bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2022‒12‒04
29 papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Science. 2022 Dec 02. 378(6623): 996-1000
      Cells need to detect and degrade faulty membrane proteins to maintain homeostasis. In this study, we identify a previously unknown function of the human signal peptidase complex (SPC)-the enzyme that removes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal peptides-as a membrane protein quality control factor. We show that the SPC cleaves membrane proteins that fail to correctly fold or assemble into their native complexes at otherwise hidden cleavage sites, which our study reveals to be abundant in the human membrane proteome. This posttranslocational cleavage synergizes with ER-associated degradation to sustain membrane protein homeostasis and contributes to cellular fitness. Cryptic SPC cleavage sites thus serve as predetermined breaking points that, when exposed, help to target misfolded or surplus proteins for degradation, thereby maintaining a healthy membrane proteome.
  2. J Cell Biol. 2023 Jan 02. pii: e202203070. [Epub ahead of print]222(1):
      One-third of newly synthesized proteins in mammals are translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Sec61 translocon. How protein translocation coordinates with chaperone availability in the ER to promote protein folding remains unclear. We find that marginally hydrophobic signal sequences and transmembrane domains cause transient retention at the Sec61 translocon and require the luminal BiP chaperone for efficient protein translocation. Using a substrate-trapping proteomic approach, we identify that nascent proteins bearing marginally hydrophobic signal sequences accumulate on the cytosolic side of the Sec61 translocon. Sec63 is co-translationally recruited to the translocation site and mediates BiP binding to incoming polypeptides. BiP binding not only releases translocationally paused nascent chains but also ensures protein folding in the ER. Increasing hydrophobicity of signal sequences bypasses Sec63/BiP-dependent translocation, but translocated proteins are prone to misfold and aggregate in the ER under limited BiP availability. Thus, the signal sequence-guided protein folding may explain why signal sequences are diverse and use multiple protein translocation pathways.
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Nov 30.
      Miga is an evolutionarily conserved protein that localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria and mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial contacts through interaction with VAP proteins in the ER. We recently reported that Miga is required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion during macroautophagy/autophagy. Miga binds to Atg14 and Uvrag, two alternative subunits of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex. Miga regulates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) levels through its interaction with Uvrag and its ER-mitochondrial contact site (ERMCS) tethering activity. Miga stabilizes Atg14, which maintains steady levels of the SNARE protein, Syx17. We propose that Miga establishes a direct link between mitochondria and autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts; mitochondrion; phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase
  4. Elife. 2022 Nov 30. pii: e84279. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion at a unified platform defined by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria membrane contact sites (MCSs). These MCSs or nodes co-localize fission and fusion machinery. We set out to identify how ER-associated mitochondrial nodes can regulate both fission and fusion machinery assembly. We have used a promiscuous biotin ligase linked to the fusion machinery, Mfn1, and proteomics to identify an ER membrane protein, ABHD16A, as a major regulator of node formation. In the absence of ABHD16A, fission and fusion machineries fail to recruit to ER-associated mitochondrial nodes and fission and fusion rates are significantly reduced. ABHD16A contains an acyltransferase motif and an α/β hydrolase domain and point mutations in critical residues of these regions fail to rescue the formation of ER-associated mitochondrial hot spots. These data suggest a mechanism whereby ABHD16A functions by altering phospholipid composition at ER-mitochondria MCSs. Our data present the first example of an ER membrane protein that regulates the recruitment of both fission and fusion machineries to mitochondria.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human
  5. Elife. 2022 Dec 02. pii: e77937. [Epub ahead of print]11
      The development of haematopoietic stem cells into mature erythrocytes - erythropoiesis - is a controlled process characterized by cellular reorganization and drastic reshaping of the proteome landscape. Failure of ordered erythropoiesis is associated with anaemias and haematological malignancies. Although the ubiquitin system is a known crucial post-translational regulator in erythropoiesis, how the erythrocyte is reshaped by the ubiquitin system is poorly understood. By measuring the proteomic landscape of in vitro human erythropoiesis models, we found dynamic differential expression of subunits of the CTLH E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that formed maturation stage-dependent assemblies of topologically homologous RANBP9- and RANBP10-CTLH complexes. Moreover, protein abundance of CTLH's cognate E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBE2H increased during terminal differentiation, and UBE2H expression depended on catalytically active CTLH E3 complexes. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated inactivation of CTLH E3 assemblies or UBE2H in erythroid progenitors revealed defects, including spontaneous and accelerated erythroid maturation as well as inefficient enucleation. Thus, we propose that dynamic maturation stage-specific changes of UBE2H-CTLH E2-E3 modules control the orderly progression of human erythropoiesis.
