bims-resufa Biomed news
on Respiratory Supercomplex Factors
Issue of 2018‒07‒01
three papers selected by
Vera Strogolova
Marquette University

  1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2018 Jun 20. pii: S1388-1981(18)30139-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lou W, Ting HC, Reynolds CJ, Tyurina YY, Tyurin VA, Li Y, Ji J, Yu W, Liang Z, Stoyanovsky DA, Anthonymuthu TS, Frasso MA, Wipf P, Greenberger JS, Bayir H, Kagan VE, Greenberg ML.
      Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid localized almost exclusively within the mitochondrial membranes where it is synthesized. Newly synthesized CL undergoes acyl remodeling to produce CL species enriched with unsaturated acyl groups. Cld1 is the only identified CL specific phospholipase in yeast and is required to initiate the CL remodeling pathway. In higher eukaryotes, peroxidation of CL, yielding CLOX, has been implicated in the cellular signaling events that initiate apoptosis. CLOX can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of lipid mediators with signaling properties. Our previous findings suggested that CLD1 expression is upregulated in response to oxidative stress, and that one of the physiological roles of CL remodeling is to remove peroxidized CL. To exploit the powerful yeast model to study functions of CLD1 in CL peroxidation, we expressed the H. brasiliensis Δ12-desaturase gene in yeast, which then synthesized PUFAs that are incorporated into CL species. Using LC-MS based redox phospholipidomics, we identified and quantified the molecular species of CL and other phospholipids in cld1Δ vs. WT cells. Loss of CLD1 led to a dramatic decrease in chronological lifespan, mitochondrial membrane potential, and respiratory capacity; and increased levels of mono-hydroperoxy-CLs, particularly among the highly unsaturated CL species, including tetralinoleoyl-CL. In addition, purified Cld1 exhibited a higher affinity for CLOX, and treatment of cells with H2O2 increased CLD1 expression in the logarithmic growth phase. These data suggest that CLD1 expression is required to mitigate oxidative stress. The findings from this study contribute to our overall understanding of CL remodeling and its role in mitigating oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  Cld1; cardiolipin; lipid peroxidation; mass spectrometry (MS); polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); remodeling; yeast
  2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Jun 20. pii: S0891-5849(18)31094-3. [Epub ahead of print]124 288-298
    Gao JL, Zhao J, Zhu HB, Peng X, Zhu JX, Ma MH, Fu Y, Hu N, Tai Y, Xuan XC, Dong DL.
      Induction of mild mitochondrial uncoupling is protective in a variety of disorders; however, it is unclear how to recognize the mild mitochondrial uncoupling induced by chemical mitochondrial uncouplers. The aim of the present study is to identify the pharmacological properties of mitochondrial uncoupling induced by mitochondrial uncouplers in cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured. Protein levels were measured by using western blot technique. The whole cell respiratory function was determined by using high-resolution respirometry. The typical types of chemical mitochondrial uncouplers, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), niclosamide, and BAM15, induced biphasic change of STAT3 activity in cardiomyocytes, activating STAT3 at low dose and inhibiting STAT3 at high dose, though the dose range of these drugs was distinct. Low-dose uncouplers induced STAT3 activation through the mild increase of mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS) generation and the subsequent JAK/STAT3 activation in cardiomyocytes. However, high-dose uncouplers induced inhibition of STAT3, decrease of ATP production, and cardiomyocyte death. High-dose uncouplers induced STAT3 inhibition through the excessive mitoROS generation and the decreased ATP -induced AMPK activation. Low-dose mitochondrial uncouplers attenuated doxorubicin (DOX)-induced STAT3 inhibition and cardiomyocyte death, and activated STAT3 contributed to the cardioprotection of low-dose mitochondrial uncouplers. Uncoupler-induced mild mitochondrial uncoupling in cardiomyocytes is characterized by STAT3 activation and ATP increase whereas excessive mitochondrial uncoupling is characterized by STAT3 inhibition, ATP decrease and cell injury. Development of mitochondrial uncoupler with optimal dose window of inducing mild uncoupling is a promising strategy for heart protection.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyocytes; MitoROS; Mitochondrial uncoupler; Mitochondrial uncoupling; STAT3
  3. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Jun 21. pii: S0889-1591(18)30235-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Gaspar JM, Mendes NF, Corrêa-da-Silva F, Lima-Junior JC, Gaspar RC, Ropelle ER, Araujo EP, Carvalho HM, Velloso LA.
      Hypothalamic hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) can regulate whole-body energy homeostasis in response to changes in blood glucose, suggesting that it acts as a sensor for systemic energy stores. Here, we hypothesized that hypothalamic HIF-1 could be affected by diet-induced obesity (DIO). We used eight-week old, male C57Bl6 mice, fed normal chow diet or with high fat diet for 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta was measured by PCR and western blotting and its hypothalamic distribution was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Inhibition of HIF-1beta in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus was performed using stereotaxic injection of shRNA lentiviral particles and animals were grouped under normal chow diet or high fat diet for 14 days. Using bioinformatics, we show that in humans, the levels of HIF-1 transcripts are directly correlated with those of hypothalamic transcripts for proteins involved in inflammation, regulation of apoptosis, autophagy, and the ubiquitin/proteasome system; furthermore, in rodents, hypothalamic HIF-1 expression is directly correlated with the phenotype of increased energy expenditure. In mice, DIO was accompanied by increased HIF-1 expression. The inhibition of hypothalamic HIF-1 by injection of an shRNA resulted in a further increase in body mass, a decreased basal metabolic rate, increased hypothalamic inflammation, and glucose intolerance. Thus, hypothalamic HIF-1 is increased during DIO, and its inhibition worsens the obesity-associated metabolic phenotype. Thus, hypothalamic HIF-1 emerges as a target for therapeutic intervention against obesity.
    Keywords:  HIF-1 Pathway; Hypothalamic inflammation; Hypothalamus; Metabolic diseases; Obesity