bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2022‒03‒13
33 papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Mol Cell. 2022 Feb 18. pii: S1097-2765(22)00109-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Specificity of eukaryotic protein degradation is determined by E3 ubiquitin ligases and their selective binding to protein motifs, termed "degrons," in substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. From the discovery of the first substrate degron and the corresponding E3 to a flurry of recent studies enabled by modern systems and structural methods, it is clear that many regulatory pathways depend on E3s recognizing protein termini. Here, we review the structural basis for recognition of protein termini by E3s and how this recognition underlies biological regulation. Diverse E3s evolved to harness a substrate's N and/or C terminus (and often adjacent residues as well) in a sequence-specific manner. Regulation is achieved through selective activation of E3s and also through generation of degrons at ribosomes or by posttranslational means. Collectively, many E3 interactions with protein N and C termini enable intricate control of protein quality and responses to cellular signals.
    Keywords:  C-degron; E3 ligase; GID complex; N-degron; N-end rule; UBR; cullin-RING ligase; protein quality control; ubiquitin
  2. Biochem J. 2022 Mar 09. pii: BCJ20210741. [Epub ahead of print]
      The RBR E3 ligase parkin is recruited to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) during oxidative stress where it becomes activated and ubiquitinates numerous proteins. Parkin activation involves binding of a phosphorylated ubiquitin (pUb), followed by phosphorylation of the Ubl domain in parkin, both mediated by the OMM kinase, PINK1. How an OMM protein is selected for ubiquitination is unclear. Parkin targeted OMM proteins have little structural or sequence similarity, with the commonality between substrates being proximity to the OMM. Here, we used chimeric proteins, tagged with ubiquitin (Ub), to evaluate parkin ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. We find that pUb tethered to the mitochondrial target proteins, Miro1 or CISD1, is necessary for parkin recruitment and essential for target protein ubiquitination. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of parkin is not necessary for the ubiquitination of either Miro1 or CISD1. Thus, parkin lacking its Ubl domain efficiently ubiquitinates a substrate tethered to pUb. Instead, phosphorylated parkin appears to stimulate free Ub-chain formation. We also demonstrate that parkin ubiquitination of pUb-tethered substrates occurs on the substrate, rather than the pUb modification. We propose divergent parkin mechanisms whereby parkin-mediated ubiquitination of acceptor proteins is driven by binding to pre-existing pUb on the OMM protein and subsequent parkin phosphorylation triggers free Ub chain formation. This finding accounts for the broad spectrum of OMM proteins ubiquitinated by parkin and has implications on target design for therapeutics.
    Keywords:  fluorescence; phosphorylation; protein structure; protein-protein interactions; ubiquitin; ubiquitin ligases
  3. EMBO J. 2022 Mar 11. e109700
      HOIL-1, a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), ubiquitylates serine and threonine residues in proteins by esterification. Here, we report that mice expressing an E3 ligase-inactive HOIL-1[C458S] mutant accumulate polyglucosan in brain, heart and other organs, indicating that HOIL-1's E3 ligase activity is essential to prevent these toxic polysaccharide deposits from accumulating. We found that HOIL-1 monoubiquitylates glycogen and α1:4-linked maltoheptaose in vitro and identify the C6 hydroxyl moiety of glucose as the site of ester-linked ubiquitylation. The monoubiquitylation of maltoheptaose was accelerated > 100-fold by the interaction of Met1-linked or Lys63-linked ubiquitin oligomers with the RBR domain of HOIL-1. HOIL-1 also transferred pre-formed ubiquitin oligomers to maltoheptaose en bloc, producing polyubiquitylated maltoheptaose in one catalytic step. The Sharpin and HOIP components of LUBAC, but not HOIL-1, bound to unbranched and infrequently branched glucose polymers in vitro, but not to highly branched mammalian glycogen, suggesting a potential function in targeting HOIL-1 to unbranched glucosaccharides in cells. We suggest that monoubiquitylation of unbranched glucosaccharides may initiate their removal from cells, preventing precipitation as polyglucosan.
    Keywords:  RBCK1; RBR E3 ligase; glycogen; polyglucosan; ubiquitination
  4. Nature. 2022 Mar 09.
      Ribosome stalling during translation is detrimental to cellular fitness, but how this is sensed and elicits recycling of ribosomal subunits and quality control of associated mRNA and incomplete nascent chains is poorly understood1,2. Here we uncover Bacillus subtilis MutS2, a member of the conserved MutS family of ATPases that function in DNA mismatch repair3, as an unexpected ribosome-binding protein with an essential function in translational quality control. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of affinity-purified native complexes shows that MutS2 functions in sensing collisions between stalled and translating ribosomes and suggests how ribosome collisions can serve as platforms to deploy downstream processes: MutS2 has an RNA endonuclease small MutS-related (SMR) domain, as well as an ATPase/clamp domain that is properly positioned to promote ribosomal subunit dissociation, which is a requirement both for ribosome recycling and for initiation of ribosome-associated protein quality control (RQC). Accordingly, MutS2 promotes nascent chain modification with alanine-tail degrons-an early step in RQC-in an ATPase domain-dependent manner. The relevance of these observations is underscored by evidence of strong co-occurrence of MutS2 and RQC genes across bacterial phyla. Overall, the findings demonstrate a deeply conserved role for ribosome collisions in mounting a complex response to the interruption of translation within open reading frames.
