bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2022‒01‒09
thirty-one papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 261-277
      Wildtype or mutant proteins expressed beyond the capacity of a cell's protein folding system could be detrimental to general cellular function and survival. In response to misfolded protein overload in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells activate the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) that helps cells restore protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As part of the UPR, cells attenuate general mRNA translation and activate transcription factors that induce stress-responsive gene expression.UPR signaling draws research interest in part because conditions that cause chronic protein misfolding in the ER or those that impair UPR signaling underlie several diseases including neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cancers. Model organisms are frequently employed in the field as the UPR pathways are generally well-conserved throughout phyla. Here, we introduce experimental procedures to detect UPR in Drosophila melanogaster.
    Keywords:  ATF4 (crc); Drosophila melanogaster; ER stress; Eye discs; Fat body; IRE1; PERK; Unfolded Protein Response; Xbp1
  2. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 113-120
      Protein-folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is maintained by the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by a bZIP transcription factor, Hac1p. Under non-stress condition, HAC1 mRNA is translationally repressed. When un- or mis-folded proteins accumulate in the ER, HAC1 mRNA undergoes non-conventional mRNA splicing. The spliced HAC1 mRNA is translationally active and produces functional Hac1p, which initiates a transcriptional response that restores ER protein-folding homeostasis. Thus, the activation of yeast UPR is tightly regulated by HAC1 mRNA splicing. Here, we describe two methods that are used to monitor the splicing and translational status of HAC1 mRNA in budding yeast.
    Keywords:  Budding yeast; ER stress; HAC1; Non-conventional mRNA splicing; Unfolded protein response
  3. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 317-327
      The identification of small molecules and natural product extracts that enhance or interfere with the productivity of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has the potential to improve a wide variety of human pathologies. Every protein that is destined for a lysosome, integral to the cell membrane, or secreted, is folded, post-translationally modified, and exported to the cytoplasm from the ER-Golgi complex. The following protocols have successfully employed several high-fidelity cell-based luciferase high-throughput screens (HTS) to identify activators and inhibitors of ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR).
    Keywords:  ATF4; CHOP; Cell-based assay; ER stress; GRP78/BiP; UPR; XBP1
  4. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 221-231
      During immune responses, pathogen-specific B cells differentiate into plasma cells. Plasma cells synthesize and secrete large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules which play a central role in immunity against pathogens. The synthesis, proper folding, and secretion of these Ig molecules require expansion of the extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER is sensed by three sensors: IRE1/XBP1, PERK, and ATF6, which coordinate with each other and initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway to expand the ER network and its protein folding and secretion capability. The expansion and maintenance of the ER network in plasma cells is triggered by activation of the IRE1/XBP1 branch of the UPR pathway. Here, we discuss the methods to stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, measure the activation of the XBP1 pathway, and quantify the ER network.
    Keywords:  B cells; Unfolded protein response pathway (UPR); XBP1
  5. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Jan 04. pii: S1084-9521(21)00326-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Stress is unavoidable and essential to cellular and organismal evolution and failure to adapt or restore homeostasis can lead to severe diseases or even death. At the cellular level, stress drives a plethora of molecular changes, of which variations in the profile of protein post-translational modifications plays a key role in mediating the adaptative response of the genome and proteome to stress. In this context, post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin-like modifiers, (Ubl), notably SUMO, is an essential stress response mechanism. In this review, aiming to draw universal concepts of the Ubls stress response, we will decipher how stress alters the expression level, activity, specificity and/or localization of the proteins involved in the conjugation pathways of the various type-I Ubls, and how this result in the modification of particular Ubl targets that will translate an adaptive physiological stress response and allow cells to restore homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Beta-grasp; Post-translational modification; SUMO; Stress response; Ubiquitin-interacting motif; Ubiquitin-like modifier; Ubl-code
  6. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 141-168
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor IRE1 is a a major player of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the main pathway driving adaptation processes to restore proteostasis.  In addition, overactivation of IRE1 signaling contributes to a variety of pathologies including diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Under ER stress, IRE1 auto-transphosphorylates and oligomerizes, triggering the activation of its endoribonuclease domain located in the cytosolic region. Active IRE1 catalyzes the splicing of the mRNA encoding for the XBP1 transcription factor, in addition to degrade several RNAs through a process known as regulated IRE1-dependent decay of mRNA (RIDD). Besides its role as an UPR transducer, several posttranslational modifications and protein-protein interactions can regulate IRE1 activity and modulate its signaling in the absence of stress. Thus, investigating the function of IRE1 in physiology and disease requires the use of complementary approaches. Here, we provide detailed protocols to perform four different assays to study IRE1 activation and signaling: (i) Phos-tag gels to evaluate the phosphorylation status of IRE1, (ii) microscopy using TREX-IRE1-GFP cells to measure IRE1 oligomerization, (iii) conventional RT-PCR to assess XBP1 mRNA processing, and (iv) quantitative PCR to determine the levels of canonical UPR target genes and the degradation of several mRNAs that are target of RIDD. We propose to use these experimental strategies as "gold standards" to study IRE1 signaling.
