bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2022‒02‒13
thirty-five papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 07. 1-18
      Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates with high morbidity and mortality. EBOV infection is dependent on its structural glycoprotein (GP), but high levels of GP expression also trigger cell rounding, detachment, and downregulation of many surface molecules that is thought to contribute to its high pathogenicity. Thus, EBOV has evolved an RNA editing mechanism to reduce its GP expression and increase its fitness. We now report that the GP expression is also suppressed at the protein level in cells by protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). Although PDIs promote oxidative protein folding by catalyzing correct disulfide formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), PDIA3/ERp57 adversely triggered the GP misfolding by targeting GP cysteine residues and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Abnormally folded GP was targeted by ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery and, unexpectedly, was degraded via the macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosomal pathway, but not the proteasomal pathway. PDIA3 also decreased the GP expression from other ebolavirus species but increased the GP expression from Marburg virus (MARV), which is consistent with the observation that MARV-GP does not cause cell rounding and detachment, and MARV does not regulate its GP expression via RNA editing during infection. Furthermore, five other PDIs also had a similar inhibitory activity to EBOV-GP. Thus, PDIs negatively regulate ebolavirus glycoprotein expression, which balances the viral life cycle by maximizing their infection but minimizing their cellular effect. We suggest that ebolaviruses hijack the host protein folding and ERAD machinery to increase their fitness via reticulophagy during infection.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; 4-PBA: 4-phenylbutyrate; ACTB: β-actin; ATF: activating transcription factor; ATG: autophagy-related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BDBV: Bundibugyo ebolavirus; CALR: calreticulin; CANX: calnexin; CHX: cycloheximide; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; ConA: concanamycin A; CRISPR: clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; Cas9: CRISPR-associated protein 9; dsRNA: double-stranded RNA; EBOV: Zaire ebolavirus; EDEM: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; Env: envelope glycoprotein; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated protein degradation; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; GP: glycoprotein; HA: hemagglutinin; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HMM: high-molecular-mass; HIV-1: human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSPA5/BiP: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; IAV: influenza A virus; IP: immunoprecipitation; KIF: kifenesine; Lac: lactacystin; LAMP: lysosomal associated membrane protein; MAN1B1/ERManI: mannosidase alpha class 1B member 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MARV: Marburg virus; MLD: mucin-like domain; NHK/SERPINA1: alpha1-antitrypsin variant null (Hong Kong); NTZ: nitazoxanide; PDI: protein disulfide isomerase; RAVV: Ravn virus; RESTV: Reston ebolavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SBOV: Sudan ebolavirus; sGP: soluble GP; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ssGP: small soluble GP; TAFV: Taï Forest ebolavirus; TIZ: tizoxanide; TGN: thapsigargin; TLD: TXN (thioredoxin)-like domain; Ub: ubiquitin; UPR: unfolded protein response; VLP: virus-like particle; VSV: vesicular stomatitis virus; WB: Western blotting; WT: wild-type; XBP1: X-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; ER-phagy; ERAD; ERp57; EVD; ebola; filoviruses; glycoproteins; lysosomes; reticulophagy
  2. Curr Biol. 2022 Feb 01. pii: S0960-9822(22)00093-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy targets cytoplasmic materials for degradation and influences cell health. Organelle contact and trafficking systems provide membranes for autophagosome formation, but how different membrane systems are selected for use during autophagy remains unclear. Here, we report a novel function of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) in the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation that influences autophagy. The ESCRT functions in a pathway upstream of Vps13D to influence COPII vesicle transport, ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) assembly, and autophagosome formation. Atg9 functions downstream of the ESCRT to facilitate ERGIC and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, cells lacking either ESCRT or Vps13D functions exhibit dilated ER structures that are similar to cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia patient cells with SEC23A mutations, which encodes a component of COPII vesicles. Our data reveal a novel ESCRT-dependent pathway that influences the ERGIC and autophagosome formation.
    Keywords:  Atg9; Drosophila; ESCRT; Vps13D; autophagy
  3. Cell Chem Biol. 2022 Feb 07. pii: S2451-9456(22)00002-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is associated with impairment of cellular function in diverse diseases, especially the function of pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetes. Restoration of ER proteostasis by small molecules shows therapeutic promise for type 2 diabetes. Here, using cell-based screening, we report identification of a chemical chaperone-like small molecule, KM04794, that alleviates ER stress. KM04794 prevented protein aggregation and cell death caused by ER stressors and a mutant insulin protein. We also found that this compound increased intracellular and secreted insulin levels in pancreatic β cells. Chemical biology and biochemical approaches revealed that the compound accumulated in the ER and interacted directly with the ER molecular chaperone BiP. Our data show that this corrector of ER proteostasis can enhance insulin storage and pancreatic β cell function.