    Keywords:  CTLH E3 complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase; UBE2H; Ubiquitylation; cell biology; erythropoiesis; human; proteomics
  6. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2022 Nov 30.
      Conditions that cause proteotoxicity like high temperature trigger the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). The cytosolic (CPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) UPR rely on heat stress transcription factor (HSF) and two members of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene family, respectively. In tomato, HsfA1a is the master regulator of CPR. Here, we identified the core players of tomato ER-UPR including the two central transcriptional regulators, namely bZIP28 and bZIP60. Interestingly, the induction of ER-UPR genes and the activation of bZIP60 are altered in transgenic plants where HsfA1a is either overexpressed (A1aOE) or suppressed (A1CS), indicating an interplay between CPR and ER-UPR systems. Several ER-UPR genes are differentially expressed in the HsfA1a transgenic lines either exposed to heat stress or to the ER stress elicitor tunicamycin (TUN). The ectopic expression of HsfA1a is associated with higher tolerance against TUN. On the example of the ER-resident Hsp70 chaperone BIP3, we show that the presence of cis-elements required for HSF and bZIP regulation serves as a putative platform for the co-regulation of these genes by both CPR and ER-UPR mechanisms, in the case of BIP3 in a stimulatory manner under high temperatures. In addition, we show that the accumulation of HsfA1a results in higher levels of three ATG genes and a more sensitized induction of autophagy in response to ER stress which also supports the increased tolerance to ER stress of the A1aOE line. These findings provide a basis for the coordination of protein homeostasis in different cellular compartments under stress conditions.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Endoplasmic reticulum; Heat shock proteins; Heat stress transcription factors; Unfolded protein response; bZIP
  7. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2602 137-149
      The identification of modification sites for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers is an essential step in the elucidation of controlled processes. The ubiquitin-like modifier NEDD8 is an important regulator of plethora of biological processes both under homeostatic and proteotoxic stress conditions. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for proteome-wide identification of NEDDylation sites. The approach is based on the use of cell lines stably expressing the NEDD8R74K mutant. Digestion of samples with Lysyl endopeptidase generates peptides with a di-glycine remnant only from proteins modified with NEDD8R74K but not with ubiquitin or ISG15. The isolation of these peptides with anti-di-glycine antibodies (K-ε-GG) allows the identification of NEDDylation sites by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
    Keywords:  Di-glycine remnant; High-throughput analysis; Mass spectrometry; NEDD8; Ubiquitin-like modifiers
  8. Cell Rep. 2022 Nov 29. pii: S2211-1247(22)01612-6. [Epub ahead of print]41(9): 111734
      The chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is well known to undergo important conformational changes, which depend on nucleotide and substrate interactions. Conversely, how the conformations of its unstable and disordered substrates are affected by Hsp90 is difficult to address experimentally yet is central to its function. Here, using optical tweezers, we find that Hsp90 promotes local contractions in unfolded chains that drive their global compaction down to dimensions of folded states. This compaction has a gradual nature while showing small steps, is stimulated by ATP, and performs mechanical work against counteracting forces that expand the chain dimensions. The Hsp90 interactions suppress the formation of larger-scale folded, misfolded, and aggregated structures. The observations support a model in which Hsp90 alters client conformations directly by promoting local intra-chain interactions while suppressing distant ones. We conjecture that chain compaction may be central to how Hsp90 protects unstable clients and cooperates with Hsp70.
