bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2022‒04‒24
34 papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00263-5. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1477-1491
      Endoplasmic reticulum quality control (ERQC) pathways comprising chaperones, folding enzymes, and degradation factors ensure the fidelity of ER protein folding and trafficking to downstream secretory environments. However, multiple factors, including tissue-specific secretory proteomes, environmental and genetic insults, and organismal aging, challenge ERQC. Thus, a key question is: how do cells adapt ERQC to match the diverse, ever-changing demands encountered during normal physiology and in disease? The answer lies in the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling mechanism activated by ER stress. In mammals, the UPR comprises three signaling pathways regulated downstream of the ER membrane proteins IRE1, ATF6, and PERK. Upon activation, these UPR pathways remodel ERQC to alleviate cellular stress and restore ER function. Here, we describe how UPR signaling pathways adapt ERQC, highlighting their importance for maintaining ER function across tissues and the potential for targeting the UPR to mitigate pathologies associated with protein misfolding diseases.
    Keywords:  ATF6; ER-associated degradation; ERAD; IRE1; PERK; XBP1s; amyloid; chaperone; loss-of-function disease; protein aggregation; protein misfolding disease
  2. EMBO Rep. 2022 Apr 19. e53835
      Cells rapidly remodel their proteomes to align their cellular metabolism to environmental conditions. Ubiquitin E3 ligases enable this response, by facilitating rapid and reversible changes to protein stability, localization, or interaction partners. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the GID E3 ligase regulates the switch from gluconeogenic to glycolytic conditions through induction and incorporation of the substrate receptor subunit Gid4, which promotes the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes. Here, we show an alternative substrate receptor, Gid10, which is induced in response to changes in temperature, osmolarity, and nutrient availability, regulates the ART-Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase pathway, a component of plasma membrane quality control. Proteomic studies reveal that the levels of the adaptor protein Art2 are elevated upon GID10 deletion. A crystal structure shows the basis for Gid10-Art2 interactions, and we demonstrate that Gid10 directs a GID E3 ligase complex to ubiquitinate Art2. Our data suggest that the GID E3 ligase affects Art2-dependent amino acid transport. This study reveals GID as a system of E3 ligases with metabolic regulatory functions outside of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, controlled by distinct stress-specific substrate receptors.
    Keywords:  GID; Rsp5; metabolism; nutrient signaling; ubiquitin E3 ligase
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Apr 18. 1-9
      Post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation, play crucial roles in the regulation of autophagy. Acetylation has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for autophagy. Acetylation regulates autophagy initiation and autophagosome formation by targeting core components of the ULK1 complex, the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex, and the LC3 lipidation system. Recent studies have shown that acetylation occurs on the key proteins participating in autophagic cargo assembly and autophagosome-lysosome fusion, such as SQSTM1/p62 and STX17. In addition, acetylation controls autophagy at the transcriptional level by targeting histones and the transcription factor TFEB. Here, we review the current knowledge on acetylation of autophagy proteins and their regulations and functions in the autophagy pathway with focus on recent findings.Abbreviations : ACAT1: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1; ACSS2: acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 2; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCAR2/DBC1: cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2; BECN1: beclin 1; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CREBBP/CBP: CREB binding protein; EP300/p300: E1A binding protein p300; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSK3: glycogen synthase kinase 3; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HSPA8/HSC70: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; KAT2A/GCN5: lysine acetyltransferase 2A; KAT2B/PCAF: lysine acetyltransferase 2B; KAT5/TIP60: lysine acetyltransferase 5; KAT8/MOF: lysine acetyltransferase 8; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PKM2: pyruvate kinase M1/2; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTM: post-translational modification; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RUBCN/Rubicon: rubicon autophagy regulator; RUBCNL/Pacer: rubicon like autophagy enhancer; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SNAP29: synaptosome associated protein 29; SNARE: soluble N-ethylamide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STX17: syntaxin 17; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TP53/p53: tumor protein p53; TP53INP2/DOR: tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2; UBA: ubiquitin-associated; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VAMP8: vesicle associated membrane protein 8; WIPI2: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2.
    Keywords:  Acetylation; acetyltransferase; autophagy; deacetylase; post-translational modification
  4. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00294-5. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1451-1466
      Ribosome-associated quality-control (RQC) surveys incomplete nascent polypeptides produced by interrupted translation. Central players in RQC are the human ribosome- and tRNA-binding protein, NEMF, and its orthologs, yeast Rqc2 and bacterial RqcH, which sense large ribosomal subunits obstructed with nascent chains and then promote nascent-chain proteolysis. In canonical eukaryotic RQC, NEMF stabilizes the LTN1/Listerin E3 ligase binding to obstructed ribosomal subunits for nascent-chain ubiquitylation. Furthermore, NEMF orthologs across evolution modify nascent chains by mediating C-terminal, untemplated polypeptide elongation. In eukaryotes, this process exposes ribosome-buried nascent-chain lysines, the ubiquitin acceptor sites, to LTN1. Remarkably, in both bacteria and eukaryotes, C-terminal tails also have an extra-ribosomal function as degrons. Here, we discuss recent findings on RQC mechanisms and briefly review how ribosomal stalling is sensed upstream of RQC, including via ribosome collisions, from an evolutionary perspective. Because RQC defects impair cellular fitness and cause neurodegeneration, this knowledge provides a framework for pathway-related biology and disease studies.