    Keywords:  ER stress; IRE1 activation; IRE1 oligomerization; IRE1 phosphorylation; Regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD); Unfolded protein response; XBP1 mRNA splicing
  7. FEBS J. 2022 Jan 07.
      The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk acts as an inhibitor of peptide:N-glycanase (NGLY1); an endoglycosidase which cleaves N-linked glycans from glycoproteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Both pharmacological N-glycanase inhibition by Z-VAD-fmk and siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of NGLY1 induce GFP-LC3 positive puncta in HEK 293 cells. Activation of ER stress markers or induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not observed under either condition. Moreover, Ca2+ handling is unaffected when observing release from intracellular stores. Under conditions of pharmacological NGLY1 inhibition or NGLY1 KD, upregulation of autophagosome formation without impairment of autophagic flux is observed. Enrichment of autophagosomes by immunoprecipitation (IP) and mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis reveal comparable autophagosomal protein content. Gene ontology analysis of proteins enriched in autophagosome IPs shows overrepresentation of factors involved in protein translation, localization and targeting, RNA degradation and protein complex disassembly. Upregulation of autophagy represents a cellular adaptation to NGLY1 inhibition or KD, and ATG13-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) show reduced viability under these conditions. In contrast, treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh does not induce cellular autophagy. Therefore, experiments with Z-VAD-fmk are complicated by the effects of NGLY1 inhibition, including induction of autophagy, and Q-VD-OPh represents an alternative caspase inhibitor free from this limitation.
    Keywords:  NGLY1; Peptide:N-glycanase 1; Z-VAD-fmk; autophagosome proteomics; autophagy
  8. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 293-315
      IRE1α (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha, referred to IRE1 hereafter) is an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane enzyme with cytosolic kinase/RNAse activities. Upon ER stress IRE1 is activated through trans-autophosphorylation and oligomerization, resulting in a conformational change of the RNase domain, thereby promoting two signaling pathways: i) the non-conventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA and ii) the regulated IRE1-dependent decay of RNA (RIDD). IRE1 RNase activity has been linked to diverse pathologies such as cancer or inflammatory, metabolic, and degenerative diseases and the modulation of IRE1 activity is emerging as an appealing therapeutic strategy against these diseases. Several modulators of IRE1 activity have been reported in the past, but none have successfully translated into the clinics as yet. Based on our expertise in the field, we describe in this chapter the approaches and protocols we used to discover novel IRE1 modulators and characterize their effect on IRE1 activity.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum; IRE1; Structure-based drug discovery (SBDD); Unfolded protein response computer assisted drug design (CADD)
  9. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Jan 06.
      p62/SQSTM1 is a selective autophagy receptor that drives ubiquitinated cargos towards autophagic degradation. This receptor is also a stress-induced scaffold protein that helps cells to cope with oxidative stress through activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Functional disorders of p62 are closely associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. The gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding adapter SPOP is frequently mutated in prostate cancer (PCa), but the molecular mechanisms underlying how SPOP mutations contribute to PCa tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we report that cytoplasmic SPOP binds and induces the non-degradative ubiquitination of p62 at residue K420 within the UBA domain. This protein modification decreases p62 puncta formation, liquid phase condensation, dimerization, and ubiquitin-binding capacity, thereby suppressing p62-dependent autophagy. Moreover, we show that SPOP relieves p62-mediated Keap1 sequestration, which ultimately decreases Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activation of antioxidant genes. We further show that PCa-associated SPOP mutants lose the capacity to ubiquitinate p62 and instead promote autophagy and the redox response in a dominant-negative manner. Thus, our findings indicate oncogenic roles of autophagy and Nrf2 activation in the tumorigenesis of SPOP-mutated PCa.