    Keywords:  CP: Molecular biology; HSP90; chaperone; conformational heterogeneity; optical tweezers; protein chain compaction
  9. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2602 177-189
      Posttranslational modifications by the ubiquitin-like family (UbL) of proteins determine the biological fate of a substrate, including new interaction partners. In the case of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), this is achieved in part through its non-covalent interaction with SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) found in some proteins. Investigating such partner-complex formation is particularly challenging due to the fast dynamics and reversibility of SUMO modifications and the low affinity of SUMO-SIM interactions. Here, we present a detailed protocol of SUMO-ID, a technology that merges promiscuous proximity biotinylation by TurboID enzyme and protein-fragment complementation strategy to specifically biotinylate SUMO-dependent interactors of particular substrates. When coupled to streptavidin-affinity purification and mass spectrometry, SUMO-ID efficiently identifies SUMO-dependent interactors of a given protein. The methodology describes all the steps from SUMO-ID cell line generation to LC-MS sample preparation to study SUMO-dependent interactors of a particular protein. The protocol is generic and therefore adaptable to study other UbL-dependent interactors, such as ubiquitin.
    Keywords:  Biotin; BirA; Proximity proteomics; SUMO; Ubiquitin
  10. Cell Rep. 2022 Nov 29. pii: S2211-1247(22)01617-5. [Epub ahead of print]41(9): 111739
      Cold affects many aspects of biology, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Here, we identify a conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, distinct from the canonical unfolded protein response, that maintains lipid homeostasis during extreme cold. We establish that the ER stress sensor IRE-1 is critical for resistance to extreme cold and activated by cold temperature. Specifically, neuronal IRE-1 signals through JNK-1 and neuropeptide signaling to regulate lipid composition within the animal. This cold-response pathway can be bypassed by dietary supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids. Altogether, our findings define an ER-centric conserved organism-wide cold stress response, consisting of molecular neuronal sensors, effectors, and signaling moieties, which control adaptation to cold conditions in the organism. Better understanding of the molecular basis of this stress response is crucial for the optimal use of cold conditions on live organisms and manipulation of lipid saturation homeostasis, which is perturbed in human pathologies.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; CP: Metabolism; IRE-1; IRE1; JNK; cell non-autonomous stress response; cold stress; endoplasmic reticulum; fat metabolism; lipids; unfolded protein response
  11. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 02. 13(1): 7451
      Robust translation elongation of any given amino acid sequence is required to shape proteomes. Nevertheless, nascent peptides occasionally destabilize ribosomes, since consecutive negatively charged residues in bacterial nascent chains can stochastically induce discontinuation of translation, in a phenomenon termed intrinsic ribosome destabilization (IRD). Here, using budding yeast and a human factor-based reconstituted translation system, we show that IRD also occurs in eukaryotic translation. Nascent chains enriched in aspartic acid (D) or glutamic acid (E) in their N-terminal regions alter canonical ribosome dynamics, stochastically aborting translation. Although eukaryotic ribosomes are more robust to ensure uninterrupted translation, we find many endogenous D/E-rich peptidyl-tRNAs in the N-terminal regions in cells lacking a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, indicating that the translation of the N-terminal D/E-rich sequences poses an inherent risk of failure. Indeed, a bioinformatics analysis reveals that the N-terminal regions of ORFs lack D/E enrichment, implying that the translation defect partly restricts the overall amino acid usage in proteomes.
  12. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Dec 01. 13(12): 1015
      Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 has emerged as a central regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by connecting ubiquitylation and degradation. The development of CB-5083, an ATPase D2-domain-selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of VCP/p97, allows targeting of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in human diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CB-5083 on the immune response in mice by using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as an infection model. We demonstrate that LCMV infection increased the susceptibility to CB-5083 treatment in a CD8-independent manner. Administration of CB-5083 to mice reduced the cytotoxic T cell response and impaired viral clearance. Compared to uninfected cells, CB-5083 treatment enhanced the unfolded protein response in LCMV-infected cells. Administration of CB-5083 during the expansion of CD8+ T cells led to strong toxicity in mice within hours, which resulted in enhanced IL-6 levels in the serum and accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, we linked the observed toxicity to the specific formation of aggregates in the skeletal muscle tissue and the upregulation of both lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the serum.