    Keywords:  C-terminal tail; CAT tail; KLHDC10; LTN1; Listerin; NEMF; Pirh2; RQC; Rqc2; RqcH; alanine tail; quality control; ribosome; ribosome collision; ribosome stalling; translation
  5. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Apr 18. 13(4): 357
      In the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells experience hypoxia resulting in the accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins largely in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consequently, ER proteotoxicity elicits unfolded protein response (UPR) as an adaptive mechanism to resolve ER stress. In addition to canonical UPR, proteotoxicity also stimulates the selective, autophagy-dependent, removal of discrete ER domains loaded with misfolded proteins to further alleviate ER stress. These mechanisms can favor cancer cell growth, metastasis, and long-term survival. Our investigations reveal that during hypoxia-induced ER stress, the ER-phagy receptor FAM134B targets damaged portions of ER into autophagosomes to restore ER homeostasis in cancer cells. Loss of FAM134B in breast cancer cells results in increased ER stress and reduced cell proliferation. Mechanistically, upon sensing hypoxia-induced proteotoxic stress, the ER chaperone BiP forms a complex with FAM134B and promotes ER-phagy. To prove the translational implication of our mechanistic findings, we identified vitexin as a pharmacological agent that disrupts FAM134B-BiP complex, inhibits ER-phagy, and potently suppresses breast cancer progression in vivo.
  6. Curr Protoc. 2022 Apr;2(4): e414
      Protein ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification that regulates a large number of cellular processes. This reaction is facilitated by the consecutive action of three central enzymes, i.e., E1 activating enzyme, E2 conjugating enzyme, and the E3 ligase. More than 600 E3 enzymes guarantee the specificity and selectivity of these reactions and thus represent an exciting, while highly underrepresented, class of drug targets. Specific methods can be employed to monitor their activity and thus query compound libraries for inhibitory small molecules. Here, we describe two protocols-one high-throughput and one low-throughput method-to detect E3 ligase activity and test small molecule modulation. © 2022 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: AlphaScreen assay to measure TRAF6-Ubc13 interaction Basic Protocol 2: Gel-based in vitro ubiquitination assay (K63-linked chains).
    Keywords:  RING E3 ligase; TRAF6; Ubc13; alpha screen; small molecules; ubiquitination
  7. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Apr 21.
      NFATc3 is the predominant member of the NFAT family of transcription factors in neurons, where it plays a pro-apoptotic role. Mechanisms controlling NFAT protein stability are poorly understood. Here we identify Trim39 as an E3 ubiquitin-ligase of NFATc3. Indeed, Trim39 binds and ubiquitinates NFATc3 in vitro and in cells where it reduces NFATc3 protein level and transcriptional activity. In contrast, silencing of endogenous Trim39 decreases NFATc3 ubiquitination and increases its activity, thereby resulting in enhanced neuronal apoptosis. We also show that Trim17 inhibits Trim39-mediated ubiquitination of NFATc3 by reducing both the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of Trim39 and the NFATc3/Trim39 interaction. Moreover, we identify Trim39 as a new SUMO-targeted E3 ubiquitin-ligase (STUbL). Indeed, mutation of SUMOylation sites in NFATc3 or SUMO-interacting motifs in Trim39 reduces NFATc3/Trim39 interaction and Trim39-induced ubiquitination of NFATc3. In addition, Trim39 preferentially ubiquitinates SUMOylated forms of NFATc3 in vitro. As a consequence, a SUMOylation-deficient mutant of NFATc3 exhibits increased stability and pro-apoptotic activity in neurons. Taken together, these data indicate that Trim39 modulates neuronal apoptosis by acting as a STUbL for NFATc3.
  8. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00156-3. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1492-1500
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a hotspot for many essential cellular functions. The ER membrane is highly dynamic, which affects many cellular processes that take place within the ER. One such process is ER-phagy, a selective degradation of ER fragments (including membranes and luminal content), which serves to preserve the size of ER while adapting its morphology under basal and stress conditions. In order to be degraded, the ER undergoes selective fragmentation facilitated by specialized ER-shaping proteins that also act as ER-phagy receptors. Their ability to sense and induce membrane curvature, as well as to bridge the ER with autophagy machinery, allows for a successful ER fragmentation and delivery of these fragments to the lysosome for degradation and recycling. In this review, we provide insights into ER-phagy from the perspective of membrane remodeling. We highlight the importance of ER membrane dynamics during ER-phagy and emphasize how its dysregulation reflects on human physiology and pathology.
