bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2019‒09‒15
three papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Strong Microbials, Inc

  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Sep 05. pii: S0891-5849(19)31004-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Tomková V, Sandoval-Acuña C, Torrealba N, Truksa J.
      Tamoxifen resistance remains a clinical obstacle in the treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. It has been reported that tamoxifen is able to target respiratory complex I within mitochondria. Therefore, we established two tamoxifen-resistant cell lines, MCF7 Tam5R and T47D Tam5R resistant to 5 μM tamoxifen and investigated whether tamoxifen-resistant cells exhibit mitochondrial changes which could help them to survive the treatment. The function of mitochondria in this experimental model was evaluated in detail by studying i) the composition and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes; ii) respiration and glycolytic status; iii) mitochondrial distribution, dynamics and reactive oxygen species production. We show that Tam5R cells exhibit a significant decrease in mitochondrial respiration, low abundance of assembled mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes, a more fragmented mitochondrial network connected with DRP1 Ser637 phosphorylation, higher glycolysis and sensitivity to 2-deoxyglucose. Tam5R cells also produce significantly higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide but at the same time increase their antioxidant defense (CAT, SOD2) through upregulation of SIRT3 and show phosphorylation of AMPK at Ser 485/491. Importantly, MCF7 ρ0 cells lacking functional mitochondria exhibit a markedly higher resistance to tamoxifen, supporting the role of mitochondria in tamoxifen resistance. We propose that reduced mitochondrial function and higher level of reactive oxygen species within mitochondria in concert with metabolic adaptations contribute to the phenotype of tamoxifen resistance.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial fragmentation; Reactive oxygen species; Tamoxifen resistance
  2. Biol Chem. 2019 Sep 11. pii: /j/bchm.ahead-of-print/hsz-2019-0310/hsz-2019-0310.xml. [Epub ahead of print]
    Grevel A, Pfanner N, Becker T.
      Biogenesis and function of mitochondria depend on the import of about 1000 precursor proteins that are produced on cytosolic ribosomes. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) forms the entry gate for most proteins. After passage through the TOM channel, dedicated preprotein translocases sort the precursor proteins into the mitochondrial subcompartments. Many proteins have to be assembled into oligomeric membrane-integrated complexes in order to perform their functions. In this review, we discuss a dual role of mitochondrial preprotein translocases in protein translocation and oligomeric assembly, focusing on the biogenesis of the TOM complex and the respiratory chain. The sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) of the outer mitochondrial membrane forms a dynamic platform for coupling transport and assembly of TOM subunits. The biogenesis of the cytochrome c oxidase of the inner membrane involves a molecular circuit to adjust translation of mitochondrial-encoded core subunits to the availability of nuclear-encoded partner proteins. Thus, mitochondrial protein translocases not only import precursor proteins but can also support their assembly into functional complexes.
    Keywords:  TOM complex; mitochondria; protein assembly; protein import; respiratory chain
  3. Nat Commun. 2019 Sep 11. 10(1): 4108
    Ikeda K, Horie-Inoue K, Suzuki T, Hobo R, Nakasato N, Takeda S, Inoue S.
      Recent advance in cancer research sheds light on the contribution of mitochondrial respiration in tumorigenesis, as they efficiently produce ATP and oncogenic metabolites that will facilitate cancer cell growth. Here we show that a stabilizing factor for mitochondrial supercomplex assembly, COX7RP/COX7A2L/SCAF1, is abundantly expressed in clinical breast and endometrial cancers. Moreover, COX7RP overexpression associates with prognosis of breast cancer patients. We demonstrate that COX7RP overexpression in breast and endometrial cancer cells promotes in vitro and in vivo growth, stabilizes mitochondrial supercomplex assembly even in hypoxic states, and increases hypoxia tolerance. Metabolomic analyses reveal that COX7RP overexpression modulates the metabolic profile of cancer cells, particularly the steady-state levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Notably, silencing of each subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex decreases the COX7RP-stimulated cancer cell growth. Our results indicate that COX7RP is a growth-regulatory factor for breast and endometrial cancer cells by regulating metabolic pathways and energy production.