  13. Redox Biol. 2022 Nov 17. pii: S2213-2317(22)00314-7. [Epub ahead of print]58 102542
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons. As a consequence, ALS patients display a locomotor disorder related to muscle weakness and progressive paralysis. Pathological mechanisms that participate in ALS involve deficient unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, among others. Finding a therapeutic target to break the vicious circle is particularly challenging. Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone that may be one of those targets. We here address and decipher the efficiency of S1R activation on a key ALS gene, TDP43, in zebrafish vertebrate model. While expression of mutant TDP43 (TDP43G348C) led to locomotor defects, treatment with the reference S1R agonist PRE-084 rescued motor performances in a zebrafish model. Treatment with the agonist ameliorated maximal mitochondrial respiration in the TDP43 context. We observed that TDP43G348C exacerbated ER stress induced by tunicamycin, resulting in increased levels of ER stress chaperone BiP and pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Importantly, PRE-084 treatment in the same condition further heightened BiP levels but also EIF2α/ATF4 and NRF2 signalling cascades, both known to promote antioxidant protection during ER stress. Moreover, we showed that increasing NRF2 levels directly or by sulforaphane treatment rescued locomotor defects of TDP43G348C zebrafish. For the first time, we here provide the proof of concept that PRE-084 prevents mutant TDP43 toxicity by boosting ER stress response and antioxidant cascade through NRF2 signalling.
  14. J Am Chem Soc. 2022 Nov 30.
      Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) are attractive therapeutic modalities for degrading disease-causing proteins. While many PROTACs have been developed for numerous protein targets, current small-molecule PROTAC approaches cannot target undruggable proteins that do not have small-molecule binders. Here, we present a novel PROTAC approach, termed bridged PROTAC, which utilizes a small-molecule binder of the target protein's binding partner to recruit the protein complex into close proximity with an E3 ubiquitin ligase to target undruggable proteins. Applying this bridged PROTAC strategy, we discovered MS28, the first-in-class degrader of cyclin D1, which lacks a small-molecule binder. MS28 effectively degrades cyclin D1, with faster degradation kinetics and superior degradation efficiency than CDK4/6, through recruiting the CDK4/6-cyclin D1 complex to the von Hippel-Lindau E3 ligase. MS28 also suppressed the proliferation of cancer cells more effectively than CDK4/6 inhibitors and degraders. Altogether, the bridged PROTAC strategy could provide a generalizable platform for targeting undruggable proteins.
  15. Life Sci Alliance. 2023 Feb;pii: e202201712. [Epub ahead of print]6(2):
      Autophagy is essential for neuronal development and its deregulation contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. NDR1 and NDR2 are highly conserved kinases, implicated in neuronal development, mitochondrial health and autophagy, but how they affect mammalian brain development in vivo is not known. Using single and double Ndr1/2 knockout mouse models, we show that only dual loss of Ndr1/2 in neurons causes neurodegeneration. This phenotype was present when NDR kinases were deleted both during embryonic development, as well as in adult mice. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic comparisons between Ndr1/2 knockout and control brains revealed novel kinase substrates and indicated that endocytosis is significantly affected in the absence of NDR1/2. We validated the endocytic protein Raph1/Lpd1, as a novel NDR1/2 substrate, and showed that both NDR1/2 and Raph1 are critical for endocytosis and membrane recycling. In NDR1/2 knockout brains, we observed prominent accumulation of transferrin receptor, p62 and ubiquitinated proteins, indicative of a major impairment of protein homeostasis. Furthermore, the levels of LC3-positive autophagosomes were reduced in knockout neurons, implying that reduced autophagy efficiency mediates p62 accumulation and neurotoxicity. Mechanistically, pronounced mislocalisation of the transmembrane autophagy protein ATG9A at the neuronal periphery, impaired axonal ATG9A trafficking and increased ATG9A surface levels further confirm defects in membrane trafficking, and could underlie the impairment in autophagy. We provide novel insight into the roles of NDR1/2 kinases in maintaining neuronal health.