  5. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 11. 1-3
      The selective clearance of mitochondria by mitophagy is an important quality control mechanism for maintaining mitochondrial and cellular health. Iron chelation, for example by the compound deferiprone (DFP), leads to a specific form of PINK1-PRKN/Parkin-independent mitophagy; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. In our recent paper, we examined the role of the deSUMOylating enzyme SENP3 in DFP-induced mitophagy. We observed that SENP3 levels are enhanced by DFP treatment, and that SENP3 is essential for DFP-induced mitophagy. Furthermore, we identified the mitochondrial protein FIS1, which is also required for DFP-induced mitophagy, as a novel SUMO substrate. Our data demonstrate that SENP3-dependent deSUMOylation of FIS1 enhances FIS1 mitochondrial targeting, to promote mitophagy in response to DFP treatment. These findings offer new insight into the mechanisms underlying mitophagy upon iron chelation, and have relevance to the therapeutic potential of DFP in a number of disorders, including Parkinson disease. Abbreviations DFP: deferiprone; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane. PD: Parkinson disease; SUMO: small ubiquitin like modifier.
    Keywords:  FIS1; SENP3; SUMO; iron chelation; mitophagy
  6. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 14. 13(1): 1323
      Secreted proteins, such as hormones or cytokines, are key mediators in multicellular organisms. Response of protein secretion based on transcriptional control is rather slow, as it requires transcription, translation and transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane via the conventional protein secretion (CPS) pathway. An alternative regulation to provide faster response would be valuable. Here we present two genetically encoded orthogonal regulatory secretion systems, which rely on the retention of pre-synthesized proteins on the ER membrane (membER, released by a cytosolic protease) or inside the ER lumen (lumER, released by an ER-luminal protease), respectively, and their release by the chemical signal-regulated proteolytic removal of an ER-retention signal, without triggering ER stress due to protein aggregates. Design of orthogonal chemically-regulated split proteases enables the combination of signals into logic functions. Its application was demonstrated on a chemically regulated therapeutic protein secretion and regulated membrane translocation of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting cancer antigen. Regulation of the ER escape represents a platform for the design of fast-responsive and tightly-controlled modular and scalable protein secretion system for mammalian cells.
  7. FEBS J. 2022 Mar 09.
      Methionine 1 (M1)-linked ubiquitination plays a key role in the regulation of inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling and is important for clearance of pathogen infection in Drosophila melanogaster. M1-linked ubiquitin (M1-Ub) chains are assembled by the linear ubiquitin E3 ligase (LUBEL) in flies. Here, we have studied the role of LUBEL in sterile inflammation induced by different types of cellular stresses. We have found that LUBEL catalyses formation of M1-Ub chains in response to hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress conditions. LUBEL is shown to be important for flies to survive low oxygen conditions and paraquat-induced oxidative stress. This protective action seems to be driven by stress-induced activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish via the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. In addition to LUBEL, the intracellular mediators of Relish activation, including the transforming growth factor activating kinase 1 (Tak1), Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) Diap2, the IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) Kenny and the initiator caspase Death-related ced-3/Nedd2-like protein (Dredd), but not the membrane receptor peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LC, are shown to be required for sterile inflammatory response and survival. Finally, we showed that the stress-induced upregulation of M1-Ub chains in response to hypoxia, oxidative and mechanical stress is also induced in mammalian cells and protects from stress-induced cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that M1-Ub chains are important for NF-κB signalling in inflammation induced by stress conditions often observed in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.
    Keywords:  NF-κB; cell stress; hypoxia; linear ubiquitin chain; sterile inflammation
  8. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2022 Mar 02. pii: S0959-440X(22)00018-5. [Epub ahead of print]73 102345
      Ubiquitin is a small eukaryotic protein so named for its cellular abundance and originally recognized for its role as the posttranslational modification (PTM) "tag" condemning substrates to degradation by the 26S proteasome. Since its discovery in the 1970s, protein ubiquitination has also been identified as a key regulatory feature in dozens of non-degradative cellular processes. This myriad of roles illustrates the versatility of ubiquitin as a PTM; however, understanding the cellular and molecular factors that enable discrimination between degradative versus non-degradative ubiquitination events has been a persistent challenge. Here, we discuss recent advances in uncovering how site-specificity - the exact residue that gets modified - modulates distinct protein fates and cellular outcomes with an emphasis on how ubiquitination site specificity regulates proteasomal degradation. We explore recent advances in structural biology, biophysics, and cell biology that have enabled a broader understanding of the role of ubiquitination in altering the dynamics of the target protein, including implications for the design of targeted protein degradation therapeutics.
  9. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Mar 08.
      Hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R), a major clinical problem during liver surgical procedures, can induce liver injury with severe cell death including ferroptosis which is characterized by iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation. The HECT domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase HUWE1 (also known as MULE) was initially shown to promote apoptosis. However, our preliminary study demonstrates that high expression of HUWE1 in the liver donors corelates with less injury and better hepatic function after liver transplantation in patients. Thus, we investigate the role of HUWE1 in acute liver injury, and identify HUWE1 as a negative ferroptosis modulator through transferrin receptor 1(TfR1). Deficiency of Huwe1 in mice hepatocytes (HKO) exacerbated I/R and CCl4-induced liver injury with more ferroptosis occurrence. Moreover, Suppression of Huwe1 remarkably enhances cellular sensitivity to ferroptosis in primary hepatocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mechanistically, HUWE1 specifically targets TfR1 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thereby regulates iron metabolism. Importantly, chemical and genetic inhibition of TfR1 dramatically diminishes the ferroptotic cell death in Huwe1 KO cells and Huwe1 HKO mice. Therefore, HUWE1 is a potential protective factor to antagonize both aberrant iron accumulation and ferroptosis thereby mitigating acute liver injury. These findings may provide clinical implications for patients with the high-expression Huwe1 alleles.
  10. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 10. 1-16
      The endolysosomal system not only is an integral part of the cellular catabolic machinery that processes and recycles nutrients for synthesis of biomaterials, but also acts as signaling hub to sense and coordinate the energy state of cells with growth and differentiation. Lysosomal dysfunction adversely influences vesicular transport-dependent macromolecular degradation and thus causes serious problems for human health. In mammalian cells, loss of the lysosome associated membrane proteins LAMP1 and LAMP2 strongly affects autophagy and cholesterol trafficking. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized Drosophila Lamp1 is a bona fide ortholog of vertebrate LAMP1 and LAMP2. Surprisingly and in contrast to lamp1 lamp2 double-mutant mice, Drosophila Lamp1 is not required for viability or autophagy, suggesting that fly and vertebrate LAMP proteins acquired distinct functions, or that autophagy defects in lamp1 lamp2 mutants may have indirect causes. However, Lamp1 deficiency results in an increase in the number of acidic organelles in flies. Furthermore, we find that Lamp1 mutant larvae have defects in lipid metabolism as they show elevated levels of sterols and diacylglycerols (DAGs). Because DAGs are the main lipid species used for transport through the hemolymph (blood) in insects, our results indicate broader functions of Lamp1 in lipid transport. Our findings make Drosophila an ideal model to study the role of LAMP proteins in lipid assimilation without the confounding effects of their storage and without interfering with autophagic processes.Abbreviations: aa: amino acid; AL: autolysosome; AP: autophagosome; APGL: autophagolysosome; AV: autophagic vacuole (i.e. AP and APGL/AL); AVi: early/initial autophagic vacuoles; AVd: late/degradative autophagic vacuoles; Atg: autophagy-related; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; Cnx99A: Calnexin 99A; DAG: diacylglycerol; eMI: endosomal microautophagy; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complexes required for transport; FB: fat body; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; Hrs: Hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate; LAMP: lysosomal associated membrane protein; LD: lipid droplet; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; Lpp: lipophorin; LTP: Lipid transfer particle; LTR: LysoTracker Red; MA: macroautophagy; MCC: Manders colocalization coefficient; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast MTORC: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex; PV: parasitophorous vacuole; SNARE: soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor; Snap: Synaptosomal-associated protein; st: starved; TAG: triacylglycerol; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TFEB/Mitf: transcription factor EB; TM: transmembrane domain; tub: tubulin; UTR: untranslated region.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Drosophila; LAMP proteins; lipid transport; lysosome
  11. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 08. 1-2
      Conjugation of the Atg8 (autophagy related 8) family of ubiquitin-like proteins to phospholipids of the phagophore is a hallmark of macroautophagy/autophagy. Consequently, Atg8 family members, especially LC3B, are commonly used as a marker of autophagosomes. However, the Atg8 family of proteins are not found solely attached to double-membrane autophagosomes. In non-canonical Atg8-family protein lipidation they become conjugated to single membranes. We have shown that this process is triggered by recruitment of ATG16L1 by the vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump, suggesting a role for pH sensing in recruitment of Atg8-family proteins to single membranes.
    Keywords:  ATG16L1; Atg4; Atg8; CASM; SopF; V-ATPase; influenza; lipidation; non-canonical autophagy
  12. Nat Cell Biol. 2022 Mar 07.
      Heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) orchestrates the fast and vast cellular response to heat shock through increased expression of heat-shock proteins. However, how HSF1 rapidly and reversibly regulates transcriptional reprogramming remains poorly defined. Here by combining super-resolution imaging, in vitro reconstitution and high-throughput sequencing, we reveal that HSF1 forms small nuclear condensates via liquid-liquid phase separation at heat-shock-protein gene loci and enriches multiple transcription apparatuses through co-phase separation to promote the transcription of target genes. Furthermore, the phase-separation capability of HSF1 is fine-tuned through phosphorylation at specific sites within the regulatory domain. Last, we discovered that HSP70 disperses HSF1 condensates to attenuate transcription following the cessation of heat shock and further prevents the gel-like phase transition of HSF1 under extended heat-shock stress. Our work reveals an inducible and reversible phase-separation feedback mechanism for dynamic regulation of HSF1 activity to drive the transcriptional response and maintain protein homeostasis during acute stress.
