bims-resufa Biomed News
on Respiratory supercomplex factors
Issue of 2019‒04‒14
one paper selected by
Vera Strogolova
Marquette University

  1. J Exp Bot. 2019 Apr 10. pii: erz160. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kumari A, Pathak PK, Bulle M, Igamberdiev AU, Gupta KJ.
      Plant mitochondria possess two different pathways for electron transport from ubiquinol: the cytochrome pathway and the alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. The AOX pathway plays an important role in stress tolerance and is induced by various metabolites and signals. Previously, several lines of evidence suggested that the AOX pathway prevents overproduction of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. More recent evidence suggests that AOX also plays a role in regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production and signalling. The AOX pathway is induced under low phosphate, hypoxia, pathogen infections and elicitor treatments. The induction of AOX under aerobic conditions in response to various stresses can reduce electron transfer through complexes III and IV and thus prevents the leakage of electrons to nitrite and the subsequent accumulation of NO. Excess of NO under various stresses can inhibit complex IV, thus the AOX pathway minimizes nitrite-dependent NO synthesis that would arise from enhanced electron leakage in the cytochrome pathway. By preventing NO generation, AOX can reduce peroxynitrite formation and tyrosine nitration. In contrast to its function under normoxia, AOX has a specific role under hypoxia, where AOX can facilitate nitrite-dependent NO production. This reaction drives the phytoglobin-NO cycle to increase energy efficiency under hypoxia.
    Keywords:  alternative oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase; nitrate reductase; nitric oxide; nitrite; phytoglobin