    Keywords:  BiP; ER stress; chemical chaperone; insulin; pancreatic β cell; unfolded protein response
  4. Bioinformatics. 2022 Feb 09. pii: btac069. [Epub ahead of print]
      MOTIVATION: Ubiquitination is widely involved in protein homeostasis and cell signaling. Ubiquitin E3 ligases are critical regulators of ubiquitination that recognize and recruit specific ubiquitination targets for the final rate-limiting step of ubiquitin transfer reactions. Understanding the ubiquitin E3 ligase activities will provide knowledge in the upstream regulator of the ubiquitination pathway and reveal potential mechanisms in biological processes and disease progression. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled deep profiling of ubiquitylome in a quantitative manner. Yet, functional analysis of ubiquitylome dynamics and pathway activity remains challenging.RESULTS: Here, we developed a UbE3-APA, a computational algorithm and stand-alone python-based software for Ub E3 ligase Activity Profiling Analysis. Combining an integrated annotation database with statistical analysis, UbE3-APA identifies significantly activated or suppressed E3 ligases based on quantitative ubiquitylome proteomics datasets. Benchmarking the software with published quantitative ubiquitylome analysis confirms the genetic manipulation of SPOP enzyme activity through overexpression and mutation. Application of the algorithm in the re-analysis of a large cohort of ubiquitination proteomics study revealed the activation of PARKIN and the co-activation of other E3 ligases in mitochondria depolarization-induced mitophagy process. We further demonstrated the application of the algorithm in the DIA-based quantitative ubiquitylome analysis.
    AVAILABILITY: Source code and binaries are freely available for download at URL:, implemented in python and supported on Linux and MS Windows.
    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
  5. Biochem Soc Trans. 2022 Feb 07. pii: BST20210731. [Epub ahead of print]
      Due to its fundamental role in all eukaryotic cells, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ubiquitination is of central importance. Being responsible for chain specificity and substrate recognition, E3 ligases are the selective elements of the ubiquitination process. In this review, we discuss different cellular pathways regulated by one of the first identified E3 ligase, NEDD4, focusing on its pathophysiological role, its known targets and modulators. In addition, we highlight small molecule inhibitors that act on NEDD4 and discuss new strategies to effectively target this E3 enzyme.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4; cancer; enzyme activity; metabolism; ubiquitin signaling
  6. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Feb 07. 79(2): 124
      Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) display cytoprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. These endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident proteins belong to the same protein family and function as ER stress regulators. The relationship between CDNF and MANF function, as well as their capability for functional compensation, is unknown. We aimed to investigate these questions by generating mice lacking both CDNF and MANF. Results showed that CDNF-deficient Manf-/- mice presented the same phenotypes of growth defect and diabetes as Manf-/- mice. In the muscle, CDNF deficiency resulted in increased activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which was aggravated when MANF was ablated. In the brain, the combined loss of CDNF and MANF did not exacerbate UPR activation caused by the loss of MANF alone. Consequently, CDNF and MANF deficiency in the brain did not cause degeneration of dopamine neurons. In conclusion, CDNF and MANF present functional redundancy in the muscle, but not in the other tissues examined here. Thus, they regulate the UPR in a tissue-specific manner.
    Keywords:  CDNF; Dopamine; ER stress; MANF; UPR
  7. Sci Transl Med. 2022 Feb 09. 14(631): eabh3763
      The Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease affecting many organs with life-threatening consequences; currently, no treatment is available. The disease is caused by mutations in the WSF1 gene, coding for the protein wolframin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein involved in contacts between ER and mitochondria termed as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). Inherited mutations usually reduce the protein's stability, altering its homeostasis and ultimately reducing ER to mitochondria calcium ion transfer, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. In this study, we found that activation of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R), an ER-resident protein involved in calcium ion transfer, could counteract the functional alterations of MAMs due to wolframin deficiency. The S1R agonist PRE-084 restored calcium ion transfer and mitochondrial respiration in vitro, corrected the associated increased autophagy and mitophagy, and was able to alleviate the behavioral symptoms observed in zebrafish and mouse models of the disease. Our findings provide a potential therapeutic strategy for treating Wolfram syndrome by efficiently boosting MAM function using the ligand-operated S1R chaperone. Moreover, such strategy might also be relevant for other degenerative and mitochondrial diseases involving MAM dysfunction.
  8. Nat Aging. 2021 Sep;1(9): 760-768
      Healthy aging requires the coordination of numerous stress signaling pathways that converge on the protein homeostasis network. The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is activated by diverse stimuli, leading to phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor elF2 in its α-subunit. Under replete conditions, elF2 orchestrates 5' cap-dependent mRNA translation and is thus responsible for general protein synthesis. elF2α phosphorylation, the key event of the ISR, reduces global mRNA translation while enhancing the expression of a signature set of stress response genes. Despite the critical role of protein quality control in healthy aging and in numerous longevity pathways, the role of the ISR in longevity remains largely unexplored. ISR activity increases with age, suggesting a potential link with the aging process. Although decreased protein biosynthesis, which occurs during ISR activation, have been linked to lifespan extension, recent data show that lifespan is limited by the ISR as its inhibition extends survival in nematodes and enhances cognitive function in aged mice. Here we survey how aging affects the ISR, the role of the ISR in modulating aging, and pharmacological interventions to tune the ISR. Finally, we will explore the ISR as a plausible target for clinical interventions in aging and age-related disease.
  9. Mol Cell. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S1097-2765(22)00005-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Stresses such as heat shock trigger the formation of protein aggregates and the induction of a disaggregation system composed of molecular chaperones. Recent work reveals that several cases of apparent heat-induced aggregation, long thought to be the result of toxic misfolding, instead reflect evolved, adaptive biomolecular condensation, with chaperone activity contributing to condensate regulation. Here we show that the yeast disaggregation system directly disperses heat-induced biomolecular condensates of endogenous poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1) orders of magnitude more rapidly than aggregates of the most commonly used misfolded model substrate, firefly luciferase. Beyond its efficiency, heat-induced condensate dispersal differs from heat-induced aggregate dispersal in its molecular requirements and mechanistic behavior. Our work establishes a bona fide endogenous heat-induced substrate for long-studied heat shock proteins, isolates a specific example of chaperone regulation of condensates, and underscores needed expansion of the proteotoxic interpretation of the heat shock response to encompass adaptive, chaperone-mediated regulation.