  9. Autophagy. 2022 Apr 19. 1-3
      SQSTM1/p62 is a selective macroautophagy/autophagy receptor that drives ubiquitinated cargos toward the lysosome for degradation, and also a stress-induced scaffold protein that helps cells to cope with oxidative stress through sequestrating KEAP1 and subsequent activation of the NFE2L2/NRF2 antioxidant pathway. Accumulating evidence implicates SQSTM1 dysregulation in the induction of multiple oncogenic transformations in vivo. SPOP (speckle type BTB/POZ protein), an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor, is the most frequently mutated gene in prostate cancer (Pca), but the molecular mechanisms underlying how SPOP mutations contribute to PCa tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. In a recent study, we describe a new role for SPOP as a negative regulator of autophagy and NFE2L2 pathway activation. SPOP binds and induces the non-degradative ubiquitination of SQSTM1 at Lys420. This post-translational modification decreases SQSTM1 body formation, liquid phase condensation, dimerization, and ubiquitin-binding capacity, thereby suppressing SQSTM1-dependent autophagy, KEAP1 sequestration, and NFE2L2 activation. Notably, PCa-associated SPOP mutants lose the capacity to ubiquitinate SQSTM1 and instead enhance autophagy and the antioxidant response in a dominant-negative manner. Thus, our findings indicate the critical roles of autophagy and NFE2L2 pathway activation in PCa tumorigenesis by oncogenic SPOP mutations.
    Keywords:  Gene mutation; KEAP1; SPOP; SQSTM1; oxidative stress; phase separation; prostate cancer; ubiquitination
  10. Autophagy. 2022 Apr 19. 1-3
      Stress and changes in energy stores are perceived by hormone- and nutrient-sensing nuclei of the hypothalamus, which orchestrate an adaptive physiological body response to maintain homeostasis. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental lysosomal degradation system contributing to preservation of proteome balance and metabolic homeostasis. Its dysregulation is linked to diverse human pathologies, including neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. Autophagy is coordinated by cellular nutrient sensors, including AMPK and MTORC1 that interact with WIPI proteins. Studies suggest that WDR45/WIPI4 interacts with the stress-sensitive co-chaperone FKBP5/FKBP51, which has emerged as a key autophagy scaffold. However, the impact of FKBP5 on autophagy signaling in response to metabolic challenges, such as a high-fat diet, is elusive. Therefore, we manipulated FKBP5 in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and studied autophagy signaling and protein interactions in their physiological context. We identified FKBP5 as a scaffold of the STK11/LKB1-AMPK complex with WDR45/WIPI4 and TSC2 with WDR45B/WIPI3 in response to metabolic challenges, positioning FKBP5 in major nutrient-sensing and autophagy-regulating networks. Intriguingly, we could demonstrate that FKBP5 deletion in the MBH strongly induces obesity, whereas its overexpression protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Our findings suggest a crucial regulatory and adaptive function of FKBP5-regulated autophagy within the MBH in response to metabolic challenges.Abbreviations: AKT: thymoma viral proto-oncogene; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; BECN1: beclin 1, autophagy related; eWAT: epididymal white adipose tissue; FKBP5/FKBP51: FK506 binding protein 5; KO, knockout; MBH, mediobasal hypothalamus; MTORC1, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; p: phosphorylated; PHLPP: PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase; RPS6KB/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase; SKP2: S-phase kinase-associated protein 2; SM: soleus muscle; SQSTM1/p62, sequestosome 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TSC: TSC complex; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; WIPI: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  AMPK; FKBP5/FKBP51; WIPI; autophagy; metabolic stress
  11. Elife. 2022 Apr 19. pii: e76021. [Epub ahead of print]11
      The redox reagent dithiothreitol (DTT) causes stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by disrupting its oxidative protein folding environment, which results in the accumulation and misfolding of the newly synthesized proteins. DTT may potentially impact cellular physiology by ER-independent mechanisms; however, such mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Using the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans, here we show that DTT toxicity is modulated by the bacterial diet. Specifically, the dietary component vitamin B12 alleviates DTT toxicity in a methionine synthase-dependent manner. Using a forward genetic screen, we discover that loss-of-function of R08E5.3, an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase, confers DTT resistance. DTT upregulates R08E5.3 expression and modulates the activity of the methionine-homocysteine cycle. Employing genetic and biochemical studies, we establish that DTT toxicity is a result of the depletion of SAM. Finally, we show that a functional IRE-1/XBP-1 unfolded protein response pathway is required to counteract toxicity at high, but not low, DTT concentrations.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; biochemistry; chemical biology
  12. J Biol Chem. 2022 Apr 15. pii: S0021-9258(22)00375-1. [Epub ahead of print] 101935
      In metazoans, the architecture of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs between cell types, and undergoes major changes throughout the cell cycle and according to physiological needs. Although much is known about how the different ER morphologies are generated and maintained, especially ER tubules, how context-dependent changes in ER shape and distribution are regulated and the factors involved are less well characterized, as are the factors that contribute to the positioning of the ER within the cell. By overexpression and knockout experiments, we show that the levels of RHBDL4, an ER-resident rhomboid protease, modulate the shape and distribution of the ER, especially during conditions that require rapid changes in the ER sheet distribution, such as ER stress. We demonstrate that RHBDL4 interacts with CLIMP-63, a protein involved in ER sheet stabilisation, as well as with the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, we found that mice lacking RHBDL4 are sensitive to ER stress and develop liver steatosis, a phenotype associated with unresolved ER stress. Taken together, these data suggest a new physiological role for RHBDL4 and also imply that this function does not require its enzymatic activity.