  10. Autophagy. 2022 Jan 06. 1-20
      The mitochondrial-anchored deubiquitinating enzyme USP30 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 30) antagonizes PRKN/parkin-mediated mitophagy, making it a potential target for treating Parkinson disease. However, few inhibitors targeting USP30 have been reported. Here, we report a novel peptide (Q14) derived from the transmembrane (TM) domain of USP30 that can target mitochondrial-anchored USP30 directly and increase mitophagy through two intriguing and distinct mechanisms: a novel autoinhibition mechanism in USP30 and accelerated autophagosome formation via the LC3-interacting region (LIR) of the Q14 peptide. We identified the potential binding sites between the Q14 peptide and USP30 and postulated that an allosteric autoinhibition mechanism regulates USP30 activity. Furthermore, the LIR motif in the Q14 peptide offers additional binding with LC3 and accelerated autophagosome formation. The two mechanisms synergistically enhance mitophagy. Our work provides novel insight and direction to the design of inhibitors for USP30 or other deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs).Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ATTEC: autophagosome-tethering compound; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; FP: fluorescence polarization; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MST: microscale thermophoresis; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; mtPA-GFP: mitochondria-targeted photoactive fluorescence protein; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; Rap: rapamycin; SA: streptavidin; TM: transmembrane; Ub: ubiquitin; Ub-AMC: Ub-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin; UPS: ubiquitin-protease system; USP: ubiquitin specific peptidase; USP30: ubiquitin specific peptidase 30.
    Keywords:  Autoinhibition; USP30; mitophagy; peptide inhibitor; transmembrane
  11. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 279-289
      Excessive accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to a potentially cytotoxic condition known as the ER stress. Upon ER stress, cells initiate a homeostatic response called unfolded protein response (UPR) to assist proper folding the unfolded or misfolded proteins. Proteomics have been broadly used in plants with Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) technologies. LC-MS/MS techniques have also been a great tool for studies of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here we describe our protocol of a fast method for large amount of seedling treatment and collection for UPR study in Arabidopsis thaliana and the preparation of total proteins for proteomic analysis.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Protein extraction; Proteomics; Unfolded protein response
  12. EMBO Rep. 2022 Jan 07. e48754
      Mitochondria are unavoidably subject to organellar stress resulting from exposure to a range of reactive molecular species. Consequently, cells operate a poorly understood quality control programme of mitophagy to facilitate elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. Here, we used a model stressor, deferiprone (DFP), to investigate the molecular basis for stress-induced mitophagy. We show that mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis1) is required for DFP-induced mitophagy and that Fis1 is SUMOylated at K149, an amino acid residue critical for Fis1 mitochondrial localization. We find that DFP treatment leads to the stabilization of the SUMO protease SENP3, which is mediated by downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase CHIP. SENP3 is responsible for Fis1 deSUMOylation and depletion of SENP3 abolishes DFP-induced mitophagy. Furthermore, preventing Fis1 SUMOylation by conservative K149R mutation enhances Fis1 mitochondrial localization. Critically, expressing a Fis1 K149R mutant restores DFP-induced mitophagy in SENP3-depleted cells. Thus, we propose a model in which SENP3-mediated deSUMOylation facilitates Fis1 mitochondrial localization to underpin stress-induced mitophagy.