  16. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 29. 13(1): 7350
      Synthetic receptors targeted to the secretory pathway often fail to exhibit the expected activity due to post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or improper folding. Here, we engineered synthetic receptors that reside in the cytoplasm, inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or on the plasma membrane through orientation adjustment of the receptor parts and by elimination of dysfunctional PTMs sites. The cytoplasmic receptors consist of split-TEVp domains that reconstitute an active protease through chemically-induced dimerization (CID) that is triggered by rapamycin, abscisic acid, or gibberellin. Inside the ER, however, some of these receptors were non-functional, but their activity was restored by mutagenesis of cysteine and asparagine, residues that are typically associated with PTMs. Finally, we engineered orthogonal chemically activated cell-surface receptors (OCARs) consisting of the Notch1 transmembrane domain fused to cytoplasmic tTA and extracellular CID domains. Mutagenesis of cysteine residues in CID domains afforded functional OCARs which enabled fine-tuning of orthogonal signalling in mammalian cells.
  17. Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Nov 29. e0026522
      OTUD1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme involved in many cellular processes including cancer and innate, immune signaling pathways. Here, we perform a proximity labeling-based interactome study that identifies OTUD1 largely present in the translation and RNA metabolism protein complexes. Biochemical analysis validates OTUD1 association with ribosome subunits, elongation factors and the E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNF598 but not with the translation initiation machinery. OTUD1 catalytic activity suppresses polyA triggered ribosome stalling through inhibition of ZNF598-mediated RPS10 ubiquitination and stimulates formation of polysomes. Finally, analysis of gene expression suggests that OTUD1 regulates the stability of rare codon rich mRNAs by antagonizing ZNF598.
    Keywords:  ribosome stalling; translation; ubiquitination
  18. J Biol Chem. 2022 Nov 25. pii: S0021-9258(22)01196-6. [Epub ahead of print] 102753
      Small Heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a family of molecular chaperones that bind non-native proteins in an ATP-independent manner. C. elegans encodes 16 different sHsps, among them Hsp17, which is evolutionarily distinct from other sHsps in the nematode. The structure and mechanism of Hsp17 and how these may differ from other sHsps remain unclear. Here, we find that Hsp17 has a distinct expression pattern, structural organization, and chaperone function. Consistent with its presence under non-stress conditions, and in contrast to many other sHsps, we determined that Hsp17 is a mono-disperse, permanently active chaperone in vitro, which interacts with hundreds of different C. elegans proteins under physiological conditions. Additionally, our cryo-EM structure of Hsp17 reveals that in the 24-mer complex, 12 N-terminal regions are involved in its chaperone function. These flexible regions are located on the outside of the spherical oligomer, whereas the other 12 N-terminal regions are engaged in stabilizing interactions in its interior. This allows the same region in Hsp17 to perform different functions depending on the topological context. Taken together, our results reveal structural and functional features that further define the structural basis of permanently active sHsps.
    Keywords:  molecular chaperone; protein aggregation; protein structure; small heat shock protein
  19. Cell Rep. 2022 Nov 29. pii: S2211-1247(22)01604-7. [Epub ahead of print]41(9): 111726
      The serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) dephosphorylates hundreds of substrates by associating with >200 regulatory proteins to form specific holoenzymes. The major PP1 targeting protein in the nucleolus is RRP1B (ribosomal RNA processing 1B). In addition to selectively recruiting PP1β/PP1γ to the nucleolus, RRP1B also has a key role in ribosome biogenesis, among other functions. How RRP1B binds PP1 and regulates nucleolar phosphorylation signaling is not yet known. Here, we show that RRP1B recruits PP1 via established (RVxF/SILK/ΦΦ) and non-canonical motifs. These atypical interaction sites, the PP1β/γ specificity, and N-terminal AF-binding pockets rely on hydrophobic interactions that contribute to binding and, via phosphorylation, regulate complex formation. This work advances our understanding of PP1 isoform selectivity, reveals key roles of N-terminal PP1 residues in regulator binding, and suggests that additional PP1 interaction sites have yet to be identified, all of which are necessary for a systems biology understanding of PP1 function.