  13. J Cell Biol. 2022 Jun 06. pii: e202110151. [Epub ahead of print]221(6):
      The endolysosome system plays central roles in both autophagic degradation and secretory pathways, including the release of extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs). Although previous work reveals important interconnections between autophagy and EVP-mediated secretion, our understanding of these secretory events during endolysosome inhibition remains incomplete. Here, we delineate a secretory autophagy pathway upregulated in response to endolysosomal inhibition, which mediates EVP-associated release of autophagic cargo receptors, including p62/SQSTM1. This secretion is highly regulated and dependent on multiple ATGs required for autophagosome formation, as well as the small GTPase Rab27a. Furthermore, disrupting autophagosome maturation, either via genetic inhibition of autophagosome-to-autolysosome fusion or expression of SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a, is sufficient to induce EVP secretion of autophagy cargo receptors. Finally, ATG-dependent EVP secretion buffers against the intracellular accumulation of autophagy cargo receptors when classical autophagic degradation is impaired. Thus, we propose secretory autophagy via EVPs functions as an alternate route to clear sequestered material and maintain proteostasis during endolysosomal dysfunction or impaired autophagosome maturation.
  14. Front Plant Sci. 2022 ;13 869008
      During seed development, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) takes care of the synthesis and structural maturation of very high amounts of storage proteins in a relatively short time. The ER must thus adjust its extension and machinery to optimize this process. The major signaling mechanism to maintain ER homeostasis is the unfolded protein response (UPR). Both storage proteins that assemble into ER-connected protein bodies and those that are delivered to protein storage vacuoles stimulate the UPR, but its extent and features are specific for the different storage protein classes and even for individual members of each class. Furthermore, evidence exists for anticipatory UPR directly connected to the development of storage seed cells and for selective degradation of certain storage proteins soon after their synthesis, whose signaling details are however still largely unknown. All these events are discussed, also in the light of known features of mammalian UPR.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; molecular chaperones; protein bodies; seed storage proteins; signal transduction; unfolded protein response
  15. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2022 Apr 20.
      The with no lysine (K) 1 (WNK1) protein kinase maintains cellular ion homeostasis in many tissues through actions on ion cotransporters and channels. Increased accumulation of WNK1 protein leads to pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 can be degraded via its adaptor-dependent recruitment to the Cullin3-RBX1 E3 ligase complex by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Disruption of this process also leads to disease. To determine if this is the primary mechanism of WNK1 turnover, we examined WNK1 protein stability and degradation by measuring its rate of decay after blockade of translation. Here, we show that WNK1 protein degradation exhibits atypical kinetics in Hela cells. Consistent with this apparent complexity, we found that multiple degradative pathways can modulate cellular WNK1 protein amount. WNK1 protein is degraded not only by the proteasome, but also by the lysosome. Non-lysosomal cysteine proteases calpain and caspases also influence WNK1 degradation, as inhibitors of these proteases modestly increased WNK1 protein expression. Importantly, we discovered that the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 interacts with WNK1 and its deficiency results in increased WNK1 protein. Our results further demonstrate that increased WNK1 in UBR5-depleted cells is attributable to reduced lysosomal degradation of WNK1 protein. Taken together, our findings provide insights into the multiplicity of degradative pathways involved in WNK1 turnover and uncover UBR5 as a previously unknown regulator of WNK1 protein stability that leads to lysosomal degradation of WNK1 protein.
    Keywords:  Proteolysis; UBR5; WNK1
  16. J Cell Biol. 2022 Jun 06. pii: e202104076. [Epub ahead of print]221(6):
      Tail-anchored (TA) membrane proteins have a potential risk to be mistargeted to the mitochondrial outer membrane (OM). Such mislocalized TA proteins can be extracted by the mitochondrial AAA-ATPase Msp1 from the OM and transferred to the ER for ER protein quality control involving ubiquitination by the ER-resident Doa10 complex. Yet it remains unclear how the extracted TA proteins can move to the ER crossing the aqueous cytosol and whether this transfer to the ER is essential for the clearance of mislocalized TA proteins. Here we show by time-lapse microscopy that mislocalized TA proteins, including an authentic ER-TA protein, indeed move from mitochondria to the ER in a manner strictly dependent on Msp1 expression. The Msp1-dependent mitochondria-to-ER transfer of TA proteins is blocked by defects in the GET system, and this block is not due to impaired Doa10 functions. Thus, the GET pathway facilitates the transfer of mislocalized TA proteins from mitochondria to the ER.
  17. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00313-6. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1390-1397
      We asked experts from different fields-from genome maintenance and proteostasis to organelle degradation via ubiquitin and autophagy-"What does quality control mean to you?" Despite their diverse backgrounds, they converge on and discuss the importance of continuous quality control at all levels, context, communication, timing, decisions on whether to repair or remove, and the significance of dysregulated quality control in disease.
