bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2020‒02‒23
two papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. Genes (Basel). 2020 Feb 18. pii: E206. [Epub ahead of print]11(2):
    Salazar C, Yañez O, Elorza AA, Cortes N, García-Beltrán O, Tiznado W, Ruiz LM.
      The expression of HIGD2A is dependent on oxygen levels, glucose concentration, and cell cycle progression. This gene encodes for protein HIG2A, found in mitochondria and the nucleus, promoting cell survival in hypoxic conditions. The genomic location of HIGD2A is in chromosome 5q35.2, where several chromosomal abnormalities are related to numerous cancers. The analysis of high definition expression profiles of HIGD2A suggests a role for HIG2A in cancer biology. Accordingly, the research objective was to perform a molecular biosystem analysis of HIGD2A aiming to discover HIG2A implications in cancer biology. For this purpose, public databases such as SWISS-MODEL protein structure homology-modelling server, Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), MethHC: a database of DNA methylation and gene expression in human cancer, and microRNA-target interactions database (miRTarBase) were accessed. We also evaluated, by using Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), the expression of Higd2a gene in healthy bone marrow-liver-spleen tissues of mice after quercetin (50 mg/kg) treatment. Thus, among the structural features of HIG2A protein that may participate in HIG2A translocation to the nucleus are an importin -dependent nuclear localization signal (NLS), a motif of DNA binding residues and a probable SUMOylating residue. HIGD2A gene is not implicated in cancer via mutation. In addition, DNA methylation and mRNA expression of HIGD2A gene present significant alterations in several cancers; HIGD2A gene showed significant higher expression in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Hypoxic tissues characterize the "bone marrow-liver-spleen" DLBCL type. The relative quantification, by using RT-qPCR, showed that Higd2a expression is higher in bone marrow than in the liver or spleen. In addition, it was observed that quercetin modulated the expression of Higd2a gene in mice. As an assembly factor of mitochondrial respirasomes, HIG2A might be unexpectedly involved in the change of cellular energetics happening in cancer. As a result, it is worth continuing to explore the role of HIGD2A in cancer biology.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; HIGD2A; cancer; hypoxia; mRNA expression; miRNA; quercetin
  2. Cells. 2020 Feb 14. pii: E443. [Epub ahead of print]9(2):
    Pajuelo Reguera D, Čunátová K, Vrbacký M, Pecinová A, Houštěk J, Mráček T, Pecina P.
      Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is regulated through tissue-, development- or environment-controlled expression of subunit isoforms. The COX4 subunit is thought to optimize respiratory chain function according to oxygen-controlled expression of its isoforms COX4i1 and COX4i2. However, biochemical mechanisms of regulation by the two variants are only partly understood. We created an HEK293-based knock-out cellular model devoid of both isoforms (COX4i1/2 KO). Subsequent knock-in of COX4i1 or COX4i2 generated cells with exclusive expression of respective isoform. Both isoforms complemented the respiratory defect of COX4i1/2 KO. The content, composition, and incorporation of COX into supercomplexes were comparable in COX4i1- and COX4i2-expressing cells. Also, COX activity, cytochrome c affinity, and respiratory rates were undistinguishable in cells expressing either isoform. Analysis of energy metabolism and the redox state in intact cells uncovered modestly increased preference for mitochondrial ATP production, consistent with the increased NADH pool oxidation and lower ROS in COX4i2-expressing cells in normoxia. Most remarkable changes were uncovered in COX oxygen kinetics. The p50 (partial pressure of oxygen at half-maximal respiration) was increased twofold in COX4i2 versus COX4i1 cells, indicating decreased oxygen affinity of the COX4i2-containing enzyme. Our finding supports the key role of the COX4i2-containing enzyme in hypoxia-sensing pathways of energy metabolism.
    Keywords:  mitochondria, OXPHOS, respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase, COX, COX4 isoforms, COX4i2, oxygen affinity, p50, oxygen sensing