    Keywords:  biomolecular condensates; cell stress; disaggregation; heat shock; molecular chaperones; stress response
  10. J Biol Chem. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S0021-9258(22)00137-5. [Epub ahead of print] 101697
      Chaperones of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family engage in protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with many co-chaperones to modulate their functions. One "hotspot" for co-chaperone binding is the EEVD motif, found at the extreme C-terminus of cytoplasmic Hsp70s. This motif is known to bind tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain co-chaperones, such as the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. In addition, the EEVD motif also interacts with a structurally distinct domain that is present in Class B J-domain proteins (JDPs), such as DnaJB4. These observations suggest that CHIP and DnaJB4 might compete for binding to Hsp70's EEVD motif; however, the molecular determinants of such competition are not clear. Using a collection of EEVD-derived peptides, including mutations and truncations, we explored which residues are critical for binding to both CHIP and DnaJB4 in parallel. These results revealed that some features, such as the C-terminal carboxylate, are important for both interactions. However, CHIP and DnaJB4 also had unique preferences, especially at the isoleucine position immediately adjacent to the EEVD. Finally, we show that competition between these co-chaperones is important in vitro, as DnaJB4 limits the ubiquitination activity of the Hsp70-CHIP complex, while CHIP suppresses the client re-folding activity of the Hsp70-DnaJB4 complex. Together, these data suggest that the EEVD motif has evolved to support diverse PPIs, such that competition between co-chaperones may help guide whether Hsp70-bound proteins are folded or degraded.
    Keywords:  J-domain protein; fluorescence polarization; molecular chaperone; peptide-protein interaction; protein folding; protein-protein interaction; tetratricopeptide repeat; ubiquitination
  11. J Exp Bot. 2022 Feb 09. pii: erac037. [Epub ahead of print]
      The inner nuclear membrane (INM) hosts a unique set of membrane proteins that play essential roles in various aspects of the nuclear function. However, overaccumulation or malfunction of INM protein has been associated with a range of rare genetic diseases; therefore, maintaining the homeostasis and integrity of INM proteins by active removal of aberrantly accumulated proteins and replacing defective molecules through proteolysis is of critical importance. Within the last decade, it has been shown that INM proteins are degraded in yeasts by a process very similar to the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), which is accomplished by retrotranslocation of membrane substrates followed by proteasome-dependent proteolysis, and this process was named inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD). INMAD is distinguished from ERAD by specific INM-localized E3 ubiquitin ligases and proteolysis regulators. While much is yet to be determined about the INMAD pathway in yeasts, virtually no knowledge of it exists for higher eukaryotes, and only very recently several critical regulators that participate in INM protein degradation have been discovered in plants. Here, we review key molecular components of the INMAD pathway and draw parallels between the yeast and plant system to discuss promising directions in the future study of the plant INMAD process.
    Keywords:  CDC48; INMAD; Inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation; inner nuclear membrane proteins; plant ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing proteins; ubiquitin-proteasome system
  12. Am J Cancer Res. 2022 ;12(1): 327-336
      Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 (STAMP2) is critical for prostate cancer (PCa) growth. We previously showed that STAMP2 regulates the expression of stress induced transcription factor ATF4, which is implicated in starvation-induced autophagy. We therefore investigated whether STAMP2 is involved in the regulation of autophagy in PCa cells. Here we show that STAMP2 suppresses autophagy in PCa cells through modulation of the integrated stress response axis. We also find that STAMP2 regulates mitochondrial respiration. These findings suggest that STAMP2 has significant metabolic effects through mitochondrial function and autophagy, both of which support PCa growth.
    Keywords:  ATF4; Prostate cancer; STAMP2; autophagy; eIF2α; integrated stress response; mitochondria
  13. Mol Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 10.
      Reduced somatostatin (SST) and dysfunction of SST-positive (SST+) neurons are hallmarks of neurological disorders and associated with mood disturbances, but the molecular origin of SST+ neuron vulnerability is unknown. Using chronic psychosocial stress as a paradigm to induce elevated behavioral emotionality in rodents, we report a selective vulnerability of SST+ neurons through exacerbated unfolded protein response (UPR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or ER stress, in the prefrontal cortex. We next show that genetically suppressing ER stress in SST+ neurons, but not in pyramidal neurons, normalized behavioral emotionality induced by psychosocial stress. In search for intrinsic factors mediating SST+ neuron vulnerability, we found that the forced expression of the SST precursor protein (preproSST) in SST+ neurons, mimicking psychosocial stress-induced early proteomic changes, induces ER stress, whereas mature SST or processing-incompetent preproSST does not. Biochemical analyses further show that psychosocial stress induces SST protein aggregation under elevated ER stress conditions. These results demonstrate that SST processing in the ER is a SST+ neuron-intrinsic vulnerability factor under conditions of sustained or over-activated UPR, hence negatively impacting SST+ neuron functions. Combined with observations in major medical illness, such as diabetes, where excess ER processing of preproinsulin similarly causes ER stress and β cell dysfunction, this suggests a universal mechanism for proteinopathy that is induced by excess processing of native endogenous proteins, playing critical pathophysiological roles that extend to neuropsychiatric disorders.