    Keywords:  CP: Molecular biology; NMR spectroscopy; PP1 regulation; RRP1B; X-ray crystallography; isoform specificity; nucleolar phosphatase; protein phosphatase 1; short linear motif (SLiM)
  20. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 28. 13(1): 7323
      Secreted isoform of endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunit 10 (scEMC10) is a poorly characterized secreted protein of largely unknown physiological function. Here we demonstrate that scEMC10 is upregulated in people with obesity and is positively associated with insulin resistance. Consistent with a causal role for scEMC10 in obesity, Emc10-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity due to an increase in energy expenditure, while scEMC10 overexpression decreases energy expenditure, thus promoting obesity in mouse. Furthermore, neutralization of circulating scEMC10 using a monoclonal antibody reduces body weight and enhances insulin sensitivity in obese mice. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that scEMC10 can be transported into cells where it binds to the catalytic subunit of PKA and inhibits its stimulatory action on CREB while ablation of EMC10 promotes thermogenesis in adipocytes via activation of the PKA signalling pathway and its downstream targets. Taken together, our data identify scEMC10 as a circulating inhibitor of thermogenesis and a potential therapeutic target for obesity and its cardiometabolic complications.
  21. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 01. 13(1): 7400
      The p53 transcription factor is a master regulator of cellular stress responses inhibited by repressors such as MDM2 and the phosphatase PPM1D. Activation of p53 with pharmacological inhibitors of its repressors is being tested in clinical trials for cancer therapy, but efficacy has been limited by poor induction of tumor cell death. We demonstrate that dual inhibition of MDM2 and PPM1D induces apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types via amplification of the p53 transcriptional program through the eIF2α-ATF4 pathway. PPM1D inhibition induces phosphorylation of eIF2α, ATF4 accumulation, and ATF4-dependent enhancement of p53-dependent transactivation upon MDM2 inhibition. Dual inhibition of p53 repressors depletes heme and induces HRI-dependent eIF2α phosphorylation. Pharmacological induction of eIF2α phosphorylation synergizes with MDM2 inhibition to induce cell death and halt tumor growth in mice. These results demonstrate that PPM1D inhibits both the p53 network and the integrated stress response controlled by eIF2α-ATF4, with clear therapeutic implications.
  22. Nat Commun. 2022 Dec 02. 13(1): 7431
      Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate various aspects of protein function, including degradation. Mass spectrometric methods relying on pulsed metabolic labeling are popular to quantify turnover rates on a proteome-wide scale. Such data have traditionally been interpreted in the context of protein proteolytic stability. Here, we combine theoretical kinetic modeling with experimental pulsed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC) for the study of protein phosphorylation. We demonstrate that metabolic labeling combined with PTM-specific enrichment does not measure effects of PTMs on protein stability. Rather, it reveals the relative order of PTM addition and removal along a protein's lifetime-a fundamentally different metric. This is due to interconversion of the measured proteoform species. Using this framework, we identify temporal phosphorylation sites on cell cycle-specific factors and protein complex assembly intermediates. Our results thus allow tying PTMs to the age of the modified proteins.
  23. Gastroenterology. 2022 Nov 24. pii: S0016-5085(22)01301-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) are essential for maintaining cellular proteostasis and associated with cancer progression. Our previous studies have demonstrated that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers, limits proteasome abundance and determines chemosensitivity to proteasome inhibitors in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, whether PTEN regulates the lysosome pathway remains unclear.METHODS: We tested the effects of PTEN on lysosome biogenesis and exosome secretion using loss- and gain-of-function strategies in CCA cell lines. Using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we explored the regulatory mechanism between PTEN and the key regulator of lysosome biogenesis, transcription factor EB (TFEB). Using the migration assays, invasion assays, and trans-splenic liver metastasis mouse models, we evaluated the function of PTEN deficiency, TFEB-mediated lysosome biogenesis, and exosome secretion on tumor metastasis. Moreover, we investigated the clinical significance of PTEN expression and exosome secretion by retrospective analysis.
    RESULTS: PTEN facilitated lysosome biogenesis and acidification through its protein phosphatase activity to dephosphorylate TFEB at Ser211. Notably, PTEN deficiency increased exosome secretion by reducing lysosome-mediated degradation of multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), which further facilitated the proliferation and invasion of CCA. TFEB agonist curcumin analog C1 restrained the metastatic phenotype caused by PTEN deficiency in mouse models, and we highlighted the correlation between PTEN deficiency and exosome secretion in clinical cohorts.