    Keywords:  Fis1; SENP3; SUMO; mitophagy; organellar stress
  13. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 169-187
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex network of intracellular pathways that transmits signals from ER lumen and/or ER bilayer to the nuclear compartment in order to activate gene transcription. UPR is activated by the loss of ER capacities, known as ER stress, and occurs to restore ER properties. In this regard, glycerolipid (GL) synthesis activation contributes to ER membrane homeostasis and IRE1α-XBP1, one UPR pathway, has a main role in lipogenic genes transcription. Herein, we describe the strategy and methodology used to evaluate whether IRE1α-XBP1 pathway regulates lipid metabolism in renal epithelial cells subjected to hyperosmolar environment. XBP1s activity was hindered by blocking IRE1α RNAse activity and by impeding its expression; under these conditions, we determined GL synthesis and lipogenic enzymes expression.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; Glycerolipid synthesis; Hyperosmolarity; Inositol-requiring enzyme kinase 1α (IRE1α); Unfolded-protein response (UPR); X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1)
  14. Autophagy. 2022 Jan 05. 1-16
      Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations in the TAFAZZIN/Taz gene which encodes a transacylase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial signature phospholipid that plays a pivotal role in maintaining mitochondrial membrane structure, respiration, mtDNA biogenesis, and mitophagy. Mutations in the TAFAZZIN gene deplete mature cardiolipin, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and premature death in BTHS patients. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this debilitating condition. In this study, we showed that TAFAZZIN deficiency caused hyperactivation of MTORC1 signaling and defective mitophagy, leading to accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and dysfunctional mitochondria in the heart of Tafazzin knockdown mice, a rodent model of BTHS. Consequently, treatment of TAFAZZIN knockdown mice with rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of MTORC1, not only restored mitophagy, but also mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these findings identify MTORC1 as a novel therapeutic target for BTHS, suggesting that pharmacological restoration of mitophagy may provide a novel treatment for BTHS.Abbreviations: BTHS: Barth syndrome; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; CL: cardiolipin; EIF4EBP1/4E-BP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; KD: knockdown; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LV: left ventricle; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEFs: mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PRKN/Parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; RPS6KB/S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TLCL: tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin; WT: wild-type.
    Keywords:  BTHS; MTORC1; TAFAZZIN; cardiolipin; mitophagy; rapamycin
  15. J Am Chem Soc. 2022 Jan 07.
      Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), heterobifunctional compounds that consist of protein-targeting ligands linked to an E3 ligase recruiter, have arisen as a powerful therapeutic modality for targeted protein degradation (TPD). Despite the popularity of TPD approaches in drug discovery, only a small number of E3 ligase recruiters are available for the >600 E3 ligases that exist in human cells. Here, we have discovered a cysteine-reactive covalent ligand, EN106, that targets FEM1B, an E3 ligase recently discovered as the critical component of the cellular response to reductive stress. By targeting C186 in FEM1B, EN106 disrupts recognition of the key reductive stress substrate of FEM1B, FNIP1. We further establish that EN106 can be used as a covalent recruiter for FEM1B in TPD applications by demonstrating that a PROTAC linking EN106 to the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or the kinase inhibitor dasatinib leads to the degradation of BRD4 and BCR-ABL, respectively. Our study showcases a covalent ligand that targets a natural E3 ligase-substrate binding site and highlights the utility of covalent ligand screening in expanding the arsenal of E3 ligase recruiters suitable for TPD applications.
  16. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 45-67
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex signal transduction pathway that remodels gene expression in response to proteotoxic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is linked to the development of a range of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and several types of cancer. UPR induction is typically monitored by measuring the expression level of UPR marker genes. Most tools for quantifying gene expression, including DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR with reverse transcription (RT-PCR), produce snapshots of the cell transcriptome, but are not ideal for measurements requiring temporal resolution of gene expression dynamics. Reporter assays for indirect detection of the UPR typically rely on extrachromosomal expression of reporters under the control of minimal or synthetic regulatory sequences that do not recapitulate the native chromosomal context of the UPR target genes. To address the need for tools to monitor chromosomal gene expression that recapitulate gene expression dynamics from the native chromosomal context and generate a readily detectable signal output, we developed a gene signal amplifier platform that links transcriptional and post-translational regulation of a fluorescent output to the expression of a chromosomal gene marker of the UPR. The platform is based on a genetic circuit that amplifies the output signal with high sensitivity and dynamic resolution and is implemented through chromosomal integration of the gene encoding the main control element of the genetic circuit to link its expression to that of the target gene, thereby generating a platform that can be easily adapted to monitor any UPR target through integration of the main control element at the appropriate chromosomal locus. By recapitulating the transcriptional and translational control mechanisms underlying the expression of UPR targets with high sensitivity, this platform provides a novel technology for monitoring the UPR with superior sensitivity and dynamic resolution.