  14. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 11. 13(1): 838
      The proteasome recognizes ubiquitinated proteins and can also edit ubiquitin marks, allowing substrates to be rejected based on ubiquitin chain topology. In yeast, editing is mediated by deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp6. The proteasome activates Ubp6, whereas Ubp6 inhibits the proteasome through deubiquitination and a noncatalytic effect. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of the proteasome bound to Ubp6, based on which we identify mutants in Ubp6 and proteasome subunit Rpt1 that abrogate Ubp6 activation. The Ubp6 mutations define a conserved region that we term the ILR element. The ILR is found within the BL1 loop, which obstructs the catalytic groove in free Ubp6. Rpt1-ILR interaction opens the groove by rearranging not only BL1 but also a previously undescribed network of three interconnected active-site-blocking loops. Ubp6 activation and noncatalytic proteasome inhibition are linked in that they are eliminated by the same mutations. Ubp6 and ubiquitin together drive proteasomes into a unique conformation associated with proteasome inhibition. Thus, a multicomponent allosteric switch exerts simultaneous control over both Ubp6 and the proteasome.
  15. Nat Commun. 2022 Feb 10. 13(1): 810
      N-terminal protein acetylation (NTA) is a prevalent protein modification essential for viability in animals and plants. The dominant executor of NTA is the ribosome tethered Nα-acetyltransferase A (NatA) complex. However, the impact of NatA on protein fate is still enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of NatA activity leads to a 4-fold increase in global protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome system in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, a concomitant increase in translation, actioned via enhanced Target-of-Rapamycin activity, is also observed, implying that defective NTA triggers feedback mechanisms to maintain steady-state protein abundance. Quantitative analysis of the proteome, the translatome, and the ubiquitome reveals that NatA substrates account for the bulk of this enhanced turnover. A targeted analysis of NatA substrate stability uncovers that NTA absence triggers protein destabilization via a previously undescribed and widely conserved nonAc/N-degron in plants. Hence, the imprinting of the proteome with acetylation marks is essential for coordinating proteome stability.
  16. Dev Biol. 2022 Feb 05. pii: S0012-1606(22)00016-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neuronal target recognition is performed by numerous cell-surface transmembrane proteins. Correct folding of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen of the neuronal cells before being transported to the plasma membrane of axons or dendrites. Disturbance in this protein folding process in the ER leads to dysfunction of neuronal cell surface molecules, resulting in abnormal neuronal targeting. In this study, we report that the ER-resident protein Meigo in Drosophila, governs the dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) along the mediolateral axis of the antennal lobe by regulating Toll-6 localization. Loss of Meigo causes Toll-6 mislocalization in the PNs and mediolateral dendrite targeting defects, both of which are suppressed by Toll-6 overexpression. Furthermore, we found that the ER-chaperone protein, Gp93, also regulates the mediolateral targeting of PN dendrites by localization of the Toll-6 protein. Gp93 overexpression in the PN homozygous for the meigo mutation, partially rescued the dendrite targeting defect, while meigo knockdown decreased Gp93 expression levels in cultured cells. These results indicate that the ER-proteins Meigo and Gp93 regulate dendrite targeting by attenuating the amount and localization of cell surface receptors, including Toll-6, implying the unexpected but active involvement of ER proteins in neural wiring.
    Keywords:  Dendrite targeting; Drosophila; Endoplasmic reticulum; Gp93; Meigo; Toll-6
  17. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2022 Feb 07.
      The ER-resident Hsp70 paralog BiP is important in cellular homeostasis as well as in cancer cell progression. Although several BiP inhibitors have been developed, they have not succeeded in clinical trials due to toxicity issues. ER-resident co-chaperones (ERdjs) tailor the activity and specificity of BiP. Here, we report multiple-cancer analyses of BiP and ERdj genomic alterations including mRNA expression from cancer patients using available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We examine the individual roles of BiP co-chaperones ERdj1-8 in mediating anticancer drug resistance through chemogenomic screening of ERdj1-8 CRISPR KO cells. In keeping with the idea that ERdjs regulate distinct facets of proteostasis, we find that each ERdj KO displays a unique signature of drug resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel way to understand functional specificity of ERdjs, suggesting a future personalized medicine approach, whereby ERdj mutation status is assessed to design an effective anticancer treatment plan.
    Keywords:  Anticancer drug resistance; BiP; Endoplasmic reticulum j-domain proteins (ERdjs)
  18. RSC Chem Biol. 2022 Jan 05. 3(1): 96-111
      The development of phenotypic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) has enabled screening and identification of phenotypically active small molecules that restore complex biological pathways affected by PD toxicity. While these phenotypic screening platforms are powerful, they do not inherently enable direct identification of the cellular targets of promising lead compounds. To overcome this, chemoproteomic platforms like Thermal Proteome Profiling (TPP) and Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX) can be implemented to reveal protein targets of biologically active small molecules. Here we utilize both of these chemoproteomic strategies to identify targets of an N-arylbenzimidazole compound, NAB2, which was previously identified for its ability to restore viability in cellular models of PD-associated α-synuclein toxicity. The combined results from our TPP and SPROX analyses of NAB2 and the proteins in a neuroblastoma-derived SHSY5Y cell lysate reveal a previously unrecognized protein target of NAB2. This newly recognized target, Rab1a, is a small GTPase that acts as a molecular switch to regulate ER-to-Golgi trafficking, a process that is disrupted by α-synuclein toxicity and restored by NAB2 treatment. Further validation reveals that NAB2 binds to Rab1a with selectivity for its GDP-bound form and that NAB2 treatment phenocopies Rab1a overexpression in alleviation of α-synuclein toxicity. Finally, we conduct a preliminary investigation into the relationship between Rab1a and the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4, a previously identified NAB2 target. Together, these efforts expand our understanding of the mechanism of NAB2 in the alleviation of α-synuclein toxicity and reinforce the utility of chemoproteomic identification of the targets of phenotypically active small molecules that regulate complex biological pathways.