  13. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Mar 15. 119(11): e2113991119
      SignificanceSonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a key signaling molecule that plays important roles in embryonic patterning, cell differentiation, and organ development. Although fundamentally important, the molecular mechanisms that regulate secretion of newly synthesized Shh are still unclear. Our study reveals a role for the cargo receptor, SURF4, in facilitating export of Shh from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a ER export signal. In addition, our study provides evidence suggesting that proteoglycans promote the dissociation of SURF4 from Shh at the Golgi, suggesting a SURF4-to-proteoglycan relay mechanism. These analyses provide insight into an important question in cell biology: how do cargo receptors capture their clients in one compartment, then disengage at their destination?
    Keywords:  COPII; ER; SURF4; cargo receptor; cargo sorting
  14. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 10. 1-18
      Ubiquitination is an important reversible post-translational modification. Many viruses hijack the host ubiquitin system to enhance self-replication. In the present study, we found that Avibirnavirus VP3 protein was ubiquitinated during infection and supported virus replication by ubiquitination. Mass spectrometry and mutation analysis showed that VP3 was ubiquitinated at residues K73, K135, K158, K193, and K219. Virus rescue showed that ubiquitination at sites K73, K193, and K219 on VP3 could enhance the replication abilities of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and that K135 was essential for virus survival. Binding of the zinc finger domain of TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) to VP3 mediated K11- and K33-linked ubiquitination of VP3, which promoted its nuclear accumulation to facilitate virus replication. Additionally, VP3 could inhibit TRAF6-mediated NFKB/NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) activation and IFNB/IFN-β (interferon beta) production to evade host innate immunity by inducing TRAF6 autophagic degradation in an SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1)-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrated a macroautophagic/autophagic mechanism by which Avibirnavirus protein VP3 blocked NFKB-mediated IFNB production by targeting TRAF6 during virus infection, and provided a potential drug target for virus infection control.Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; Cas9: CRISPR-associated protein 9; CHX: cycloheximide; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GST: glutathione S-transferase; IBDV: infectious bursal disease virus; IF: indirect immunofluorescence; IFNB/IFN-β: interferon beta; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MOI: multiplicity of infection; MS: mass spectrometry; NFKB/NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa B; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; OPTN: optineurin; pAb: polyclonal antibody; PRRs: pattern recognition receptors; RNF125: ring finger protein 125; RNF135/Riplet: ring finger protein 135; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TAX1BP1: tax1 binding protein1; TCID50: 50% tissue culture infective dose; TRAF3: TNF receptor associated factor 3; TRAF6: TNF receptor associated factor 6; TRIM25: tripartite motif containing 25; Ub: ubiquitin; Wort: wortmannin; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  AvibirnavirusVP3 ubiquitination; SQSTM1; TRAF6 degradation; innate antiviral immune; nuclear trafficking; selective autophagy
  15. J Cell Biol. 2022 Apr 04. pii: e202010065. [Epub ahead of print]221(4):
      Missense mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD); however, pathways regulating LRRK2 subcellular localization, function, and turnover are not fully defined. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based interactome studies to identify 48 novel LRRK2 interactors, including the microtubule-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM1 (tripartite motif family 1). TRIM1 recruits LRRK2 to the microtubule cytoskeleton for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by binding LRRK2911-919, a nine amino acid segment within a flexible interdomain region (LRRK2853-981), which we designate the "regulatory loop" (RL). Phosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser910/Ser935 within LRRK2 RL influences LRRK2's association with cytoplasmic 14-3-3 versus microtubule-bound TRIM1. Association with TRIM1 modulates LRRK2's interaction with Rab29 and prevents upregulation of LRRK2 kinase activity by Rab29 in an E3-ligase-dependent manner. Finally, TRIM1 rescues neurite outgrowth deficits caused by PD-driving mutant LRRK2 G2019S. Our data suggest that TRIM1 is a critical regulator of LRRK2, controlling its degradation, localization, binding partners, kinase activity, and cytotoxicity.
  16. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 10. 13(1): 1257
      The folding capacity of membrane and secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be challenged by physiological and pathological perturbations, causing ER stress. If unresolved, this leads to cell death. We report a role for iRhom pseudoproteases in controlling apoptosis due to persistent ER stress. Loss of iRhoms causes cells to be resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis. iRhom1 and iRhom2 interact with IP3 receptors, critical mediators of intracellular Ca2+ signalling, and regulate ER stress-induced transport of Ca2+ into mitochondria, a primary trigger of mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and cell death. iRhoms also bind to the anti-apoptotic regulator BCL-2, attenuating the inhibitory interaction between BCL-2 and IP3 receptors, which promotes ER Ca2+ release. The discovery of the participation of iRhoms in the control of ER stress-induced cell death further extends their potential pathological significance to include diseases dependent on protein misfolding and aggregation.