    Keywords:  CRISPR-Cas9; ER stress; Gene signal amplifier; NanoDeg; Unfolded protein response (UPR)
  17. iScience. 2021 Dec 17. 24(12): 103484
      Brain development is a highly orchestrated process requiring spatiotemporally regulated mitochondrial dynamics. Drp1, a key molecule in the mitochondrial fission machinery, undergoes various post-translational modifications including conjugation to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). However, the functional significance of SUMOylation/deSUMOylation on Drp1 remains controversial. SUMO-specific protease 5 (Senp5L) catalyzes the deSUMOylation of Drp1. We revealed that a splicing variant of Senp5L, Senp5S, which lacks peptidase activity, prevents deSUMOylation of Drp1 by competing against other Senps. The altered SUMOylation level of Drp1 induced by Senp5L/5S affects mitochondrial morphology probably through controlling Drp1 ubiquitination and tubulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. A dynamic SUMOylation/deSUMOylation balance controls neuronal polarization and migration during the development of the cerebral cortex. These findings suggest a novel role of post-translational modification, in which deSUMOylation enzyme isoforms competitively regulate mitochondrial dynamics via Drp1 SUMOylation levels, in a tightly controlled process of neuronal differentiation and corticogenesis.
    Keywords:  Cellular neuroscience; Molecular neuroscience; Molecular physiology
  18. EMBO J. 2022 Jan 04. e108664
      Heat stress is a major environmental stress type that can limit plant growth and development. To survive sudden temperature increases, plants utilize the heat shock response, an ancient signaling pathway. Initial results had suggested a role for brassinosteroids (BRs) in this response. Brassinosteroids are growth-promoting steroid hormones whose activity is mediated by transcription factors of the BES1/BZR1 subfamily. Here, we provide evidence that BES1 can contribute to heat stress signaling. In response to heat, BES1 is activated even in the absence of BRs and directly binds to heat shock elements (HSEs), known binding sites of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). HSFs of the HSFA1 type can interact with BES1 and facilitate its activity in HSE binding. These findings lead us to propose an extended model of the heat stress response in plants, in which the recruitment of BES1 is a means of heat stress signaling cross-talk with a central growth regulatory pathway.
    Keywords:  HSFA1; brassinosteroids; heat shock factors; hormone; steroid
  19. Blood Adv. 2022 Jan 06. pii: bloodadvances.2021005611. [Epub ahead of print]
      Platelets form hemostatic plugs to prevent blood loss and they modulate immunity and inflammation in several ways. A key event during hemostasis is activation of integrin αIIbβ3 through direct interactions of the β3 cytoplasmic tail with talin and kindlin-3. Recently, we showed that human platelets express the adapter molecule, SHARPIN, that can associate directly with the αIIb cytoplasmic tail and can separately promote NF-κB pathway activation as a member of the Met-1 linear ubiquitination activation complex (LUBAC). Here we investigated the role of SHARPIN in platelets after crossing Sharpin flox/flox (fl/fl) mice with PF4-Cre or GPIbα-Cre mice to selectively delete SHARPIN in platelets. SHARPIN-null platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen through αIIbβ3, and they spread more extensively than littermate control platelets in a manner dependent on feedback stimulation by platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (P < 0.01). SHARPIN-null platelets showed increased colocalization of αIIbβ3 with talin as assessed by super-resolution microscopy and increased binding of soluble fibrinogen in response to sub-maximal concentrations of ADP (P < 0.05). However, mice with SHARPIN-null platelets showed compromised thrombus growth on collagen and slightly prolonged tail bleeding times. Platelets lacking SHARPIN also showed reduced NF-κB activation and linear ubiquitination of protein substrates upon challenge with classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, the loss of platelet SHARPIN resulted in significant reduction in inflammation in murine models of colitis and peritonitis (P < 0.01). Thus, SHARPIN plays differential and context-dependent roles in platelets to regulate important inflammatory and integrin adhesive functions of these anucleate cells.