  18. Elife. 2022 Apr 22. pii: e76100. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Degradation by the 26 S proteasome is an intricately regulated process fine tuned by the precise nature of ubiquitin modifications attached to a protein substrate. By debranching ubiquitin chains composed of K48 linkages, the proteasome-associated ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCHL5/UCH37 serves as a positive regulator of protein degradation. How UCH37 achieves specificity for K48 chains is unclear. Here, we use a combination of hydrogen-deuterium mass spectrometry, chemical crosslinking, small-angle X-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), molecular docking, and targeted mutagenesis to uncover a cryptic K48 ubiquitin (Ub) chain-specific binding site on the opposite face of UCH37 relative to the canonical S1 (cS1) ubiquitin-binding site. Biochemical assays demonstrate the K48 chain-specific binding site is required for chain debranching and proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins modified with branched chains. Using quantitative proteomics, translation shutoff experiments, and linkage-specific affinity tools, we then identify specific proteins whose degradation depends on the debranching activity of UCH37. Our findings suggest that UCH37 and potentially other DUBs could use more than one S1 site to perform different biochemical functions.
    Keywords:  E. coli; Proteasome; Ubiquitin; biochemistry; chemical biology; deubiquitinase; human
  19. J Cell Biol. 2022 Jun 06. pii: e202111068. [Epub ahead of print]221(6):
      Dendritic cells (DCs) promote adaptive immunity by cross-presenting antigen-based epitopes to CD8+ T cells. DCs process internalized protein antigens into peptides that enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), bind to major histocompatibility type I (MHC-I) protein complexes, and are transported to the cell surface for cross-presentation. DCs can exhibit activation of the ER stress sensor IRE1α without ER stress, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that antigen-derived hydrophobic peptides can directly engage ER-resident IRE1α, masquerading as unfolded proteins. IRE1α activation depletes MHC-I heavy-chain mRNAs through regulated IRE1α-dependent decay (RIDD), curtailing antigen cross-presentation. In tumor-bearing mice, IRE1α disruption increased MHC-I expression on tumor-infiltrating DCs and enhanced recruitment and activation of CD8+ T cells. Moreover, IRE1α inhibition synergized with anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment to cause tumor regression. Our findings identify an unexpected cell-biological mechanism of antigen-driven IRE1α activation in DCs, revealing translational potential for cancer immunotherapy.
  20. Elife. 2022 Apr 22. pii: e71634. [Epub ahead of print]11
      The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) has emerged as a predominant mechanism that preserves mitochondrial function. Consequently, multiple pathways likely exist to modulate UPRmt. We discovered that the tRNA processing enzyme, homolog of ELAC2 (HOE-1), is key to UPRmt regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that nuclear HOE-1 is necessary and sufficient to robustly activate UPRmt. We show that HOE-1 acts via transcription factors ATFS-1 and DVE-1 that are crucial for UPRmt. Mechanistically, we show that HOE-1 likely mediates its effects via tRNAs, as blocking tRNA export prevents HOE-1-induced UPRmt. Interestingly, we find that HOE-1 does not act via the integrated stress response, which can be activated by uncharged tRNAs, pointing towards its reliance on a new mechanism. Finally, we show that the subcellular localization of HOE-1 is responsive to mitochondrial stress and is subject to negative regulation via ATFS-1. Together, we have discovered a novel RNA-based cellular pathway that modulates UPRmt.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; cell biology
  21. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00314-8. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1408-1410
      To elucidate the mechanism driving selective autophagy of protein aggregates, or "aggrephagy," Ma et al. (2022) identify chaperonin TRiC subunit CCT2 as a receptor that specifically promotes the clearance of solid aggregates, but not liquid-like condensates, in a ubiquitin-independent manner.
  22. Cancer Biol Ther. 2022 Dec 31. 23(1): 348-357
      Overexpression of c-myc via increased transcription or decreased protein degradation is common to many cancer etiologies. c-myc protein degradation is mediated by ubiquitin-dependent degradation, and this ubiquitylation is regulated by several E3 ligases. The primary regulator is Fbxw7, which binds to a phospho-degron within c-myc. Here, we identify a new E3 ligase for c-myc, Fbxl8 (F-box and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein 8), as an adaptor component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, for selective c-myc degradation. SCFFbxl8 binds and ubiquitylates c-myc, independent of phosphorylation, revealing that it regulates a pool of c-myc distinct from SCFFbxw7. Loss of Fbxl8 increases c-myc protein levels, protein stability, and cell division, while overexpression of Fbxl8 reduces c-myc protein levels. Concurrent loss of Fbxl8 and Fbxw7 triggers a robust increase in c-myc protein levels consistent with targeting distinct pools of c-myc. This work highlights new mechanisms regulating c-myc degradation.