  17. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 06. 1-21
      Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved cellular process associated with tumorigenesis and aggressiveness, while mechanisms regulating expression of autophagic machinery genes in cancers still remain elusive. Herein, we identified E2F4 (E2F transcription factor 4) as a novel transcriptional activator of cytoprotective autophagy crucial for zinc homeostasis in cancer cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that E2F4 promoted autophagy in a cell cycle-dependent manner, resulting in facilitated degradation of MT (metallothionein) proteins, elevated distribution of Zn2+ within autophagosomes, decreased labile intracellular zinc ions, and increased growth, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, E2F4 directly regulated the transcription of ATG2A (autophagy related 2A) and ULK2 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2), leading to autophagic degradation of MT1E, MT1M, and MT1X, while USP2 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 2) stabilized E2F4 protein to induce its transactivation via physical interaction and deubiquitination in cancer cells. Rescue experiments revealed that USP2 harbored oncogenic properties via E2F4-facilitated autophagy and zinc homeostasis. Emetine, a small chemical inhibitor of autophagy, was able to block interaction between UPS2 and E2F4, increase labile intracellular zinc ions, and suppress tumorigenesis and aggressiveness. In clinical gastric cancer specimens, both USP2 and E2F4 were upregulated and associated with poor outcome of patients. These findings indicate that therapeutic targeting of the USP2-E2F4 axis inhibits autophagic machinery essential for zinc homeostasis in cancer progression.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ANOVA: analysis of variance; ATG2A: autophagy related 2A; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BECN1: beclin 1; BiFC: bimolecular fluorescence complementation; CCND1: cyclin D1; CDK: cyclin dependent kinase; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; CHX: cycloheximide; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; E2F4: E2F transcription factor 4; eATP: extracellular adenosine triphosphate; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; FP: first progression; FRET: fluorescence resonance energy transfer; FUCCI: fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GST: glutathione S-transferase; HA: hemagglutinin; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MDM2: MDM2 proto-oncogene; MKI67/Ki-67: marker of proliferation Ki-67; MT: metallothionein; MT1E: metallothionein 1E; MT1M: metallothionein 1M; MT1X: metallothionein 1X; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethyltriazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide; OS: overall survival; PECAM1/CD31: platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; UBXN1: UBX domain protein 1; Ub: ubiquitin; ULK2: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2; USP14: ubiquitin specific peptidase 14; USP2: ubiquitin specific peptidase 2; USP5: ubiquitin specific peptidase 5; USP7: ubiquitin specific peptidase 7; ZnCl2: zinc chloride.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; E2F transcription factor 4; gastric cancer; ubiquitin specific peptidase 2; zinc homeostasis
  18. Nature. 2022 Mar 09.
      Cells display complex intracellular organization by compartmentalization of metabolic processes into organelles, yet the resolution of these structures in the native tissue context and their functional consequences are not well understood. Here we resolved the three-dimensional structural organization of organelles in large (more than 2.8 × 105 µm3) volumes of intact liver tissue (15 partial or full hepatocytes per condition) at high resolution (8 nm isotropic pixel size) using enhanced focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy1,2 imaging followed by deep-learning-based automated image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. We also performed a comparative analysis of subcellular structures in liver tissue of lean and obese mice and found substantial alterations, particularly in hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which undergoes massive structural reorganization characterized by marked disorganization of stacks of ER sheets3 and predominance of ER tubules. Finally, we demonstrated the functional importance of these structural changes by monitoring the effects of experimental recovery of the subcellular organization on cellular and systemic metabolism. We conclude that the hepatic subcellular organization of the ER architecture are highly dynamic, integrated with the metabolic state and critical for adaptive homeostasis and tissue health.
  19. Cell Rep. 2022 Mar 08. pii: S2211-1247(22)00223-6. [Epub ahead of print]38(10): 110490
      How metastatic cells arise is unclear. Here, we search for the induction of recently characterized pro-metastatic states as a surrogate for the origin of metastasis. Since cell-death-inducing therapies can paradoxically promote metastasis, we ask if such treatments induce pro-metastatic states in human colon cancer cells. We find that post-near-death cells acquire pro-metastatic states (PAMEs) and form distant metastases in vivo. These PAME ("let's go" in Greek) cells exhibit a multifactorial cytokine storm as well as signs of enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and nuclear reprogramming, requiring CXCL8, INSL4, IL32, PERK-CHOP, and NANOG. PAMEs induce neighboring tumor cells to become PAME-induced migratory cells (PIMs): highly migratory cells that re-enact the storm and enhance PAME migration. Metastases are thus proposed to originate from the induction of pro-metastatic states through intrinsic and extrinsic cues in a pro-metastatic tumoral ecosystem, driven by an impending cell-death experience involving ER stress modulation, metastatic reprogramming, and paracrine recruitment via a cytokine storm.
    Keywords:  ER stress; PAME; apoptosis; colon cancer; cytokine storm; metastasis; metastasis-initiating cells; metastatic reprogramming; primary heterogeneity; regulated cell death
  20. Mol Cell. 2022 Mar 03. pii: S1097-2765(22)00139-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      A polyubiquitin chain can adopt a variety of shapes, depending on how the ubiquitin monomers are joined. However, the relevance of linkage for the signaling functions of polyubiquitin chains is often poorly understood because of our inability to control or manipulate this parameter in vivo. Here, we present a strategy for reprogramming polyubiquitin chain linkage by means of tailor-made, linkage- and substrate-selective ubiquitin ligases. Using the polyubiquitylation of the budding yeast replication factor PCNA in response to DNA damage as a model case, we show that altering the features of a polyubiquitin chain in vivo can change the fate of the modified substrate. We also provide evidence for redundancy between distinct but structurally similar linkages, and we demonstrate by proof-of-principle experiments that the method can be generalized to targets beyond PCNA. Our study illustrates a promising approach toward the in vivo analysis of polyubiquitin signaling.
