bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2022‒01‒09
two papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. Animal Model Exp Med. 2021 Dec;4(4): 311-318
      Oxygen plays a pivotal role in the metabolism and activities of mammals. However, oxygen is restricted in some environments-subterranean burrow systems or habitats at high altitude or deep in the ocean-and this could exert hypoxic stresses such as oxidative damage on organisms living in these environments. In order to cope with these stresses, organisms have evolved specific strategies to adapt to hypoxia, including changes in physiology, gene expression regulation, and genetic mutations. Here, we review how mammals have adapted to the three high-altitude plateaus of the world, the limited oxygen dissolved in deep water habitats, and underground tunnels, with the aim of better understanding the adaptation of mammals to hypoxia.
    Keywords:  hemoglobin; high‐altitude; hypoxia; marine mammals; subterranean mammals
  2. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2022 Jan 03. pii: S1095-6433(21)00247-6. [Epub ahead of print] 111139
      Over the previous several decades, many non-traditional research models have offered new avenues of exploration for biomedical research. The promise of these animals is primarily derived from adaptations to unique or challenging environments that share key factors with disease or pathology (e.g., hypoxemia or hypercarbia are in vivo consequences of environmental hypoxia and hypercapnia, respectively). Animals adapted to such environments allow us to ask the question: how has nature solved a particular problem and what can we learn to inform novel translational research into the treatment of related diseases and pathologies? One of the most promising mammalian models that have garnered increasing attention from researchers and the public are naked mole-rats (NMRs). The NMR is a small and eusocial subterranean rodent species that live in a putatively hypoxic and hypercapnic burrow environment. Intriguingly, whereas most non-traditional biomedical models offer insight into one or only a few diseases related to a common physiological stress, NMRs in contrast have proven to be resistant to a very wide range of ailments, including aging, cancer, and hypoxia- and hypercapnia-related disorders, among many others. In the present commentary, we discuss progress made in understanding how NMRs overcome these challenges and speculate on the origins of their remarkable abilities.
    Keywords:  Aging; Healthspan; Heart attack; Hypercapnia; Hypoxia; Lifespan; Neurodegenerative disorders; Pain; Stroke; cancer