    Keywords:  Fbxl8; c-myc; cancer; cell cycle; ubiquitin ligase
  23. J Biol Chem. 2022 Apr 14. pii: S0021-9258(22)00376-3. [Epub ahead of print] 101936
      Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of AAA-ATPase superfamily involved in various cellular functions. To investigate the pathophysiological role of VCP in metabolic disorders, we generated knock-in mice bearing an A232E mutation in VCP, a known human VCP pathogenic variant. When heterozygous mutant mice (A232E/+) were fed a high-fat diet, we observed that fatty liver was ameliorated and the proteolytic processing of the transcription factor sterol-response element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) was impaired. Further co-immunoprecipitation analysis in wild-type mice revealed interactions of VCP with SREBP1 and a rhomboid protease, RHBDL4, in the liver, and these interactions were attenuated in A232E/+ mice. Consistent with these results, we show that knockdown or chemical inhibition of VCP or RHBDL4 in human hepatocytes impaired the proteolytic processing of SREBP1. Finally, we found that knockdown of E3 ligases such as gp78 and HRD1 disrupted the interaction of VCP with SREBP1 and impaired the proteolytic processing of SREBP1. These results suggest that VCP recognizes ubiquitinylated SREBP1 and recruits it to RHBDL4 to promote its proteolytic processing. The present study reveals a novel proteolytic processing pathway of SREBP1, and may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies to treat fatty liver diseases.
    Keywords:  E3 ligase; SREBP1; VCP; fatty liver; rhomboid protease
  24. Autophagy Rep. 2022 ;1(1): 88-118
      Autophagosome formation involves the sequential actions of conserved ATG proteins to coordinate the lipidation of the ubiquitin-like modifier Atg8-family proteins at the nascent phagophore membrane. Although the molecular steps driving this process are well understood, the source of membranes for the expanding phagophore and their mode of delivery are only now beginning to be revealed. Here, we have used quantitative SILAC-based proteomics to identify proteins that associate with the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate, a crucial player during Atg8-family protein lipidation. Our datasets reveal a strong enrichment of regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking, including clathrin heavy and light chains, and several clathrin adaptors. Also identified were PIK3C2A (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis) and HIP1R (a component of clathrin vesicles), and the absence of either of these proteins alters autophagic flux in cell-based starvation assays. To determine whether the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate reciprocally influences trafficking within the endocytic compartment, we captured the cell surface proteomes of autophagy-competent and autophagy-incompetent mouse embryonic fibroblasts under fed and starved conditions. We report changes in the relative proportions of individual cell surface proteins and show that cell surface levels of the SLC7A5-SLC3A2 amino acid transporter are influenced by autophagy capability. Our data provide evidence for direct regulatory coupling between the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate and the clathrin membrane trafficking system and suggest candidate membrane proteins whose trafficking within the cell may be modulated by the autophagy machinery. Abbreviations: ATG, autophagy related; BafA1, bafilomycin A1; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HIP1R, huntingtin interacting protein 1 related; MEF, mouse embryo fibroblast; PIK3C2A, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 alpha; SILAC, stable isotope labelling with amino acids in culture; SQSTM1, sequestosome 1; STRING, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins.
    Keywords:  ATG12; ATG5; HIP1R; PIK3C2A; autophagy; clathrin; endocytosis; proteomics
  25. J Cell Sci. 2022 Apr 15. pii: jcs259622. [Epub ahead of print]135(8):
      Much of cellular activity is mediated by large multisubunit complexes. However, many of these complexes are too complicated to assemble spontaneously. Instead, their biogenesis is facilitated by dedicated chaperone proteins, which are themselves excluded from the final product. This is the case for the proteasome, a ubiquitous and highly conserved cellular regulator that mediates most selective intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The proteasome consists of two subcomplexes: the core particle (CP), where proteolysis occurs, and the regulatory particle (RP), which controls substrate access to the CP. Ten chaperones function in proteasome biogenesis. Here, we review the pathway of CP biogenesis, which requires five of these chaperones and proceeds through a highly ordered multistep pathway. We focus on recent advances in our understanding of CP assembly, with an emphasis on structural insights. This pathway of CP biogenesis represents one of the most dramatic examples of chaperone-mediated assembly and provides a paradigm for understanding how large multisubunit complexes can be produced.