  19. Elife. 2022 Feb 10. pii: e71928. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Vertebrate Delta/Notch signaling involves multiple ligands, receptors and transcription factors. Delta endocytosis - a critical event for Notch activation - is however essentially controlled by the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb1 (Mib1). Mib1 inactivation is therefore often used to inhibit Notch signaling. However, recent findings indicate that Mib1 function extends beyond the Notch pathway. We report a novel Notch-independent role of Mib1 in zebrafish gastrulation. mib1 null mutants and morphants display impaired Convergence Extension (CE) movements. Comparison of different mib1 mutants and functional rescue experiments indicate that Mib1 controls CE independently of Notch. Mib1-dependent CE defects can be rescued using the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) downstream mediator RhoA, or enhanced through knock-down of the PCP ligand Wnt5b. Mib1 regulates CE through its RING Finger domains that have been implicated in substrate ubiquitination, suggesting that Mib1 may control PCP protein trafficking. Accordingly, we show that Mib1 controls the endocytosis of the PCP component Ryk and that Ryk internalization is required for CE. Numerous morphogenetic processes involve both Notch and PCP signaling. Our observation that during zebrafish gastrulation Mib1 exerts a Notch-independent control of PCP-dependent CE movements suggest that Mib1 loss of function phenotypes should be cautiously interpreted depending on the biological context.
    Keywords:  developmental biology; zebrafish
  20. Sci Immunol. 2022 Feb 11. 7(68): eabi6763
      Proteasome dysfunction can lead to autoinflammatory disease associated with elevated type I interferon (IFN-αβ) and NF-κB signaling; however, the innate immune pathway driving this is currently unknown. Here, we identified protein kinase R (PKR) as an innate immune sensor for proteotoxic stress. PKR activation was observed in cellular models of decreased proteasome function and in multiple cell types from patients with proteasome-associated autoinflammatory disease (PRAAS). Furthermore, genetic deletion or small-molecule inhibition of PKR in vitro ameliorated inflammation driven by proteasome deficiency. In vivo, proteasome inhibitor-induced inflammatory gene transcription was blunted in PKR-deficient mice compared with littermate controls. PKR also acted as a rheostat for proteotoxic stress by triggering phosphorylation of eIF2α, which can prevent the translation of new proteins to restore homeostasis. Although traditionally known as a sensor of RNA, under conditions of proteasome dysfunction, PKR sensed the cytoplasmic accumulation of a known interactor, interleukin-24 (IL-24). When misfolded IL-24 egress into the cytosol was blocked by inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, PKR activation and subsequent inflammatory signaling were blunted. Cytokines such as IL-24 are normally secreted from cells; therefore, cytoplasmic accumulation of IL-24 represents an internal danger-associated molecular pattern. Thus, we have identified a mechanism by which proteotoxic stress is detected, causing inflammation observed in the disease PRAAS.
  21. Oncogene. 2022 Feb 12.
      CBL family proteins (CBL, CBLB and CBLC in mammals) are E3 ubiquitin ligases of protein tyrosine kinases. CBL mediates the lysosomal degradation of activated EGFR through K63-linked ubiquitination, while CBLC has an oncogenic function by positively regulating EGFR activation through K6 and K11-linked ubiquitination in EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). Here, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to study the CBLC interactome, and found that CBLC is also involved in cell cycle regulation by stabilizing Aurora kinase A (AURKA). CBLC interacted with the kinase domain of AURKA and positively regulated the stability of AURKA by conjugating monoubiquitination and K11/K63-linked polyubiquitination, which are protective from degrading K11/K48 polyubiquitination. CBLC depletion markedly decreased the half-life of AURKA in cycloheximide-treated LAD cells. When LAD cells were synchronized with double thymidine block at the G1/S boundary and then released into mitotic arrest, CBLC depletion delayed the accumulation and activation of AURKA and prevented cancer cells from entering mitosis. CBLC deficiency significantly delayed cell cycle progression, reduced the mitotic population, and increased apoptosis of LAD cells. Targeting CBLC inhibited tumor growth of LAD cells and enhanced their sensitivity to paclitaxel in xenograft models. Immunohistochemical staining of the tissue microarray also revealed a positive correlation between the expression of CBLC and AURKA in normal and LAD tissues, further supporting the positive regulation of AURKA expression by CBLC. In summary, these findings indicate that the oncogenic E3 ligase CBLC plays a role in mitotic entry by stabilizing AURKA via ubiquitination in LAD. This work demonstrates that targeting CBLC combined with paclitaxel might be a potential option for the treatment of LAD patients who have no available targeted therapies.
