bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2020‒12‒13
two papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. Cells. 2020 Dec 06. pii: E2620. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      The biogenesis and function of eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase or mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (CIV) undergo several levels of regulation to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Adaptation to hypoxia and oxidative stress involves CIV subunit isoform switch, changes in phosphorylation status, and modulation of CIV assembly and enzymatic activity by interacting factors. The latter include the Hypoxia Inducible Gene Domain (HIGD) family yeast respiratory supercomplex factors 1 and 2 (Rcf1 and Rcf2) and two mammalian homologs of Rcf1, the proteins HIGD1A and HIGD2A. Whereas Rcf1 and Rcf2 are expressed constitutively, expression of HIGD1A and HIGD2A is induced under stress conditions, such as hypoxia and/or low glucose levels. In both systems, the HIGD proteins localize in the mitochondrial inner membrane and play a role in the biogenesis of CIV as a free unit or as part as respiratory supercomplexes. Notably, they remain bound to assembled CIV and, by modulating its activity, regulate cellular respiration. Here, we will describe the current knowledge regarding the specific and overlapping roles of the several HIGD proteins in physiological and stress conditions.
    Keywords:  HIGD1A; HIGD2A; Hypoxia Inducible Gene Domain; Rcf1; Rcf2; cytochrome c oxidase; mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV
  2. Redox Biol. 2020 Nov 28. pii: S2213-2317(20)31020-X. [Epub ahead of print]38 101815
      Keloids exhibit metabolic reprogramming including enhanced glycolysis and attenuated oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia induces a series of protective responses in mammalian cells. However, the metabolic phenotype of keloid fibroblasts under hypoxic conditions remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate glycolytic activity, mitochondrial function and morphology, and the HIF1α and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in keloid fibroblasts (KFB) under hypoxic conditions. Our results showed that hypoxia promoted proliferation, migration invasion and collagen synthesis and inhibited apoptosis in KFB. The mRNA levels, protein expressions and enzyme activities of glycolytic enzymes in KFB were higher than those in normal skin fibroblasts (NFB) under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia remarkedly upregulated glycolysis in KFB. Decreased activities of mitochondrial complexes and abnormal mitochondria were detected in KFB under normoxic conditions and the damage was aggravated by hypoxia. An intracellular metabolic profile assay suggested hypoxia increased glycolytic parameters except glycolytic reserve but inhibited the key parameters of mitochondrial function apart from H+ leak. Protein levels of HIF1α and phosphorylation levels of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were upregulated in the context of 3% oxygen. Enhanced total reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS) and antioxidant activities of KFB were observed in response to hypoxia. Additionally, autophagy was induced by hypoxia. Our data collectively demonstrated potentiated glycolysis and attenuated mitochondrial function under hypoxia, indicating that altered glucose metabolism regulated by hypoxia could be a therapeutic target for keloids.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cell metabolism; Fibroblasts; Hypoxia; Keloid; Redox homeostasis