    Keywords:  Assembly; Chaperone; Core particle; Cryo-electron microscopy; Proteasome
  26. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00261-1. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1514-1527
      As one of the two highly conserved cellular degradation systems, autophagy plays a critical role in regulation of protein, lipid, and organelle quality control and cellular homeostasis. This evolutionarily conserved pathway singles out intracellular substrates for elimination via encapsulation within a double-membrane vesicle and delivery to the lysosome for degradation. Multiple cancers disrupt normal regulation of autophagy and hijack its degradative ability to remodel their proteome, reprogram their metabolism, and adapt to environmental challenges, making the autophagy-lysosome system a prime target for anti-cancer interventions. Here, we discuss the roles of autophagy in tumor progression, including cancer-specific mechanisms of autophagy regulation and the contribution of tumor and host autophagy in metabolic regulation, immune evasion, and malignancy. We further discuss emerging proteomics-based approaches for systematic profiling of autophagosome-lysosome composition and contents. Together, these approaches are uncovering new features and functions of autophagy, leading to more effective strategies for targeting this pathway in cancer.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cancer; lysosome; quality control; remodeling
  27. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 19. 13(1): 2018
      The ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 promotes neural crest cell (NCC) survival and stem-cell like properties to regulate craniofacial and peripheral nervous system development. However, how ubiquitination and NEDD4 control NCC development remains unknown. Here we combine quantitative analysis of the proteome, transcriptome and ubiquitinome to identify key developmental signalling pathways that are regulated by NEDD4. We report 276 NEDD4 targets in NCCs and show that loss of NEDD4 leads to a pronounced global reduction in specific ubiquitin lysine linkages. We further show that NEDD4 contributes to the regulation of the NCC actin cytoskeleton by controlling ubiquitination and turnover of Profilin 1 to modulate filamentous actin polymerization. Taken together, our data provide insights into how NEDD4-mediated ubiquitination coordinates key regulatory processes during NCC development.
  28. Autophagy. 2022 Apr 20. 1-2
      ATG9A is essential for macroautophagy/autophagy and considered to be one of the earliest ATG (autophagy related) proteins recruited to sites of autophagosome biogenesis. Recent data suggest ATG9A vesicles may even form the lipid seed of the autophagosome. However, ATG9A regulation is still poorly understood, which is likely at least partly due to challenges inherent to studying an intracellular transmembrane protein with no apparent enzymatic activity. To help overcome these challenges, we used BioID and quantitative LC-MS/MS to map the proximity interactome of ATG9A, which included entire protein complexes involved in protein trafficking, and proteins implicated in autophagy but previously lacking any physical link to core autophagy machinery. We also unexpectedly found an ATG9A interaction with an ULK1-independent ATG13-ATG101 dimer that promotes autophagy in fed cells.
    Keywords:  ATG13; ATG9A; ULK1; basal autophagy. BioID; proteomics
  29. Life Sci Alliance. 2022 Aug;pii: e202101309. [Epub ahead of print]5(8):
      Mitochondrial homeostasis is tightly controlled by ubiquitination. The mitochondrial integral membrane ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 is a crucial regulator of mitochondrial membrane fission, fusion, and disposal through mitophagy. In addition, the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes can determine mitochondrial dynamics and organelle turnover. However, how lipids influence the ubiquitination processes that control mitochondrial homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we show that lipids common to the mitochondrial membranes interact with MARCH5 and affect its activity and stability depending on the lipid composition in vitro. As the only one of the tested lipids, cardiolipin binding to purified MARCH5 induces a significant decrease in thermal stability, whereas stabilisation increases the strongest in the presence of phosphatidic acid. Furthermore, we observe that the addition of lipids to purified MARCH5 alters the ubiquitination pattern. Specifically, cardiolipin enhances auto-ubiquitination of MARCH5. Our work shows that lipids can directly affect the activity of ubiquitin ligases and suggests that the lipid composition in mitochondrial membranes could control ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms that regulate the dynamics and turnover of mitochondria.
  30. Cell Rep. 2022 Apr 19. pii: S2211-1247(22)00473-9. [Epub ahead of print]39(3): 110712
      Aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the subsequent metabolic reprogramming play critical roles in cancer progression. Our previous study has shown that Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis by enhancing the recycling of RTKs. However, how this RTK recycling process is regulated and coupled with RTK degradation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that cholesterol suppresses the autophagic degradation of RTKs in a GOLM1-dependent manner. Further mechanistic studies reveal that GOLM1 mediates the selective autophagy of RTKs by interacting with LC3 through an LC3-interacting region (LIR), which is regulated by a cholesterol-mTORC1 axis. Lowering cholesterol by statins improves the efficacy of multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in vivo. Our findings indicate that cholesterol serves as a signal to switch GOLM1-RTK degradation to GOLM1-RTK recycling and suggest that lowering cholesterol by statin may be a promising combination strategy to improve the TKI efficiency in HCC.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Cell biology; cholesterol metabolism; liver cancer; lysosomal degradation; statin; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  31. Mol Cell. 2022 Apr 21. pii: S1097-2765(22)00270-2. [Epub ahead of print]82(8): 1467-1476
      Messenger RNA (mRNA) translation by the ribosome represents the final step of a complicated molecular dance from DNA to protein. Although classically considered a decipherer that translates a 64-word genetic code into a proteome of astonishing complexity, the ribosome can also shape the transcriptome by controlling mRNA stability. Recent work has discovered that the ribosome is an arbiter of the general mRNA degradation pathway, wherein the ribosome transit rate serves as a major determinant of transcript half-lives. Specifically, members of the degradation complex sense ribosome translocation rates as a function of ribosome elongation rates. Central to this notion is the concept of codon optimality: although all codons impact translation rates, some are deciphered quickly, whereas others cause ribosome hesitation as a consequence of relative cognate tRNA concentration. These transient pauses induce a unique ribosome conformational state that is probed by the deadenylase complex, thereby inducing an orchestrated set of events that enhance both poly(A) shortening and cap removal. Together, these data imply that the coding region of an mRNA not only encodes for protein content but also impacts protein levels through determining the transcript's fate.