    Keywords:  Cue1; DNA-damage bypass; LUBAC; PCNA; Pib1; Rad5; UFD pathway; linkage reprogramming; polyubiquitin chain linkage; ubiquitin protein ligase
  21. Sci Adv. 2022 Mar 11. 8(10): eabi4797
      The mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) is the central region in the physiological response to metabolic stress. The FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a major modulator of the stress response and has recently emerged as a scaffolder regulating metabolic and autophagy pathways. However, the detailed protein-protein interactions linking FKBP51 to autophagy upon metabolic challenges remain elusive. We performed mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of FKBP51 knockout (KO) cells revealing an increased amino acid and polyamine metabolism. We identified FKBP51 as a central nexus for the recruitment of the LKB1/AMPK complex to WIPI4 and TSC2 to WIPI3, thereby regulating the balance between autophagy and mTOR signaling in response to metabolic challenges. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MBH FKBP51 deletion strongly induces obesity, while its overexpression protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our study provides an important novel regulatory function of MBH FKBP51 within the stress-adapted autophagy response to metabolic challenges.
  22. IUBMB Life. 2022 Mar 10.
      Organelles can easily be disrupted by intracellular and extracellular factors. Studies on ER and mitochondria indicate that a wide range of responses are elicited upon organelle disruption. One response thought to be of particular importance is autophagy. Cells can target entire organelles into autophagosomes for removal. This wholesale nature makes autophagy a robust means for eliminating compromised organelles. Recently, it was demonstrated that the Golgi apparatus is a substrate of autophagy. On the other hand, various reports have shown that components traffic away from the Golgi for elimination in an autophagosome-independent manner when the Golgi apparatus is stressed. Future studies will reveal how these different pieces of machinery coordinate to drive Golgi degradation. Quantitative measurements will be needed to determine how much autophagy contributes to the maintenance of the Golgi apparatus.
    Keywords:  Golgi apparatus; Golgi fragmentation; Golgi-derived vesicles; autophagy; biogenesis; proteasome
  23. Hum Mol Genet. 2022 Mar 09. pii: ddac055. [Epub ahead of print]
      The transmembrane domain recognition complex (TRC) pathway is required for the insertion of C-terminal tail-anchored (TA) proteins into the lipid bilayer of specific intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. In order to facilitate correct insertion, the recognition complex (consisting of BAG6, GET4 and UBL4A) must first bind to TA proteins and then to GET3 (TRC40, ASNA1) which chaperones the protein to the ER membrane. Subsequently, GET1 (WRB) and CAML form a receptor which enables integration of the TA protein within the lipid bilayer. We report an individual with the homozygous c.633 + 4A > G splice variant in CAMLG, encoding CAML. This variant leads to aberrant splicing and lack of functional protein in patient-derived fibroblasts. The patient displays a predominantly neurological phenotype with psychomotor disability, hypotonia, epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities. Biochemically, a combined O-linked and type II N-linked glycosylation defect was found. Mislocalization of syntaxin-5 in patient fibroblasts and in siCAMLG deleted Hela cells confirms this as a consistent cellular marker of TRC dysfunction. Interestingly, the level of the v-SNARE Bet1L is also drastically reduced in both of these models, indicating a fundamental role of the TRC complex in the assembly of Golgi SNARE complexes. It also points towards a possible mechanism behind the hyposialylation of N and O-glycans. This is the first reported patient with pathogenic variants in CAMLG. CAMLG-CDG is the third disorder, after GET4 and GET3 deficiencies, caused by pathogenic variants in a member of the TRC pathway, further expanding this novel group of disorders.
  24. J Biol Chem. 2022 Mar 03. pii: S0021-9258(22)00236-8. [Epub ahead of print] 101796
      All cells possess an internal stress response to cope with environmental and pathophysiological challenges. Upon stress, cells reprogram their molecular functions to activate a survival mechanism known as the heat shock response (HSR), which mediates the rapid induction of molecular chaperones such as the heat shock proteins (HSPs). This potent production overcomes the general suppression of gene expression and results in high levels of HSPs to subsequently refold or degrade misfolded proteins. Once the damage or stress is repaired or removed, cells terminate the production of HSPs and resume regular functions. Thus, fulfillment of the stress response requires swift and robust coordination between stress response activation and completion that is determined by the status of the cell. In recent years, single-cell fluorescence microscopy techniques have begun to be used in unravelling HSP the gene expression pathways, from DNA transcription to mRNA degradation. In this review, we will address the molecular mechanisms in different organisms and cell types that coordinate the expression of HSPs to activate signaling networks that act to reprogram gene transcription, mRNA translation and decay, and ensure protein quality control.