  22. J Am Chem Soc. 2022 Feb 09.
      O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a prevalent protein modification that plays fundamental roles in both cell physiology and pathology. O-GlcNAc is catalyzed solely by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). The study of protein O-GlcNAc function is limited by the lack of tools to control OGT activity with spatiotemporal resolution in cells. Here, we report light control of OGT activity in cells by replacing a catalytically essential lysine residue with a genetically encoded photocaged lysine. This enables the expression of a transiently inactivated form of OGT, which can be rapidly reactivated by photo-decaging. We demonstrate the activation of OGT activity by monitoring the time-dependent increase of cellular O-GlcNAc and profile glycoproteins using mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. We further apply this activation strategy to control the morphological contraction of fibroblasts. Furthermore, we achieved spatial activation of OGT activity predominantly in the cytosol. Thus, our approach provides a valuable chemical tool to control cellular O-GlcNAc with much needed spatiotemporal precision, which aids in a better understanding of O-GlcNAc function.
  23. Cancer Lett. 2022 Feb 04. pii: S0304-3835(22)00055-6. [Epub ahead of print] 215586
      Aberrant cancer metabolism contributes to cell proliferation and tumor progression. However, the contribution of enhanced glycolysis, observed during cancer metabolism, to the pathogenesis and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. CYLD, an NF-κB inhibitor, is frequently deficient in NPC. Here, we investigated the role of CYLD in the metabolic reprogramming of NPC and found that restoration of CYLD expression suppressed glycolysis in NPC cells. Mechanistic dissection showed that CYLD stabilized p53 and facilitated its nuclear translocation, thereby enhancing p53 activity by removing K63-linked and K48-linked ubiquitin chains of p53, which can bind to the PFKFB3 promoter and inhibit its transcription. Additionally, CYLD interacted with FZR1 to promote APC/C-FZR1 E3 ligase activity, which further ubiquitinated and degraded PFKFB3 via the 26S proteasomal system. Furthermore, clinical tissue array analysis indicated that low expression of CYLD was correlated with high expression of PFKFB3 and poor prognosis among patients with NPC. In conclusion, CYLD suppressed PFKFB3 expression via two factors, namely, p53 and FZR1, to inhibit glycolysis and delay tumor growth and progression in NPC. CYLD is a biomarker indicating poor prognosis of patients with NPC.
    Keywords:  FZR1; Glucose metabolism; NPC; Ubiquitination; p53
  24. Cell Rep. 2022 Feb 08. pii: S2211-1247(22)00066-3. [Epub ahead of print]38(6): 110350
      The protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network (PN) encompasses mechanisms that maintain proteome integrity by controlling various biological functions. Loss of proteostasis leads to toxic protein aggregation (proteotoxicity), which underlies the manifestation of neurodegeneration. How the PN responds to dissimilar proteotoxic challenges and how these responses are regulated at the organismal level are largely unknown. Here, we report that, while torsin chaperones protect from the toxicity of neurodegeneration-causing polyglutamine stretches, they exacerbate the toxicity of the Alzheimer's disease-causing Aβ peptide in neurons and muscles. These opposing effects are accompanied by differential modulations of gene expression, including that of three neuropeptides that are involved in tailoring the organismal response to dissimilar proteotoxic insults. This mechanism is regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the transcription factor SKN-1/NRF. Our work delineates a mechanism by which the PN orchestrates differential responses to dissimilar proteotoxic challenges and points at potential targets for therapeutic interventions.
    Keywords:  Caenorhabditis elegans; SKN-1/NRF; aging; insulin/IGF cascade; neurodegeneration; neuropeptide signaling; proteostasis; proteotoxicity
  25. Neurobiol Dis. 2022 Feb 07. pii: S0969-9961(22)00044-4. [Epub ahead of print] 105653
      Investigations into the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have provided significant insight into the disease. At the cellular level, ALS and FTD are classified as proteinopathies, which is motor neuron degeneration and death characterized by pathological protein aggregates or dysregulated proteostasis. At both the clinical and molecular level there are common signaling pathways dysregulated across the ALS and FTD spectrum (ALS/FTD). Sequestosome-1/p62 is a multifunctional scaffold protein with roles in several signaling pathways including proteostasis, protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy, the antioxidant response, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Notably these pathways are dysregulated in ALS and FTD. Mutations in the functional domains of p62 provide links to the pathogenetic mechanisms of p62 and dyshomeostasis of p62 levels is noted in several types of ALS and FTD. We present here that the dysregulated ALS and FTD signaling pathways are linked, with p62 converging the molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current literature on the complex role of p62 in the pathogenesis across the ALS/FTD spectrum. The focus is on the underlying convergent molecular mechanisms of ALS and FTD-associated proteins and pathways that dysregulate p62 levels or are dysregulated by p62, with emphasis on how p62 is implicated across the ALS/FTD spectrum.
    Keywords:  ALS; Aggregation; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Autophagy; Cell signaling; FTD; Frontotemporal dementia; Protein degradation; SQSTM1/p62
  26. Trends Cell Biol. 2022 Feb 02. pii: S0962-8924(22)00001-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lysosomes play major roles in growth regulation and catabolism and are recognized as critical mediators of cellular remodeling. An emerging theme is how the lysosome is itself subjected to extensive remodeling in order to perform specific tasks that meet the changing demands of the cell. Accordingly, lysosomes can sustain physical damage and undergo dramatic changes in composition following pathogen infection, accumulation of protein aggregates, or cellular transformation, necessitating dedicated pathways for their repair, remodeling, and restoration. In this review, we focus on emerging molecular mechanisms for piecemeal remodeling of lysosomal components and wholesale repair and discuss their implications in physiological and pathogenic challenges such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and pathogen infection.