    Keywords:  codon optimality; deadenylation; decapping; genetic code; mRNA degradation; mRNA stability; protein synthesis; ribosomes; translation
  32. Brain. 2022 Apr 21. pii: awac144. [Epub ahead of print]
      The metazoan Hsp70 disaggregase protects neurons from proteotoxicity that arises from the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates. Hsp70 and its co-chaperones disassemble and extract polypeptides from protein aggregates for refolding or degradation. The effectiveness of the chaperone system decreases with age and leads to accumulation rather than removal of neurotoxic protein aggregates. Therapeutic enhancement of the Hsp70 protein disassembly machinery is proposed to counter late-onset protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease that may arise. In the context of prion disease, it is not known whether stimulation of protein aggregate disassembly paradoxically leads to enhanced formation of seeding competent species of disease-specific proteins and acceleration of neurodegenerative disease. Here we have tested the hypothesis that modulation of Hsp70 disaggregase activity perturbs mammalian prion-induced neurotoxicity and prion seeding activity. To do so we used PrP transgenic Drosophila that authentically replicate mammalian prions. RNASeq identified that Hsp70, DnaJ-1 and Hsp110 gene expression was down-regulated in prion-exposed PrP Drosophila. We demonstrated that RNAi knockdown of Hsp110 or DnaJ-1 gene expression in variant CJD prion-exposed human PrP Drosophila enhanced neurotoxicity, whereas over-expression mitigated toxicity. Strikingly, prion seeding activity in variant CJD prion-exposed human PrP Drosophila was ablated or reduced by Hsp110 or DnaJ-1 over-expression, respectively. Similar effects were seen in scrapie prion-exposed ovine PrP Drosophila with modified Hsp110 or DnaJ-1 gene expression. These unique observations show that the metazoan Hsp70 disaggregase facilitates the clearance of mammalian prions and that its enhanced activity is a potential therapeutic strategy for human prion disease.
    Keywords:   Drosophila ; heat shock protein; neurodegeneration; nucleotide exchange factor; prion
  33. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2022 Apr 21.
      The integrity of a cell's proteome depends on correct folding of polypeptides by chaperonins. The chaperonin TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC) acts as obligate folder for >10% of cytosolic proteins, including he cytoskeletal proteins actin and tubulin. Although its architecture and how it recognizes folding substrates are emerging from structural studies, the subsequent fate of substrates inside the TRiC chamber is not defined. We trapped endogenous human TRiC with substrates (actin, tubulin) and cochaperone (PhLP2A) at different folding stages, for structure determination by cryo-EM. The already-folded regions of client proteins are anchored at the chamber wall, positioning unstructured regions toward the central space to achieve their native fold. Substrates engage with different sections of the chamber during the folding cycle, coupled to TRiC open-and-close transitions. Further, the cochaperone PhLP2A modulates folding, acting as a molecular strut between substrate and TRiC chamber. Our structural snapshots piece together an emerging model of client protein folding within TRiC.
  34. Circ Res. 2022 Apr 19. 101161CIRCRESAHA121318866
      Background: Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is one of the leading causes of heart failure with highly complicated pathogeneses. The E3 ligase TRIM16 (tripartite motif-containing protein 16) has been recognized as a pivotal regulator to control cell survival, immune response, and oxidative stress. However, the role of Trim16 in cardiac hypertrophy is unknown.METHODS: We generated cardiac-specific knockout mice and adeno-associated virus serotype 9-Trim16 mice to evaluate the function of Trim16 in pathological myocardial hypertrophy. The direct effect of TRIM16 on cardiomyocyte enlargement was examined using an adenovirus system. Furthermore, we combined RNA-sequencing and interactome analysis that was followed by multiple molecular biological methodologies to identify the direct target and corresponding molecular events contributing to TRIM16 function.
    RESULTS: We found an intimate correlation of Trim16 expression with hypertrophy-related heart failure in both human and mouse. Our functional investigations and unbiased transcriptomic analyses clearly demonstrated that Trim16 deficiency markedly exacerbated cardiomyocyte enlargement in vitro and in transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, whereas Trim16 overexpression attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. Mechanistically, Prdx1 (peroxiredoxin 1) is an essential target of Trim16 in cardiac hypertrophy. We found that Trim16 interacts with Prdx1 and inhibits its phosphorylation, leading to a robust enhancement of its downstream Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2) pathway to block cardiac hypertrophy. Trim16-blocked Prdx1 phosphorylation was largely dependent on a direct interaction between Trim16 and Src and the resultant Src ubiquitinational degradation. Notably, Prdx1 knockdown largely abolished the anti-hypertrophic effects of Trim16 overexpression.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first evidence supporting Trim16 as a novel suppressor of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and indicate that targeting the Trim16-Prdx1 axis represents a promising therapeutic strategy for hypertrophy-related heart failure.
    Keywords:  heart failure; hypertrophy; mice; oxidative stress; peroxiredoxin