    Keywords:  Heat Shock Factor 1; Heat Shock Proteins; Heat Shock Response; acclimation; gene expression; mRNA decay; proteostasis; stress-regulated translation
  25. PLoS Pathog. 2022 Mar 07. 18(3): e1010356
      Post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier, SUMO can modulate the activity of its conjugated proteins in a plethora of cellular contexts. The effect of SUMO conjugation of proteins during an immune response is poorly understood in Drosophila. We have previously identified that the transcription factor Jra, the Drosophila Jun ortholog and a member of the AP-1 complex is one such SUMO target. Here, we find that Jra is a regulator of the Pseudomonas entomophila induced gut immune gene regulatory network, modulating the expression of a few thousand genes, as measured by quantitative RNA sequencing. Decrease in Jra in gut enterocytes is protective, suggesting that reduction of Jra signaling favors the host over the pathogen. In Jra, lysines 29 and 190 are SUMO conjugation targets, with the JraK29R+K190R double mutant being SUMO conjugation resistant (SCR). Interestingly, a JraSCR fly line, generated by CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing, is more sensitive to infection, with adults showing a weakened host response and increased proliferation of Pseudomonas. Transcriptome analysis of the guts of JraSCR and JraWT flies suggests that lack of SUMOylation of Jra significantly changes core elements of the immune gene regulatory network, which include antimicrobial agents, secreted ligands, feedback regulators, and transcription factors. Mechanistically, SUMOylation attenuates Jra activity, with the TFs, forkhead, anterior open, activating transcription factor 3 and the master immune regulator Relish being important transcriptional targets. Our study implicates Jra as a major immune regulator, with dynamic SUMO conjugation/deconjugation of Jra modulating the kinetics of the gut immune response.
  26. EMBO J. 2022 Mar 09. e109992
      Epithelial wound healing in Drosophila involves the formation of multinucleate cells surrounding the wound. We show that autophagy, a cellular degradation process often deployed in stress responses, is required for the formation of a multinucleated syncytium during wound healing, and that autophagosomes that appear near the wound edge acquire plasma membrane markers. In addition, uncontrolled autophagy in the unwounded epidermis leads to the degradation of endo-membranes and the lateral plasma membrane, while apical and basal membranes and epithelial barrier function remain intact. Proper functioning of TORC1 is needed to prevent destruction of the larval epidermis by autophagy, in a process that depends on phagophore initiation and expansion but does not require autophagosomes fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy induction can also affect other sub-cellular membranes, as shown by its suppression of experimentally induced laminopathy-like nuclear defects. Our findings reveal a function for TORC1-mediated regulation of autophagy in maintaining membrane integrity and homeostasis in the epidermis and during wound healing.
    Keywords:  cell junction; gut barrier; myosin; nuclear morphology; wound healing
  27. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 09. 13(1): 1224
      During the co-translational assembly of protein complexes, a fully synthesized subunit engages with the nascent chain of a newly synthesized interaction partner. Such events are thought to contribute to productive assembly, but their exact physiological relevance remains underexplored. Here, we examine structural motifs contained in nucleoporins for their potential to facilitate co-translational assembly. We experimentally test candidate structural motifs and identify several previously unknown co-translational interactions. We demonstrate by selective ribosome profiling that domain invasion motifs of beta-propellers, coiled-coils, and short linear motifs may act as co-translational assembly domains. Such motifs are often contained in proteins that are members of multiple complexes (moonlighters) and engage with closely related paralogs. Surprisingly, moonlighters and paralogs assemble co-translationally in only some but not all of the relevant biogenesis pathways. Our results highlight the regulatory complexity of assembly pathways.
  28. Cancer Lett. 2022 Mar 02. pii: S0304-3835(22)00079-9. [Epub ahead of print]534 215604
      Breast cancer mortality remains unacceptably high, indicating a need for safer and more effective therapeutic agents. Disulfide bond Disrupting Agents (DDAs) were previously identified as a novel class of anticancer compounds that selectively kill cancers that overexpress the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) or its family member HER2. DDAs kill EGFR+ and HER2+ cancer cells via the parallel downregulation of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 and activation/oligomerization of Death Receptors 4 and 5 (DR4/5). However, the mechanisms by which DDAs mediate these effects are unknown. Affinity purification analyses employing biotinylated-DDAs reveal that the Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) family members AGR2, PDIA1, and ERp44 are DDA target proteins. Further analyses demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of AGR2 and ERp44, or expression of ERp44 mutants, enhance basal DR5 oligomerization. DDA treatment of breast cancer cells disrupts PDIA1 and ERp44 mixed disulfide bonds with their client proteins. Together, the results herein reveal DDAs as the first small molecule, active site inhibitors of AGR2 and ERp44, and demonstrate roles for AGR2 and ERp44 in regulating the activity, stability, and localization of DR4 and DR5, and activation of Caspase 8.