    CONCLUSIONS: In CCA, PTEN deficiency impairs lysosome biogenesis to facilitate exosome secretion and cancer metastasis in a TFEB phosphorylation-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  Cholangiocarcinoma; Exosome; Lysosome; MVB; PTEN; TFEB
  24. J Biol Chem. 2022 Nov 23. pii: S0021-9258(22)01182-6. [Epub ahead of print] 102739
      Recent discovery of the ribosomal protein (RP) RPL11 interacting with and inhibiting the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of MDM2 established the RP-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway, which is linked to biological events including ribosomal biogenesis, nutrient availability and metabolic homeostasis. Mutations in RPs lead to a diverse array of phenotypes known as ribosomopathies in which the role of p53 is implicated. Here, we generated conditional RPL11 deletion mice to investigate in vivo effects of impaired RP expression and its functional connection with p53. While deletion of one Rpl11 allele in germ cells results in embryonic lethality, deletion of one Rpl11 allele in adult mice does not affect viability but leads to acute anemia. Mechanistically, we found RPL11 haploinsufficiency activates p53 in hematopoietic tissues and impedes erythroid precursor differentiation, resulting in insufficient red blood cell (RBC) development. We demonstrated that reducing p53 dosage by deleting one p53 allele rescues RPL11 haploinsufficiency-induced inhibition of erythropoietic precursor differentiation and restores normal RBC levels in mice. Furthermore, blocking the RP-MDM2-p53 pathway by introducing an RP-binding mutation in MDM2 prevents RPL11 haploinsufficiency caused p53 activation and rescues the anemia in mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that the RP-MDM2-p53 pathway is a critical checkpoint for RP homeostasis and that p53-dependent cell cycle arrest of erythroid precursors is the molecular basis for the anemia phenotype commonly associated with RP deficiency.
    Keywords:  Anemia; MDM2; RPL11; Ribosomal protein; Ribosomopathy; p53
  25. Elife. 2022 Nov 29. pii: e74805. [Epub ahead of print]11
      A causal relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the development of neurodegenerative diseases remains controversial. Here, we focused on Seipinopathy, a dominant motor neuron disease, based on the finding that its causal gene product, Seipin, is a protein that spans the ER membrane twice. Gain-of-function mutations of Seipin produce non-glycosylated Seipin (ngSeipin), which was previously shown to induce ER stress and apoptosis at both cell and mouse levels albeit with no clarified mechanism. We found that aggregation-prone ngSeipin dominantly inactivated SERCA2b, the major calcium pump in the ER, and decreased the calcium concentration in the ER, leading to ER stress and apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma-derived cells (HCT116). This inactivation required oligomerization of ngSeipin and direct interaction of the C-terminus of ngSeipin with SERCA2b, and was observed in Seipin-deficient neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells expressing ngSeipin at an endogenous protein level. Our results thus provide a new direction to the controversy noted above.
    Keywords:  ER stress; UPR; apoptosis; calcium pump; cell biology; human; neurodegenerative disease
  26. Nucleic Acids Res. 2022 Nov 28. pii: gkac1094. [Epub ahead of print]
      Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are typically defined as translation sites located within the 5' untranslated region upstream of the main protein coding sequence (CDS) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Although uORFs are prevalent in eukaryotic mRNAs and modulate the translation of downstream CDSs, a comprehensive resource for uORFs is currently lacking. We developed Ribo-uORF ( to serve as a comprehensive functional resource for uORF analysis based on ribosome profiling (Ribo-seq) data. Ribo-uORF currently supports six species: human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, fruit fly, and worm. Ribo-uORF includes 501 554 actively translated uORFs and 107 914 upstream translation initiation sites (uTIS), which were identified from 1495 Ribo-seq and 77 quantitative translation initiation sequencing (QTI-seq) datasets, respectively. We also developed mRNAbrowse to visualize items such as uORFs, cis-regulatory elements, genetic variations, eQTLs, GWAS-based associations, RNA modifications, and RNA editing. Ribo-uORF provides a very intuitive web interface for conveniently browsing, searching, and visualizing uORF data. Finally, uORFscan and UTR5var were developed in Ribo-uORF to precisely identify uORFs and analyze the influence of genetic mutations on uORFs using user-uploaded datasets. Ribo-uORF should greatly facilitate studies of uORFs and their roles in mRNA translation and posttranscriptional control of gene expression.