  20. EMBO J. 2022 Jan 07. e109175
      Cellular proteins begin to fold as they emerge from the ribosome. The folding landscape of nascent chains is not only shaped by their amino acid sequence but also by the interactions with the ribosome. Here, we combine biophysical methods with cryo-EM structure determination to show that folding of a β-barrel protein begins with formation of a dynamic α-helix inside the ribosome. As the growing peptide reaches the end of the tunnel, the N-terminal part of the nascent chain refolds to a β-hairpin structure that remains dynamic until its release from the ribosome. Contacts with the ribosome and structure of the peptidyl transferase center depend on nascent chain conformation. These results indicate that proteins may start out as α-helices inside the tunnel and switch into their native folds only as they emerge from the ribosome. Moreover, the correlation of nascent chain conformations with reorientation of key residues of the ribosomal peptidyl-transferase center suggest that protein folding could modulate ribosome activity.
    Keywords:  cotranslational folding; nascent chain; ribosome
  21. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 233-245
      In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activation of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) signaling adapts cells to stressful conditions by phosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α inhibits global protein translation but stimulates the expression of numerous stress-responsive genes by inducing the transcription factor ATF4. A large number of studies have shown that activation of PERK signaling has beneficial or detrimental effects in various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including neurodegenerative diseases, myelin disorders, CNS injuries, among others. This chapter is devoted to describing the practical methods for the detection of PERK signaling in CNS diseases.
    Keywords:  ATF4; CHOP; GADD34; Immunofluorescence; Neuron; Oligodendrocyte; PERK; Phosphorylated eIF2α; Real-time PCR; Western blot
  22. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2021 Dec 30. pii: S1535-9476(21)00163-8. [Epub ahead of print] 100191
      Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, affects defective mitochondria following damage or stress. At the onset of mitophagy, parkin ubiquitylates proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). While the role of parkin at the onset of mitophagy is well understood, less is known about its activity during later stages of the process. Here we used HeLa cells expressing catalytically active or inactive parkin to perform temporal analysis of the proteome, ubiquitylome and phosphoproteome during 18 hours after induction of mitophagy by mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP). Abundance profiles of proteins downregulated in parkin-dependent manner revealed a stepwise, "outside-in" directed degradation of mitochondrial subcompartments. While ubiquitylation of MOM proteins was enriched among early parkin-dependent targets, numerous mitochondrial inner membrane, matrix and cytosolic proteins were also found ubiquitylated at later stages of mitophagy. Phosphoproteome analysis revealed a possible cross-talk between phosphorylation and ubiquitylation during mitophagy on key parkin targets, such as VDAC1/2.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Parkin; Quantitative proteomics; Ubiquitin
  23. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 189-201
      Genetic interaction studies have been instrumental in understanding and organizing cellular pathways. This has been helpful in identifying and arranging genes according to pathways, identifying novel pathways, ascribing gene function, and providing information regarding redundant and antagonistic pathways. Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) uses growth to identify genome scale gene interaction networks. While this has provided most of the genetic interaction data available, SGA coupled to other reporters have the potential to identify components of pathways that specifically affect the probed reporter. The method described here utilizes SGA principles to understand conserved elements of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in the presence and absence of ER stress. The use of a fluorescent reporter of ER stress allows quantitative measurements and provides a handle to measure the proteostasis capacity of the ER in a high-throughput manner. The integration of such a fluorescent reporter in the background of different mutant/deletion strains is sufficient to identify genetic modules in a high-throughput manner.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Fluorescent reporter; Synthetic genetic array; Unfolded protein response
  24. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 3-18
      When proteostasis is challenged and becomes unbalanced, unfolded proteins can accumulate in the cells. Protein unfolding causes conformational changes and subsequent differentials in side-chain solvent accessibility and reactivity. In particular, when protein unfolds, non-disulfide-bonded cysteines that are usually buried in the native state can become surface exposed and thus accessible. A series of fluorogenic dyes including tetraphenylethene maleimide (TPE-MI) and its analogs were developed to capture cysteine exposure in unfolded proteins as a measure of unfolded protein load and proteostasis capacity in cells. These dyes are inherently non-fluorescent but show fluorescence turn-on effect when conjugated to unfolded proteins via reacting with exposed cysteines on the protein. Reacting with small biothiols such as glutathione does not induce fluorescence of these dyes. Here we describe the routine workflow to characterize unfolded proteins in vitro or unfolded proteomes in cells by TPE-MIs.