    Keywords:  Caspase 8; Disulfide bond disrupting agents; Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1; Protein disulfide isomerase; Protein folding
  29. Sci Rep. 2022 Mar 10. 12(1): 3906
      NOD2 polymorphisms may affect sensing of the bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and trigger perturbed inflammatory responses. Genetic screening of a patient with immunodeficiency and enteropathy revealed a rare homozygous missense mutation in the first CARD domain of NOD2 (ENST00000300589; c.160G > A, p.E54K). Biochemical assays confirmed impaired NOD2-dependent signaling and proinflammatory cytokine production in patient's cells and heterologous cellular models with overexpression of the NOD2 mutant. Immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry unveiled the ATPase valosin-containing protein (VCP) as novel interaction partner of wildtype NOD2, while the binding to the NOD2 variant p.E54K was abrogated. Knockdown of VCP in coloncarcinoma cells led to impaired NF-κB activity and IL8 expression upon MDP stimulation. In contrast, tunicamycin-induced ER stress resulted in increased IL8, CXCL1, and CXCL2 production in cells with knockdown of VCP, while enhanced expression of these proinflammatory molecules was abolished upon knockout of NOD2. Taken together, these data suggest that VCP-mediated inflammatory responses upon ER stress are NOD2-dependent.
  30. Sci Transl Med. 2022 Mar 09. 14(635): eabb7695
      Dysregulation of innate immune signaling pathways is implicated in various hematologic malignancies. However, these pathways have not been systematically examined in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We report that AML hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) exhibit a high frequency of dysregulated innate immune-related and inflammatory pathways, referred to as oncogenic immune signaling states. Through gene expression analyses and functional studies in human AML cell lines and patient-derived samples, we found that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2N is required for leukemic cell function in vitro and in vivo by maintaining oncogenic immune signaling states. It is known that the enzyme function of UBE2N can be inhibited by interfering with thioester formation between ubiquitin and the active site. We performed in silico structure-based and cellular-based screens and identified two related small-molecule inhibitors UC-764864/65 that targeted UBE2N at its active site. Using these small-molecule inhibitors as chemical probes, we further revealed the therapeutic efficacy of interfering with UBE2N function. This resulted in the blocking of ubiquitination of innate immune- and inflammatory-related substrates in human AML cell lines. Inhibition of UBE2N function disrupted oncogenic immune signaling by promoting cell death of leukemic HSPCs while sparing normal HSPCs in vitro. Moreover, baseline oncogenic immune signaling states in leukemic cells derived from discrete subsets of patients with AML exhibited a selective dependency on UBE2N function in vitro and in vivo. Our study reveals that interfering with UBE2N abrogates leukemic HSPC function and underscores the dependency of AML cells on UBE2N-dependent oncogenic immune signaling states.
  31. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 03 15. 119(11): e2113074119
      SignificanceWith obesity on the rise, there is a growing appreciation for intracellular lipid droplet (LD) regulation. Here, we show how saturated fatty acids (SFAs) reduce fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2)-facilitated, pancreatic β cell LD biogenesis, which in turn induces β cell dysfunction and death, leading to diabetes. This mechanism involves direct acylation of FIT2 cysteine residues, which then marks the FIT2 protein for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. Loss of β cell FIT2 and LDs reduces insulin secretion, increases intracellular ceramides, stimulates ER stress, and exacerbates diet-induced diabetes in mice. While palmitate and stearate degrade FIT2, unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleate and oleate do not, results of which extend to nutrition and diabetes.
    Keywords:  ER stress; FIT2; diet-induced diabetes; lipid droplets; pancreatic β cells
  32. Elife. 2022 Mar 08. pii: e73982. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Characterization of cell surface proteome differences between cancer and healthy cells is a valuable approach for the identification of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. However, selective sampling of surface proteins for proteomics requires large samples (>10e6 cells) and long labeling times. These limitations preclude analysis of material-limited biological samples or the capture of rapid surface proteomic changes. Here, we present two labeling approaches to tether exogenous peroxidases (APEX2 and HRP) directly to cells, enabling rapid, small-scale cell surface biotinylation without the need to engineer cells. We used a novel lipidated DNA-tethered APEX2 (DNA-APEX2), which upon addition to cells promoted cell agnostic membrane-proximal labeling. Alternatively, we employed horseradish peroxidase (HRP) fused to the glycan binding domain of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP). This approach yielded a rapid and commercially inexpensive means to directly label cells containing common N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and sialic acid glycans on their surface. The facile WGA-HRP method permitted high surface coverage of cellular samples and enabled the first comparative surface proteome characterization of cells and cell-derived small extracellular vesicles (EV), leading to the robust quantification of 953 cell and EV surface annotated proteins. We identified a newly-recognized subset of EV-enriched markers, as well as proteins that are uniquely upregulated on Myc oncogene-transformed prostate cancer EVs. These two cell-tethered enzyme surface biotinylation approaches are highly advantageous for rapidly and directly labeling surface proteins across a range of material-limited sample types.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; cancer biology; chemical biology; human
  33. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 10. 13(1): 1265
      Predicting the structure of interacting protein chains is a fundamental step towards understanding protein function. Unfortunately, no computational method can produce accurate structures of protein complexes. AlphaFold2, has shown unprecedented levels of accuracy in modelling single chain protein structures. Here, we apply AlphaFold2 for the prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes. We find that the AlphaFold2 protocol together with optimised multiple sequence alignments, generate models with acceptable quality (DockQ ≥ 0.23) for 63% of the dimers. From the predicted interfaces we create a simple function to predict the DockQ score which distinguishes acceptable from incorrect models as well as interacting from non-interacting proteins with state-of-art accuracy. We find that, using the predicted DockQ scores, we can identify 51% of all interacting pairs at 1% FPR.