bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2019‒09‒29
two papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. Clin Transl Oncol. 2019 Sep 24.
    Afkhami E, Heidari MM, Khatami M, Ghadamyari F, Dianatpour S.
      BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an Autosomal dominant inherited disorder and a rare form‌ of colorectal cancer (CRC) that is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomas in the rectum and colon. Mostly, cancers develop after the advent of the polyps. It appears in both sexes evenly, and the occurrence of the disease is in the second decade of life. Mitochondrial genome mutations have been reported with a variety of Tumors, but the precise role of these mutations in the pathogenicity and tumor progression is not exactly clear. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The present study aims at assessing the occurrence of mtDNA mutations in COX1 gene in FAP patients and attempts to find out the cause and effect relationship between mitochondrial mutations and tumor progression.METHODS: In this study, 56 FAP patients were investigated for the presence of the mutations in mitochondrial COX1 coding gene by PCR and sequencing analysis. All sequences that differed from the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) were classified as missense/ nonsense or silent mutations. Functional genomic studies using Bio-informatics tools were performed on the founded mutations to understand the downstream alterations in structure and function of protein.
    RESULTS: We identified 38 changes in the COX1 gene in patients with FAP symptoms. Most of them were heteroplasmic changes of missense type (25/38). Tree of the changes (G6145A, C6988A, and T7306G) were nonsense mutations and had not been reported in the literature before. Our results of bioinformatics predictions showed that the identified mutations can affect mitochondrial functions, especially if the conservative domain of the protein is concerned.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a high frequency of mtDNA mutations in all of the FAP cases compared to matched controls. These data significantly enhance our understanding of how such mutations contribute to cancer pathologies and develop the cancer treatment methods by new diagnostic biomarkers, and new drugs for gene therapy.
    Keywords:  COX1 genes; Familial adenomatous polyposis; Mitochondria; Mutations
  2. J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2019 Sep 23.
    Hawkins LJ, Hadj-Moussa H, Nguyen VC, Pamenter ME, Storey KB.
      Naked mole rats are a long-lived animal model that age much like humans, but that can also withstand oxidative damage, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and severe hypoxic conditions, which is of particular interest to this study. The conditions of their underground burrows result in competition for oxygen consumption, yet despite this oxygen deprivation they emerge unscathed. To understand the mechanisms in place to facilitate neuronal preservation during hypoxia, we investigated the protein levels of well-known cell-stress factors. We found that under hypoxic conditions, nearly half of the proteins measured increased expression in brain, while only a few decreased. Under hypoxic conditions there appeared to be a HIF1α-centered response, where HIF1α and its interactors carbonic anhydrase 9, CITED2, p21/CIP1, and NFκB1, among others, were upregulated. Concurrently, a hypoxia-induced decrease of cytochrome c was consistent with decreased mitochondrial function and protection from apoptosis. The picture that emerges is one of neuroprotection, cell-cycle arrest, and the promotion of antiapoptotic functions, all of which are consistent with conserving energy and maintaining neural integrity under low oxygen levels. These results suggest how this species may be poised to face hypoxia and contribute to its remarkable ability to deal with myriad of other damaging factors and sets the stage for future work on the neuroprotective facilitators we identified.
    Keywords:  HIF1α; Heterocephalus glaber; NFκB; prosurvival