  27. Nat Commun. 2022 Nov 30. 13(1): 7375
      Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) can cause left ventricular dysfunction through interstitial fibrosis, which corresponds to the failure of cardiac tissue remodeling. Recent evidence implicates monocytes/macrophages in the etiopathology of cardiac fibrosis, but giving their heterogeneity and the antagonizing roles of macrophage subtypes in fibrosis, targeting these cells has been challenging. Here we focus on WWP2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that acts as a positive genetic regulator of human and murine cardiac fibrosis, and show that myeloid specific deletion of WWP2 reduces cardiac fibrosis in hypertension-induced NICM. By using single cell RNA sequencing analysis of immune cells in the same model, we establish the functional heterogeneity of macrophages and define an early pro-fibrogenic phase of NICM that is driven by Ccl5-expressing Ly6chigh monocytes. Among cardiac macrophage subtypes, WWP2 dysfunction primarily affects Ly6chigh monocytes via modulating Ccl5, and consequentially macrophage infiltration and activation, which contributes to reduced myofibroblast trans-differentiation. WWP2 interacts with transcription factor IRF7, promoting its non-degradative mono-ubiquitination, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, leading to upregulation of Ccl5 at transcriptional level. We identify a pro-fibrogenic macrophage subtype in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and demonstrate that WWP2 is a key regulator of IRF7-mediated Ccl5/Ly6chigh monocyte axis in heart fibrosis.
  28. FEBS Lett. 2022 Nov 29.
      Prolonged metabolic stress can lead to severe pathologies. In metabolically challenged primary fibroblasts, we assigned a novel role for the poorly characterized miR-4734 in restricting ATF4 and IRE1-mediated upregulation of a set of proinflammatory cytokines and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated genes. Conversely, inhibition of this miRNA augmented the expression of those genes. Mechanistically, miR-4734 was found to restrict the expression of the transcriptional activator NF-kappa-B inhibitor zeta (NFKBIZ), which is required for optimal expression of the proinflammatory genes and whose mRNA is targeted directly by miR-4734. Concordantly, overexpression of NFKBIZ compromised the effects of miR-4734, underscoring the importance of this direct targeting. As the effects of miR-4734 were evident under stress but not under basal conditions, it may possess therapeutic utility towards alleviating stress-induced pathologies.
    Keywords:  ATF4; ER stress; IRE1a; Inflammation; NFKBIZ; miR-4734
  29. J Pathol. 2022 Dec 01.
      Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and dysregulation of macrophages are major factors contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Activation of NF-κB and cell death are involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in a cell type-dependent manner. Although both are regulated by linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC)-mediated linear ubiquitination, the physiological relevance of linear ubiquitination to intestinal inflammation remains unexplored. Here, we used two experimental mouse models of IBD (intraperitoneal LPS and oral dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) administration) to examine the role of linear ubiquitination in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages during intestinal inflammation. We did this by deleting the linear ubiquitination activity of LUBAC specifically from IECs or macrophages. Upon LPS administration, loss of ligase activity in IECs induced mucosal inflammation and augmented IEC death. LPS-mediated death of LUBAC-defective IECs was triggered by TNF. IEC death was rescued by an anti-TNF antibody, and TNF (but not LPS) induced apoptosis of organoids derived from LUBAC-defective IECs. However, augmented TNF-mediated IEC death did not overtly affect the severity of colitis after DSS administration. By contrast, defective LUBAC ligase activity in macrophages ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by attenuating both infiltration of macrophages and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Decreased production of macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1/CCL2, as well as pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF, occurred through impaired activation of NF-κB and ERK via loss of ligase activity in macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that both intraperitoneal LPS and oral DSS administrations are beneficial for evaluating epithelial integrity under inflammatory conditions, as well as macrophage functions in the event of an epithelial barrier breach. The data clarify the cell-specific roles of linear ubiquitination as a critical regulator of TNF-mediated epithelial integrity and macrophage pro-inflammatory responses during intestinal inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  DSS; IBD; LPS; LUBAC; NF-κB; cell death; intestinal epithelial cells; intestinal inflammation; linear ubiquitination; macrophages