    Keywords:  Aggregation-induced emission; Cysteine exposure; Protein footprinting; Proteostasis; Unfolded protein
  25. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 69-81
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the resulting unfolded protein response (UPR) are critical stress response pathways in eukaryotes. To study these types of interactions in plants, a wide range of methods have been used, including generation of transgenic plants, subcellular immunolocalization of protein foldases, and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. Although these more time-consuming methods have been successfully implemented, there is a need for a versatile and rapid in vivo system to investigate ER stress and UPR. Here, we describe a transient expression system that uses plant protoplasts to define in vivo subcellular localizations and protein-protein interactions of protein foldases and their substrates fused to fluorescent protein reporters. This accurate and robust assay utilizes a variety of analyses, such as subcellular localization, FLIM-FRET, co-IP, mutagenesis, and RT-PCR in the genetically amenable Arabidopsis model system. We demonstrate the methodology by using the representative protein foldase, protein disulfide isomerase-9 (PDI9), as well as subcellular markers, secretory proteins, and dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated induction of the UPR as monitored by RT-PCR. Together, these methods yield reliable high output results for investigating subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions in plants to decipher the UPR pathways.
    Keywords:  FLIM-FRET; Fluorescent protein fusion; Protein disulfide isomerase; Protein foldase; Protoplasts; Transient expression analysis; Unfolded protein response
  26. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2378 19-30
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved protein quality control mechanism of eukaryotic cells. Aberrations in this response have been linked to several human diseases, including retinitis pigmentosa and several cancers, and have been shown to have a drastic impact on recombinant protein yields in fungal, insect, and mammalian cell lines. Here, we describe the use of in vivo biosensors to measure and characterize this dynamic cellular response, specifically for detecting the UPR induced by protein overproduction stress in the model cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Keywords:  Biosensors; Protein folding capacity; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Unfolded protein response
  27. Oncogene. 2022 Jan 07.
      Despite the establishment of novel therapeutic interventions, multiple myeloma (MM) remains invariably incurable due to development of drug resistance and subsequent relapse, which are attributed to activation of oncogenic pathways such as autophagy. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are promising targets to overcome resistance to proteasome inhibitor-based treatment. Ubiquitin-specific protease-12 (USP12) is a DUB with a known prognostic value in several cancers. We found that USP12 protein levels were significantly higher in myeloma patient samples than in non-cancerous human samples. Depletion of USP12 suppressed cell growth and clonogenicity and inhibited autophagy. Mechanistic studies showed that USP12 interacted with, deubiquitylated and stabilized the critical autophagy mediator HMGB1 (high mobility group box-1) protein. Knockdown of USP12 decreased the level of HMGB1 and suppressed HMGB1-mediated autophagy in MM. Furthermore, basal autophagy activity associated with USP12/HMGB1 was elevated in bortezomib (BTZ)-resistant MM cell lines. USP12 depletion, concomitant with a reduced expression of HMGB1, suppressed autophagy and increased the sensitivity of resistant cells to BTZ. Collectively, our findings have identified an important role of the deubiquitylase USP12 in pro-survival autophagy and resultant BTZ resistance in MM by stabilizing HMGB1, suggesting that the USP12/HMGB1 axis might be pursued as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human MM.
  28. Biochemistry. 2022 Jan 05.
      Autophagy-related proteins (Atgs) drive the lysosome-mediated degradation pathway, autophagy, to enable the clearance of dysfunctional cellular components and maintain homeostasis. In humans, this process is driven by the mammalian Atg8 (mAtg8) family of proteins comprising the LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies. The mAtg8 proteins play essential roles in the formation and maturation of autophagosomes and the capture of specific cargo through binding to the conserved LC3-interacting region (LIR) sequence within target proteins. Modulation of interactions of mAtg8 with its target proteins via small-molecule ligands would enable further interrogation of their function. Here we describe unbiased fragment and DNA-encoded library (DEL) screening approaches for discovering LC3 small-molecule ligands. Both strategies resulted in compounds that bind to LC3, with the fragment hits favoring a conserved hydrophobic pocket in mATG8 proteins, as detailed by LC3A-fragment complex crystal structures. Our findings demonstrate that the malleable LIR-binding surface can be readily targeted by fragments; however, rational design of additional interactions to drive increased affinity proved challenging. DEL libraries, which combine small, fragment-like building blocks into larger scaffolds, yielded higher-affinity binders and revealed an unexpected potential for reversible, covalent ligands. Moreover, DEL hits identified possible vectors for synthesizing fluorescent probes or bivalent molecules for engineering autophagic degradation of specific targets.