    Keywords:  cancer; infection; lysosome; membrane damage; neurodegeneration; repair
  27. Nucleic Acids Res. 2022 Feb 12. pii: gkac072. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ribosome assembly is an essential process that is linked to human congenital diseases and tumorigenesis. While great progress has been made in deciphering mechanisms governing ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, an inventory of factors that support ribosome synthesis in human cells is still missing, in particular regarding the maturation of the large 60S subunit. Here, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen using an imaging-based, single cell assay to unravel the cellular machinery promoting 60S subunit assembly in human cells. Our screen identified a group of 310 high confidence factors. These highlight the conservation of the process across eukaryotes and reveal the intricate connectivity of 60S subunit maturation with other key cellular processes, including splicing, translation, protein degradation, chromatin organization and transcription. Intriguingly, we also identified a cluster of hits comprising metabolic enzymes of the polyamine synthesis pathway. We demonstrate that polyamines, which have long been used as buffer additives to support ribosome assembly in vitro, are required for 60S maturation in living cells. Perturbation of polyamine metabolism results in early defects in 60S but not 40S subunit maturation. Collectively, our data reveal a novel function for polyamines in living cells and provide a rich source for future studies on ribosome synthesis.
  28. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Feb 10. 13(2): 143
      Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) in hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying ER stress remain poorly understood, thus reducing the options for exploring new pharmacological therapies for patients with hyperacute liver injury. Eight-to-twelve-week-old C57BL/6J Xbp1-floxed (Xbp1f/f) and hepatocyte-specific knockout Xbp1 mice (Xbp1∆hepa) were challenged with either high dose APAP [500 mg/kg] and sacrificed at early (1-2 h) and late (24 h) stages of hepatotoxicity. Histopathological examination of livers, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real time (RT)-qPCR studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. Pharmacological inhibition of XBP1 using pre-treatment with STF-083010 [STF, 75 mg/kg] and autophagy induction with Rapamycin [RAPA, 8 mg/kg] or blockade with Chloroquine [CQ, 60 mg/kg] was also undertaken in vivo. Cytoplasmic expression of XBP1 coincided with severity of human and murine hyperacute liver injury. Transcriptional and translational activation of the UPR and sustained activation of JNK1/2 were major events in APAP hepatotoxicity, both in a human hepatocytic cell line and in a preclinical model. Xbp1∆hepa livers showed decreased UPR and JNK1/2 activation but enhanced autophagy in response to high dose APAP. Additionally, blockade of XBP1 splicing by STF, mitigated APAP-induced liver injury and without non-specific off-target effects (e.g., CYP2E1 activity). Furthermore, enhanced autophagy might be responsible for modulating CYP2E1 activity in Xbp1∆hepa animals. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Xbp1 specifically in hepatocytes ameliorated APAP-induced liver injury by enhancing autophagy and decreasing CYP2E1 expression. These findings provide the basis for the therapeutic restoration of ER stress and/or induction of autophagy in patients with hyperacute liver injury.
  29. Life Sci Alliance. 2022 May;pii: e202000807. [Epub ahead of print]5(5):
      Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNF213, which encodes a 591-kD protein with AAA+ ATPase and RING E3 domains, are associated with a rare, autosomal dominant cerebrovascular disorder, moyamoya disease (MMD). MMD-associated SNPs primarily localize to the C-terminal region of RNF213, and some affect conserved residues in the RING domain. Although the autosomal dominant inheritance of MMD could most easily explained by RNF213 gain-of-function, the type of ubiquitylation catalyzed by RNF213 and the effects of MMD-associated SNPs on its E3 ligase activity have remained unclear. We found that RNF213 uses the E2-conjugating enzymes UBE2D2 and UBE2L3 to catalyze distinct ubiquitylation events. RNF213-UBED2 catalyzes K6 and, to a lesser extent, K48-dependent poly-ubiquitylation in vitro, whereas RNF213-UBE2L3 catalyzes K6-, K11-, and K48-dependent poly-ubiquitylation events. MMD-associated SNPs encode proteins with decreased E3 activity, and the most frequent MMD allele, RNF213 R4810K , is a dominant-negative mutant that decreases ubiquitylation globally. By contrast, MMD-associated RNF213 SNPs do not affect ATPase activity. Our results suggest that decreased RNF213 E3 ligase activity is central to MMD pathogenesis.
  30. EMBO Rep. 2022 Feb 08. e53025
      Protein folding is a fundamental process of life with important implications throughout biology. Indeed, tens of thousands of mutations have been associated with diseases, and most of these mutations are believed to affect protein folding rather than function. Correct folding is also a key element of design. These factors have motivated decades of research on protein folding. Unfortunately, knowledge of membrane protein folding lags that of soluble proteins. This gap is partly caused by the greater technical challenges associated with membrane protein studies, but also because of additional complexities. While soluble proteins fold in a homogenous water environment, membrane proteins fold in a setting that ranges from bulk water to highly charged to apolar. Thus, the forces that drive folding vary in different regions of the protein, and this complexity needs to be incorporated into our understanding of the folding process. Here, we review our understanding of membrane protein folding biophysics. Despite the greater challenge, better model systems and new experimental techniques are starting to unravel the forces and pathways in membrane protein folding.
