10.
      UNC93B1 is a trafficking chaperone of endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and plays an essential role in the TLR-mediated innate signaling. However, whether it is also involved in other innate immune sensing or cellular pathways remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the role of UNC93B1 in cytosolic DNA-triggered cGAS-STING signaling in mouse and human cell lines. We showed that while UNC93B1 deficiency blunts the signal transduction by TLR3, it augments innate immune responses to cytosolic DNA stimulation and DNA virus infection. Mechanistic study reveals a distinct action of UNC93B1 upon STING, but not other parts along the cGAS-STING-TBK1 axis, through regulating the protein level of STING at both resting and cytosolic DNA-stimulated conditions. UNC93B1 can directly interact and traffic along with STING, and the disruption of this interaction causes accumulation of STING that subsequently leads to augmented signaling responses upon its activation. These findings reveal a new function of UNC93B1 in negatively regulating STING-mediated signaling responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  DNA sensing; STING; TLR; UNC93B1; innate immunity
  26. Nat Rev Immunol. 2021 Apr 08.
      The cGAS-STING signalling pathway has emerged as a key mediator of inflammation in the settings of infection, cellular stress and tissue damage. Underlying this broad involvement of the cGAS-STING pathway is its capacity to sense and regulate the cellular response towards microbial and host-derived DNAs, which serve as ubiquitous danger-associated molecules. Insights into the structural and molecular biology of the cGAS-STING pathway have enabled the development of selective small-molecule inhibitors with the potential to target the cGAS-STING axis in a number of inflammatory diseases in humans. Here, we outline the principal elements of the cGAS-STING signalling cascade and discuss the general mechanisms underlying the association of cGAS-STING activity with various autoinflammatory, autoimmune and degenerative diseases. Finally, we outline the chemical nature of recently developed cGAS and STING antagonists and summarize their potential clinical applications.