  29. J Am Chem Soc. 2022 Jan 03.
      Disulfide-rich proteins are useful as drugs or tool molecules in biomedical studies, but their synthesis is complicated by the difficulties associated with their folding. Here, we describe a removable glycosylation modification (RGM) strategy that expedites the chemical synthesis of correctly folded proteins with multiple or even interchain disulfide bonds. Our strategy comprises the introduction of simple O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) groups at the Ser/Thr sites that effectively improve the folding of disulfide-rich proteins by stabilization of their folding intermediates. After folding, the O-GlcNAc groups can be efficiently removed using O-GlcNAcase (OGA) to afford the correctly folded proteins. Using this strategy, we completed the synthesis of correctly folded hepcidin, an iron-regulating hormone bearing four pairs of disulfide-bonds, and the first total synthesis of correctly folded interleukin-5 (IL-5), a 26 kDa homodimer cytokine responsible for eosinophil growth and differentiation.
  30. JCI Insight. 2022 Jan 06. pii: e149636. [Epub ahead of print]
      Short stature is a major skeletal phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a genetic disorder mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding type I collagen. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood and no effective treatment is available. In OI mice that carry a G610C mutation in COL1A2, we previously found that mature hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs) are exposed to cell stress due to accumulation of misfolded mutant type I procollagen in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). By fate mapping analysis of HCs in G610C OI mice, we found that HCs stagnate in the growth plate, inhibiting translocation of HC descendants to the trabecular area and their differentiation to osteoblasts. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4PBA), a chemical chaperone, restored HC ER structure and rescued this inhibition, resulting in enhanced longitudinal bone growth in G610C OI mice. Interestingly, the effects of 4PBA on ER dilation were limited in osteoblasts and the bone fragility was not ameliorated. These results highlight the importance of targeting HCs to treat growth deficiency in OI. Our findings demonstrate that HC dysfunction induced by ER disruption plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OI growth deficiency, which lays the foundation for developing new therapies for OI.
    Keywords:  Bone Biology; Cartilage; Cell Biology; Cell stress; Genetic diseases
  31. FASEB J. 2022 Feb;36(2): e22149
      N-Linked glycosylation and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are important protein post-translational modifications that are orchestrated by a diverse set of gene products. Thus far, the relationship between these two types of glycosylation has remained elusive, and it is unclear whether one influences the other via UDP-GlcNAc, which is a common donor substrate. Theoretically, a decrease in O-GlcNAcylation may increase the products of GlcNAc-branched N-glycans. In this study, via examination by lectin blotting, HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis, however, we found that the amounts of GlcNAc-branched tri-antennary N-glycans catalyzed by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV (GnT-IV) and tetra-antennary N-glycans were significantly decreased in O-GlcNAc transferase knockdown cells (OGT-KD) compared with those in wild type cells. We examined this specific alteration by focusing on SLC35A3, which is the main UDP-GlcNAc transporter in mammals that is believed to modulate GnT-IV activation. It is interesting that a deficiency of SLC35A3 specifically leads to a decrease in the amounts of GlcNAc-branched tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments have shown that SLC35A3 interacts with GnT-IV, but not with N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. Western blot and chemoenzymatic labeling assay have confirmed that OGT modifies SLC35A3 and that O-GlcNAcylation contributes to its stability. Furthermore, we found that SLC35A3-KO enhances cell spreading and suppresses both cell migration and cell proliferation, which is similar to the phenomena observed in the OGT-KD cells. Taken together, these data are the first to demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation specifically governs the biosynthesis of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans via the OGT-SLC35A3-GnT-IV axis.
    Keywords:  GlcNAc branching; N-glycan biosynthesis; O-GlcNAcylation; SLC35A3; cell adhesion