    Keywords:  co-translational folding; energetics; folding pathways; helix insertion; membrane protein topology
  31. Neuron. 2022 Jan 31. pii: S0896-6273(22)00056-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      The term autophagy encompasses different pathways that route cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation and includes macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, and microautophagy. Since these pathways are crucial for degradation of aggregate-prone proteins and dysfunctional organelles such as mitochondria, they help to maintain cellular homeostasis. As post-mitotic neurons cannot dilute unwanted protein and organelle accumulation by cell division, the nervous system is particularly dependent on autophagic pathways. This dependence may be a vulnerability as people age and these processes become less effective in the brain. Here, we will review how the different autophagic pathways may protect against neurodegeneration, giving examples of both polygenic and monogenic diseases. We have considered how autophagy may have roles in normal CNS functions and the relationships between these degradative pathways and different types of programmed cell death. Finally, we will provide an overview of recently described strategies for upregulating autophagic pathways for therapeutic purposes.
  32. Cancer Res. 2022 Feb 11. pii: canres.2218.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      G9a and EZH2 are two histone methyltransferases commonly upregulated in several cancer types, yet the precise roles that these enzymes play cooperatively in cancer is unclear. We demonstrate here that frequent concurrent upregulation of both G9a and EZH2 occurs in several human tumors. These methyltransferases cooperatively repressed molecular pathways responsible for tumor cell death. In genetically distinct tumor subtypes, concomitant inhibition of G9a and EZH2 potently induced tumor cell death, highlighting the existence of tumor cell survival dependency at the epigenetic level. G9a and EZH2 synergistically repressed expression of genes involved in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the production of reactive oxygen species. IL24 was essential for the induction of tumor cell death and was identified as a common target of G9a and EZH2. Loss-of-function of G9a and EZH2 activated the IL24-ER stress axis and increased apoptosis in cancer cells while not affecting normal cells. These results indicate that G9a and EZH2 promotes the evasion of ER stress-mediated apoptosis by repressing IL24 transcription, therefore suggesting that their inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for solid cancers.
  33. Cancer Res. 2022 Feb 07. pii: canres.2161.2021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a homeostatic process essential for the lysosomal degradation of a selected subset of the proteome. CMA activity directly depends on the levels of LAMP2A, a critical receptor for CMA substrate proteins at the lysosomal membrane. In glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive brain cancer in adulthood, high levels of LAMP2A in the tumor and tumor-associated pericytes have been linked to temozolomide resistance and tumor progression. However, the role of LAMP2A, and hence CMA, in any cancer stem cell type or in glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) remains unknown. In this work, we show that LAMP2A expression is enriched in patient-derived GSCs, and its depletion diminishes GSC-mediated tumorigenic activities. Conversely, overexpression of LAMP2A facilitates the acquisition of GSC properties. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of LAMP2A-depleted GSCs revealed reduced extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction effectors in both analyses. Moreover, pathways related to mitochondrial metabolism and the immune system were differentially deregulated at the proteome level. Furthermore, clinical samples of GBM tissue presented with overexpression of LAMP2, which correlated with advanced glioma grade and poor overall survival. In conclusion, these results identify a novel role of CMA in directly regulating GSCs activity via multiple pathways at the proteome and transcriptome levels.
  34. Blood. 2022 Feb 08. pii: blood.2021015161. [Epub ahead of print]
      The accessibility of cell surface proteins makes them tractable for targeting by cancer immunotherapy, but identifying suitable targets remains challenging. Here we describe plasma membrane profiling of primary human myeloma cells to identify an unprecedented number of cell surface proteins of a primary cancer. We employed a novel approach to prioritize immunotherapy targets and this identified a cell surface protein not previously implicated in myeloma, SEMA4A. Using knock-down by shRNA and CRISPR/dCas9, we demonstrate that expression of SEMA4A is essential for normal myeloma cell growth in vitro, indicating that myeloma cells cannot downregulate the protein to avoid detection. We further show that SEMA4A would not be identified as a myeloma therapeutic target by standard CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screens because of exon skipping. Finally, we potently and selectively targeted SEMA4A with a novel antibody-drug conjugate in vitro and in vivo.
  35. Bioessays. 2022 Feb 11. e2100269
      Translation of the genetic code occurs in a cycle where ribosomes engage mRNAs, synthesize protein, and then disengage in order to repeat the process again. The final part of this process-ribosome recycling, where ribosomes dissociate from mRNAs-involves a complex molecular choreography of specific protein factors to remove the large and small subunits of the ribosome in a coordinated fashion. Errors in this process can lead to the accumulation of ribosomes at stop codons or translation of downstream open reading frames (ORFs). Ribosome recycling is also critical when a ribosome stalls during the elongation phase of translation and must be rescued to allow continued translation of the mRNA. Here we discuss the molecular interactions that drive ribosome recycling, and their regulation in the cell. We also examine the consequences of inefficient recycling with regards to disease, and its functional roles in synthesis of novel peptides, regulation of gene expression, and control of mRNA-associated proteins. Alterations in ribosome recycling efficiency have the potential to impact many cellular functions but additional work is needed to understand how this regulatory power is utilized.
    Keywords:  ABCE1; DENR; MCT-1; PELO; eIF2D; eIF3j; reinitiation